The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Farjon, A. & Styles, B.T. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae) (Flora Neotropica Monograph 75). The New York Botanical Garden, New York
  • Flora of the Southeastern United States 29. 1903. (22 Jul 1903) (Fl. S.E. U.S.)
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  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. 2: 1001.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    1. Ahlgren, C. E. 1967. A relationship between scion, bud origin and  growth of white pine grafts. Minnesota Forestry Notes 180. University of  Minnesota, St. Paul. 2 p.
    3. Alban, David. 1981. Personal communication. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    5. Alexander, Lee. 1980. The influence of gray squirrels and red oaks  in establishing eastern white pine. Thesis (M.S.), University of New  Hampshire, Durham, 90 p.
    7. Anderson, R. L. 1973. A summary of white pine blister rust research  in the Lake States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-6.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN 12 p.
    9. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175. Washington, DC. 642 p. 
    11. Balmer, W. E., and H. L. Williston. 1983. Managing eastern white  pine in the Southeast. USDA Forest Service, Forestry Report R8-FR 1.  Southern Region. 11 p.
    13. Barrett, J. P., and L. J. Goldsmith. 1973. Predicting growth of  eastern white pine. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 499. Durham. 28 p.
    15. Barrett, J. P., R. J. Alimi, and K. T. McCarthy. 1976. Growth of  white pine in New Hampshire. Journal of Forestry 74:450-452.
    17. Beck, D. E. 1971. Height growth patterns and site index of white  pine in the southern Appalachians. Forest Science 17:252-260.
    19. Beck, D. E. 1979. Growth and yield of white pine. In Proceedings,  Symposium on the Management of Pines of the Interior South. p. 72-89.  USDA Forest Service, Technical Publication SA-TP-2. Southeastern Area  State and Private Forestry, Atlanta, GA.
    21. Berry, C. R., and G. E. Hepting. 1964. Injury to eastern white pine  by unidentified atmosphere constituents. Forest Science 10:2-13.
    23. Bormann, F. H. 1962. Root grafting and non-competitive relationships  between trees. In Tree growth. p. 237-246. T. T. Kozlowski, ed.  The Ronald Press, New York.
    25. Brown, J. H. 1962. Success of tree planting on strip-mined areas in  West Virginia. West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 473. Morgantown. 35 p.
    27. Buol, S. W., F. D. Hole, and R. J. McCracken. 1973. Soil genesis and  classification. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 360 p.
    29. Camp, Richard F. 1986. Walnuts and white pine can be grown together  successfully. Tree Planters'Notes 37:29-31.
    31. Clements, J. R. 1966. Development of a white pine underplantation in  thinned and unthinned aspen. Forestry Chronicle 42:244-250.
    33. Cohen, M. A. 1975. Vegetative propagation of Pinus strobus by  needle fascicles. Combined Proceedings International Plant Propagation  Society 25:413-419.
    35. Czapowskyj, M. M., and W. E. McQuilkin. 1966. Survival and early  growth of planted forest trees on strip mine spoils in the Anthracite  Region. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-46. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 29 p.
    37. Davenport, 0. M., and R. S. Walters. 1967. Christmas tree culture in  Kentucky. University of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station,  Miscellaneous Publication 346. Lexington. 38 p.
    39. Doolittle, W. T. 1958. Site index comparisons for several forest  species in the southern Appalachians. In Proceedings, Soil  Science Society of America 22: 455-458.
    41. Fowler, D. P., and C. C. Heimburger. 1969. Genetic improvement of red  pine and eastern white pine. Forestry Chronicle 45(6):414-420.
    43. Francis, J. K. 1979. Species-site suitability of shortleaf, white,  and Virginia pine. In Proceedings, Symposium on the Management of Pines  of the Interior South. p. 63-71. USDA Forest Service, Technical  Publication SA-TP-2. Southeastern Area State and Private Forestry,  Atlanta, GA.
    45. Freeman, P. C., and D. H. Van Lear. 1977. Performance of eastern  white pine and competing vegetation following two methods of stand  conversion. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 1(3):7-9.
    47. Funk, D. T. 1961. Pruning white pine. USDA Forest Service, Technical  Paper 185. Central States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 13 p. 
    49. Garrett, P. W. 1973. Geographic variation in resistance to white pine  weevil (Pissodes strobi) by eastern white pine (Pinus strobus).  The Canadian Entomologist 105:347-350.
    51. Garrett, Peter W. 1985. Role of tree improvement in providing  pest-resistant eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). In  Symposium proceedings-Eastern white pine: Today and tomorrow. p.  75-88. David T. Funk, comp. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report WO-51. Washington, DC.
    53. Genys, John B. 1978. Search for better white pines for urban  plantings. In Proceedings, National Urban Forestry Conference,  November 13-16, 1978, Washington, DC. vol. 2, p. 828. ESF Publication  80-003. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science  and Forestry, Syracuse.
    55. Goebel, N. B., and B. M. Cool. 1968. Releasing white pines after 20  years of suppression in the upper Piedmont of South Carolina. Forest  Farmer 27(12):9, 22.
    57. Graber, R. E. 1970. Natural seed fall in white pine stands of varying  density. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-119. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    59. Harlow, William M., Ellwood S. Harrar, and Fred M. White. 1979.  Textbook of dendrology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 510 p.
    61. Heimburger, C. C. 1955. New vegetative propagation method for aspen  and white pine. Lake States Genetics Conference Proceedings. p. 68-72.  USDA Forest Service, Miscellaneous Report 40. Lake States Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    63. Heimburger, C., and M. Holst. 1955, Notes from a trip to the northern  United States-January 1953. Forest Chronicle 31: 60-73.
    65. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees in the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 388.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    67. Horton, K. W. 1966. Profitability of pruning white pine. Forestry  Chronicle 42:294-305.
    69. Karnosky, D. F., and D. B. Houston. 1979. Genetics of air pollution  tolerance of trees in the northeastern United States. In Proceedings,  Twenty-sixth Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.  161-178.
    71. Kiang, V. T., 0. M. Rogers, and R. B. Pike. 1974. Vegetative  propagation of eastern white pine by cuttings. New Zealand Journal  Forest Science 4(2):153-160.
    73. Kriebel, H. B. 1972. Pinus strobus and introduced Asian and  European species. In White pines in North and Central America. p.  201-214. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1221.  Washington, DC.
    75. Krochmal, Arnold, Russell S. Walters, and Richard M. Doughty. 1969. A  guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-138. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.  291 p.
    77. Krugman, Stanley L., and James L. Jenkinson. 1974. Pinus L.  Pine, In Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 598-638.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    79. Lancaster, Kenneth F. 1984. White pine management, a quick review.  USDA Forest Service, NA-FR-27. Northeastern Area State and Private  Forestry, Broomall, PA. 4 p.
    81. Lancaster, K. F., and W. B. Leak. 1978. A silvicultural guide for  white pine in the Northeast. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report NE-41. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 13  p.
    83. Leak, W. B. 1981. Personal correspondence. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.
    85. Leak, W. B., Peter H. Allen, James P. Barrett, and others. 1970.  Yields of eastern white pine in New England related to age, site, and  stocking. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-176. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 16 p.
    87. Little, Silas, Donald E. Beck, and Lino Della-Bianca. 1973. Eastern  white pine. In Silvicultural systems for the major forest types  of the United States. p. 73-75. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 445. Washington, DC.
    89. Losche, C. K., and W. W. Beverage. 1967. Soil survey of Tucker County  and part of northern Randolph County, West Virginia. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, Washington,  DC. 78 p., maps and tables.
    91. Mader, D. L. 1976. Soil-site productivity for natural stands of white  pine in Massachusetts. Soil Science Society of America Journal  40:112-115.
    93. Mader, Donald L. 1985. Soil-site relationships for white pine in the  Northeast. In Symposium proceedings-Eastern white pine: Today  and tomorrow. p. 28-31. David T. Funk, comp. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report WO-51. Washington, DC.
    95. Martin, A. D., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife  and plants. Dover, New York. 500 p.
    97. Marty, R. 1965. The mensurational characteristics of eastern white  pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-40. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 73 p.
    99. Merz, Robert W., comp. 1978. Forest atlas of the Midwest. USDA Forest  Service and University of Minnesota College of Forestry, St. Paul. 46 p. 
    101. Miller, D. W., J. J. Geraghty, and R. S. Collins. 1962. Water atlas  of the United States. Water Information Center, Port Washington, NY. 40  plates.
    103. Moyers, G. B. 1979. Management of eastern white pine in the South. In  Proceedings, Symposium on the Management of Pines of the Interior South.  p. 18-47. USDA Forest Service Technical Publication SA-TP-2.  Southeastern Area State am Private Forestry, Atlanta, GA.
    105. Olson, D. P., and R. R. Weyrick. 1987. White pine management with  prescribed fire. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station Research  Report 113. 18 p.
    107. Pardo, Richard. 1978. National register of big trees. American  Forests 84(4):18-47.
    109. Philbrook, J. S., J. B. Barrett, and W. B. Leak. 1973. A stocking  guide for eastern white pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-168.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 3 p.
    111. Rexrode, K. R., and K. L. Carvell. 1981. The effects of late planting  on survival, height growth, and vigor of eastern white pine. Tree  Planters' Notes 32: 30-32.
    113. Schlaegel, B. E. 1971. White pine production best at high stocking.  USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-115. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 2 p.
    115. Skelly, J. M., L. D. Moore, and L. L. Stone. 1972. Symptom expression  of eastern white pine located near a source of oxide of nitrogen and  sulphur dioxide. Plant Disease Reporter 56:3-6.
    117. Stratton, K. S., and R. G. Struchtemeyer. 1968. Evaluation of soil  sites for white pine in Maine. University of Maine Agricultural  Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 32. Orono. 17 p.
    119. Stiell, W. M. 1985. Silviculture of eastern white pine. Proceedings  of the Entomological Society of Ontario 116 (Supplement): 95-107.
    121. Stroempl, G. 1976. Peat wedges aid seedling establishment on shallow  soils. Forestry Chronicle 52:47-51.
    123. Struve, D. K., J. T. Talbert, and S. E. McKeand. 1984. Growth of  rooted cuttings and seedlings in a 40-year-old plantation of eastern  white pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 462-464.
    125. Syme, P. D. 1985. Eastern white pine in Ontario: Its entomological,  pathological, physiological and other problems. Proceedings of the  Entomological Society of Ontario 116 (Supplement): 21-31.
    127. Thielges, Bart A., and Henricus A. J. Hoitink. 1972. Fungicides aid  rooting of eastern white pine cuttings. Forest Science 18:54-55.
    129. Towers, B. 1977. The occurrence of Verticicladiella procera in  Pennsylvania. Plant Disease Reporter 61:477.
    131. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1969. A forest atlas  of the South. Southern Forest Experiment Station and Southeastern Forest  Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA, and Asheville, NC. 27 p.
    133. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1951.  Problem areas in soil conservation. Soil Conservation Service  Northeastern Region REF. Broomall, PA. 44 p.
    135. Waxman, S. 1977. Four white pine introductions from the University of  Connecticut. University of Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 445. Storrs. 4 p.
    137. Wendel, George W. 1971. Converting hardwood on poor sites to white  pine by planting and direct seeding. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-188. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 19 p.
    139. Wendel, George W. 1980. Eastern white pine. In Forest cover  types of the United States and Canada. p. 25-26. F. H. Eyre, ed. Society  of American Foresters, Washington, DC.
    141. Wilson, Robert W., and William F. McQuilkin. 1965. In Silvics  of forest trees of the United States. p. 329-337. H. A. Fowells, comp.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington,  DC.
    143. Wright, J. W. 1970. Genetics of eastern white pine. USDA Forest  Service, Station Paper NE-13. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Broomall, PA. 29 p.
    145. Wright, J. W., R. J. Amiel, F. C. Cech, and others. 1979. Performance  of eastern white pine from the Southern Appalachians in eastern United  States, New Zealand, and Australia. In Proceedings, Twenty-sixth  Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 203-217.


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