Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Gymnosperm Habit: Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Cuba

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki

"
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h. in native range; bark gray or pale reddish brown, fissured and shed in large, flat, wide plates; crown ovoid or irregularly shaped; branchlets initially green and glaucous, aging orange-brown, producing a few short nodes each year; winter buds cylindric, scales white fringed at margin. Needles (2 or)3 per bundle, usually 4 or 5 per bundle on young trees, dull green or pale yellow-green, 15-30 cm × ca. 1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals (2 or)3 or 4(-8), internal, base with persistent sheath 1-1.5 cm, margin serrulate. Seed cones almost terminal, ovoid-cylindric, 5-10(-12) × 3-6 cm, often leaving a few basal scales. Seed scales reflexed or spreading; apophyses lustrous, tan or reddish brown, swollen, cross keeled; umbo slightly projecting, ending in a straight, minute prickle. Seeds usually narrowly mottled gray or light brown, rhombic-ovoid, 6-7 mm; wing dull gray, 2-2.5 cm, usually remaining attached.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees to 25 m; crown sparse; bark reddish-brown; winter buds oblong, tapering above, scales oblong, to 1.4 cm, apex acuminate; margins serrulate. Leaves in 3 s, rarely more, to 25 cm, margins serrulate, apex acute; stomatic lines on all 3 sides, in 5-7 rows; basal sheath to 1.5 cm, persistent. Staminate cones ovoid, to 1.2 x 0.6 cm, clustered. Microsporophylls broadly obovate, to 0.15 cm; hood rounded, to 0.1 cm."
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Primarily a lowland species. See accounts of individual varieties for further details.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

Cultivated
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Jiangxi [native to Caribbean region, Central America]
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus caribaea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus caribaea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Despite the fact that two of the three varieties recognized under this species have been assessed as Endangered, the species as a whole is not threatened, due to the widespread abundance of one variety: var. hondurensis. Given the fact that the latter is probably increasing in abundance, with a decline in the smaller populations of the two island varieties, the situation is at least stable for the whole species and it is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The population is stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Heavily exploited and although not in danger of extinction in any of its major areas, many local and especially outlying populations which are likely to be genetically distinct are now severely degraded.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Known from several protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Caribbean pine

The Caribbean pine, Pinus caribaea, is a hard pine, native to Central America, Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. It belongs to Australes Subsection in Pinus Subgenus. It inhabits tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, which include both lowland savannas and montane forests. Wildfire plays a major role limiting the range of this species, but it has been reported that this tree regenerates quickly and aggressively, replacing latifoliate trees.[1] In zones not subject to periodic fires, the succession continues and a tropical forest thrives.

It has been widely cultivated outside its natural range, and introduced populations can be found nowadays in Jamaica, Colombia, South Africa or China.

Varieties[edit]

The species has three distinct varieties, one very distinct and treated as a separate species by some authors:

Colonization of the Caribbean basin[edit]

It has been proposed that the pines of Australes subsection (of which Caribbean pine is part) arrived to the Caribbean basin from Southeastern USA.[2] Recently, paleoclimatic[3] and genetic data[4] have been used to propose that Pinus caribaea would have originated in Central America. According to chloroplast genetic data, Pinus caribaea lineages colonized the Caribbean islands from populations in Central America at least twice (one leading to Cuban populations and another leading to bahamaninan populations).[4] Moreover, pine populations in the Caribbean basin appear to have been larger during the maximum glacial periods, due to the increase in both emerged land and dry conditions.

Conservation[edit]

While the species as a whole is not threatened, the typical variety of Cuba has markedly declined due to deforestation and is now considered a vulnerable species by the IUCN. Populations in Bahamas and Turks & Caicos Islands would be particularly vulnerable in a global warming scenario due to the increase in sea level and consequent reduction in the emerged land area.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vázquez-Yanes, C., A. I. Batis Muñoz, M. I. Alcocer Silva, M. Gual Díaz y C. Sánchez Dirzo (1999). "Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación." (PDF). Retrieved 2002.  (Spanish)
  2. ^ Adams, D.C., Jackson, J.F. (1997). A phylogenetic analysis of the southern pines (Pinus subsect. Australes Loudon): biogeographical and ecological implications. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110: 681–692.
  3. ^ Dvorak, W. S., Hamrick, J. L. &Gutierrez E. A. (2005). The origin of Caribbean pine in the seasonal swamps of the Yucatan. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 985-994.
  4. ^ a b Jardón-Barbolla, L., Delgado-Valerio, P., Geada-López, G., Vázquez-Lobo, A., & Pinero D. (2011). Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Annals of Botany 107: 229-241.
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