The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2002. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-2001. DIARIO OFICIAL DE LA FEDERACION. México.
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  • An Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains 2: 27, 34, 35. 1823. (Account Exped. Pittsburgh)
  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • E. James. 1823. In: Account Exped. Pittsburgh 2: 27, 35.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Farjon, A 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Continental Printing, Belgium. La Unión Europea.
  • Farjon, A, Pérez, J. y Style, B. 1997. Guía de campo de los pinos de México y América Central.
  • Farjon, A. & Styles, B.T. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae) (Flora Neotropica Monograph 75). The New York Botanical Garden, New York
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Perry, J. P. 1991. Pines Mex. Centr. Amer. 1–231. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Perry, J.P. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America. Timber press. Portland, Oregon.
    1. Amman, G. D. 1978. Biology, ecology, and causes of outbreaks of the  mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. In Proceedings,  Symposium on Theory and Practice of Mountain Pine Beetle Management in  Lodgepole Pine Forests. p. 39-53. Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment  Station, University of Idaho, Moscow.
    3. Arno, S. F. 1979. Forest regions of Montana. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper INT-218. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Ogden, UT. 39 p.
    5. Baker, F. S. 1944. Mountain climates of the western United States.  Ecological Monographs 14:223-254.
    7. Critchfield, W. B. 1981. Personal correspondence. USDA Forest  Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Berkeley, CA.
    9. Critchfield, W. B., and G. L. Allenbaugh. 1969. The distribution of  Pinaceae in and near northern Nevada. Madroño 20(l):12-26.
    11. DeVelice, R. L., J. A. Ludwig, W. H. Moir, and F. Ronco, Jr. 1986. A  classification of forest habitat types of northern New Mexico and  southern Colorado. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-131.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 59  p.
    13. Dirr, M. 1977. Manual of woody landscape plants; their  identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and  uses. Stipes Publishing, Champaign, IL. 536 p.
    15. Douglas, M. M., and J. R. Douglas. 1955. The distribution and growth  of limber pine in Colorado. Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science Journal  4(7):46-47.
    17. Ellison, L. 1954. Subalpine vegetation of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah.  Ecological Monographs 24:89-184.
    19. Griffin, J. R., and W. B. Critchfield. 1972. The distribution of  forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PSW-82.  Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 114  p.
    21. Harder, L. D. 1980. Winter use of montane forests by porcupines in  southwestern Alberta: preferences, density effects, and temporal  changes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58:13-19.
    23. Hawksworth, F. G., and D. Wiens. 1972. Biology and classification of  dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 401. Washing-ton, DC. 234 p.
    25. Heald, W. F. 1964. California's Methuselah trees. American Forests  70(3):34-35.
    27. Heit, C. E. 1973. Propagation from seed: testing and growing limber  and Mexican border pines. American Nurseryman 137(11):8-9,64-74.
    29. Hepting, G. H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    31. Hoff, R. J., and G. I. McDonald. 1977. Differential susceptibility of  19 white pine species to woolly aphid (Pineus coloradensis). USDA  Forest Service, Research Note INT-225. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 6 p.
    33. Johnson, C. 1981. Personal communication. Wallowa-Whitman National  Forest, Baker, OR.
    35. Komärkova, V., R. R. Alexander, and B. C. Johnston. 1988. Forest  vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National  Forests: A preliminary habitat type classification. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report RM-163. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 65 p.
    37. Krüssman, G. 1985. Manual of cultivated conifers. Timber Press,  Portland, OR. 361 p.
    39. Lanner, R. M. 1980. Avian seed dispersal as a factor in the ecology  and evolution of limber and whitebark pines. In Proceedings,  Sixth North American Forest Biology Workshop. University of Alberta,  Edmonton, AB. 48 p.
    41. Lanner, R. M. 1981. Personal correspondence. Utah State University,  Logan.
    43. Lanner, R. M., and S. B. Vander Wall. 1980. Dispersal of limber pine  seed by Clark's nutcracker. Journal of Forestry 78(10):637-639.
    45. Layser, E. F., and G. H. Schubert. 1979. Preliminary classification  for the coniferous forest and woodland series of Arizona and New Mexico.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-208. Rocky Mountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 27 p.
    47. Little, E. L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees. A guide to the native  species of New Mexico and Arizona. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 9. Washington, DC. 109 P.
    49. Loope, L. L. 1969. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of northeastern  Nevada. Thesis (Ph.D.), Duke University, Durham, NC. 292 p.
    51. Mauk, R. L., and J. A. Henderson. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat  types of northern Utah. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  INT-170. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.  89 p.
    53. Partridge, A. D. 1974. Major wood decays in the Inland Northwest.  Natural Resource Series 3. Idaho Research Foundation, Moscow. 125 p. 
    55. Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. F. Arno, and R. C. Presby. 1977.  Forest habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report INT-34. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden,  UT. 174 p.
    57. Potter, L. D., and D. L. Green. 1964. Ecology of a northeastern  outlying stand of Pinus flexilis. Ecology 45:866-868.
    59. Rockwell, R. 1981. Personal communication. (Retired.) Inyo National  Forest, Bishop, CA.
    61. Schulman, E. 1956. Dendroclimatic changes in semiarid America.  University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 142 p.
    63. Society of American Foresters. 1980. Forest cover types of the  United States and Canada. F. H. Eyre, ed. Washington, DC. 148 p.
    65. Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981.  Forest habitat types of central Idaho. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report INT-114. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Ogden, UT. 137 p.
    67. Steele, R., S. V. Cooper, D. M. Ondov, D. W. Roberts, and R. D.  Pfister. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western  Wyoming. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-144.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 122 p. 
    69. Steinhoff, R. J. 1972. White pines of western North America and  Central America. In Biology of rust resistance in forest trees:  proceedings of a NATO-IUFRO advanced study institute, August 1969. p.  215-232. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1221.  Washington, DC. 681 p.
    71. Steinhoff, R. J., and J. W. Andresen. 1971. Geographic variation in  Pinus flexilis and Pinus strobiformis and its bearing on their taxonomic  status. Silvae Genetica 20:159-167.
    73. Stevens, R. E., T. K. Borg, and T. 0. Thatcher. 1977. Notes on a  pine-feeding budworm, Choristoneura lambertiana ponderosana  (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Colorado Rockies. The Canadian  Entomologist 109(9):1269-1274.
    75. Thilenius, J. F. 1970. Am isolated occurrence of limber pine (Pinus  flexilis James) in the Black Hills of South Dakota. American Midland  Naturalist 84(2):411-417.
    77. Thompson, J. R., 0. D. Knipe, and P. M. Johnson. 1976. Wind breaks  may increase water yield from the grassland islands in Arizona's mixed  conifer forests. In Hydrology and water resources in Arizona and the  southwest, vol. 6. Proceedings, Arizona Academy of Science, Tucson. p.  323-329.
    79. Trappe, J. M. 1962. Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae.  The Botanical Review 28:538-606.
    81. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody  plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883  p.
    83. Vander Wall, S. B., and R. P. Balda. 1977. Coadaptations of the  Clark's nutcracker and the pinon pine for efficient seed harvest and  dispersal. Ecological Monographs 47:89-111.
    85. Wright, J. W., F. H. Kung, R. A. Reed, and others. 1970. The  Christmas tree possibilities of southwestern white and limber pines.  American Christmas Tree Journal 14(4):27-31.
    87. Youngblood, A. P., and R. L. Mauk. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat  types of central and southern Utah. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report INT-187. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Ogden, UT. 89 p.


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