Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Pinus strobus, the Eastern White Pine, is characterized by fascicles of 5 fine needles with a nonpersistent bundle sheath, and relatively soft, unarmed, elongate seed cones whose scales are spread at maturity. The native range of eastern white pine stretches from southeastern Manitoba to Newfoundland in Canada and from Minnesota and Iowa eastward to Maine and Pennsylvania, with a southward Appalachian extension to Tennessee and Georgia and isolated occurrences in western Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana. The species also has become naturalized from plantings, both within its historical range and elsewhere, including portions of Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. A related taxon in portions of southern Mexico and Guatemala is sometimes treated as Pinus strobus var. chiapensis, but more often as a distinct species, Pinus chiapensis.

Natural stands of Pinus strobus occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from dune forests to bogs and mixed conifer/hardwood forests. The species also colonizes old fields and other former agricultural lands that are reverting back to forests. It has been planted extensively in plantations and is also used to revegetate mine spoils. The species also is cultivated commonly as a shade and ornamental tree

Eastern White Pine is an important timber tree for the production of softwood lumber. The wood is used for construction, cabinetry and furniture-making, handcrafts, and various other woodworking. Native American tribes used it extensively for various medicinal properties and it is an important food source for wildlife. The long history of cultivation has led to the development of numerous cultivars and forms. The species is affected by the exotic white pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola, an important pathogen of timber trees in the white pine group in temperate North America.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© George Yatskievych

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Pinaceae -- Pine family

    G. W. Wendel and H. Clay Smith

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), also called northern white  pine, is one of the most valuable trees in eastern North America. Before  the arrival of white men, virgin stands contained an estimated 3.4 billion  m³ (600 billion fbm) of lumber. By the late 1800's most of those vast  stands had been logged. Because it is among the more rapid growing  northern forest conifers, it is an excellent tree for reforestation  projects, landscaping, and Christmas trees and has the distinction of  having been one of the more widely planted American trees.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Interesting Facts

White pine was a favorite tree of naturalist/author Henry David Thoreau. According to Ray Angelo’s botanical index to Thoreau’s writings, white pine received more mention than almost any other tree. Climbing a tall specimen of white pine altered Thoreau’s view of the world: “We hug the earth — how rarely we mount! Methinks we might elevate ourselves a little more. We might climb a tree at least. I found my account in climbing a tree once. It was a tall white pine on the top of a hill, and though I got well pitched I was well payed for it, for I discovered new mountains in the horizon which I had never seen before, — so much more of the earth and the heavens. I might have walked about the foot of the tree for three score years and ten, and yet I certainly should never have seen them.” Henry David Thoreau, Walking, an essay first delivered on 23 April 1851 at the Concord Lyceum, published posthumously in The Atlantic Monthly, 9 June 1862, pp. 657–674.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Succinct

Tall tree with fine bluish green needles in fascicles (bundles) of five and relatively soft (vs. hard and woody), unarmed, elongate seed cones.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is a tall and stately pine that is justifiably popular. The tallest White Pine on record is about 180' tall, but today such giants are hard to find. At one time, White Pine was the most important lumber tree in New England and the Upper Midwest. Its tall straight trunks were used as masts for sailing ships. Populations declined as a result of excessive cutting, but the rather soft wood still has commercial significance. This pine is easy to identify, because its needles occur in clusters of 5. Other pines that are native or have naturalized in Illinois have their needles in clusters of 2-3. The mature seed cones of White Pine are longer than those of other pines within the state.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This coniferous tree is typically 80-120' at maturity. It has an unbranched central trunk up to 4' in diameter and whorls of lateral branches that are more or less horizontal. The crown of the tree is conical, becoming more flat-topped and irregular with age. The bark of the trunk is dark gray and rough; it is fissured into irregular square plates. The bark of smaller branches is gray and smooth with small lenticels. There are 2 types of needles
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Pinus strobus L, eastern white pine, is the largest conifer of the eastern and upper Midwest forests, reaching 150 feet in height and up to 40 inches in diameter. In dense stands, trees produce tall, cylindrical stems with pyramidal shaped crowns, characterized by distinctive, plate like branching, especially noticeable as the trees become older. On young growth, the bark remains rather thin, smooth, and greenish-brown in color. On older trees the bark becomes deeply fissured and dark grayish-brown in color. Its evergreen needles are in clusters of 5, soft, flexible, 2 1/2 to 5 inches long, and bluish-green in appearance. Its cones are about 4 to 8 inches long and 1 inch thick. These remain attached for 1 to several months after ripening in the autumn of the second season.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Specimen Information

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Original Description

Pinus strobusL., Species Plantarum 2: 1001
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum : Exhibentes Plantas Rite Cognitas, Ad Genera Relatas, cum Differentiis Specificis, Nominibus Trivialibus, Synonymis Selectis, Locis Natalibus, Secundum Systema Sexuale Digestas, vol. 2. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Distribution and adaptation

Eastern white pine grows on a variety of soils ranging from light, sandy to heavy textured soils. White pine ranges across southern Canada from Manitoba to Newfoundland, throughout the northern and eastern states from Minnesota and northern Iowa to the Atlantic coast, and southward along the Appalachian mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama.

For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

White Pine is native to northern Illinois, where original stands of this pine are uncommon (see Distribution Map). However, this pine has been introduced to forested areas throughout the state. Illinois lies along the southern edge of the range for this boreal species, which is found primarily around the Great Lakes, the Northeast, southern Canada, and parts of the Appalachian Mountains. Habitats include upland woodlands, sandy woodlands, and forested bogs. This last habitat is less typical than the others.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Occurrence in North America

     CT  DE  GA  IL  IN  IA  KY  ME  MD  MA
     MI  MN  NH  NJ  NY  NC  OH  PA  RI  SC
     TN  VT  VA  WV  WI  MB  NB  NF  ON  PE
     PQ

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern white pine is distributed from Newfoundland west to extreme
southeastern Manitoba and south to the Great Lake States, along the
Atlantic seaboard to New Jersey, and in the Appalachian Mountains to
northern Georgia.  It also occurs in Iowa, western Kentucky, western
Tennessee, and Delaware [31,68].
  • 31.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern white pine is found across southern Canada from Newfoundland,  Anticosti Island, and Gaspé peninsula of Quebec; west to central  and western Ontario and extreme southeastern Manitoba; south to  southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa; east to northern Illinois,  Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; and south mostly in the Appalachian  Mountains to northern Georgia and northwestern South Carolina. It is also  found in western Kentucky, western Tennessee, and Delaware. A variety  grows in the mountains of southern Mexico and Guatemala.

     
- The native range of eastern white pine.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

According to Critchfield and Little (1966), the natural range of Pinus strobus was from southeastern Manitoba to Newfoundland in Canada and from Minnesota and Iowa eastward to Maine and Pennsylvania, with a southward Appalachian extension to Tennessee and Georgia and isolated occurrences in western Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana. Additionally, Critchfield and Little mapped and discussed disjunct plants sometimes treated as var. chiapensis that occur in a series of isolated populations in southern Mexico (Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas) and adjacent Guatemala.

In temperate North America, Pinus strobus has been grown extensively in plantations, particularly beginning with the U.S. Civilian Conservation Corps extensive reforestation programs in the 1930s. Thus although heavy commercial timber removal followed by poor regeneration resulted in fewer and thinner native stands, the overall range of the species underwent an expansion. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the natural range of the species prior to the European colonization of North America from the present range, which includes many naturalized stands and populations that became established from seeds dispersed from planted trees. Kartesz and Meacham (1999) and the U.S.D.A. Plants database now map a distribution from Manitoba to Arkansas, east to Newfoundland and Georgia.

Pinus strobus also has long been planted for reforestation programs, extensively in central and eastern Europe and less so in portions of Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. In some places, it has escaped to become a naturalized invasive exotic Ulmer, 2003; Zerbe, 2007; http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/pinus_strobus/).

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 67m; trunk to 1.8m diam., straight; crown conic, becoming rounded to flattened. Bark gray-brown, deeply furrowed, with long, irregularly rectangular, scaly plates. Branches whorled, spreading-upswept; twigs slender, pale red-brown, glabrous or pale puberulent, aging gray, ±smooth. Buds ovoid-cylindric, light red-brown, 0.4--0.5cm, slightly resinous. Leaves 5 per fascicle, spreading to ascending, persisting 2--3 years, 6--10cm ´ 0.7--1mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, deep green to blue-green, pale stomatal lines evident only on adaxial surfaces, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute to short-acuminate; sheath 1--1.5cm, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, 10--15mm, yellow. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, clustered, pendent, symmetric, cylindric to lance-cylindric or ellipsoid-cylindric before opening, ellipsoid-cylindric to cylindric or lance-cylindric when open, (7--)8--20cm, gray-brown to pale brown, with purple or gray tints, stalks 2--3cm; apophyses slightly raised, resinous at tip; umbo terminal, low. Seeds compressed, broadly obliquely obovoid; body 5--6mm, red-brown mottled with black; wing 1.8--2.5cm, pale brown. 2 n =24.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Description

Eastern white pine is a large, native, evergreen conifer.  It grows
rapidly and in 40 years can be 60 feet (18.3 m) tall and 8 to 10 inches
(20-25 cm) in d.b.h. [7].  Individuals of 150 feet (46 m) and 40 inches
(102 cm) in d.b.h. were common in virgin forests.  Eastern white pine
commonly reaches 200 years of age and may exceed 450 years [68].  In
closed stands, boles are free of branches for over two-thirds of their
length.  Needles are 2.5 to 5.0 inches (6-13 cm) long, and the winged
seeds are about 0.8 inches (2 cm) long.  The roots are widespreading and
moderately deep without a distinct taproot [20].
  • 20.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]
  • 7.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves blue-green, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 5, Needle-like leaf sheath early deciduous, Twigs glabrous, Twigs pubescent, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with missing or very weak prickle, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds red, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Trees to 65 m tall; trunk to 1.8 m d.b.h.; bark gray-brown, deeply furrowed, with irregularly oblong, long, scaly plates; crown conical, becoming rounded or flattened on top; winter buds light red-brown, ovoid-cylindric, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per bundle, not pendulous, deep green to blue-green, slightly twisted, 6-14 cm × 0.7-1 mm, pliant, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, base with early shed sheath 1-1.5 cm, margin finely serrulate. Seed cones clustered, pedunculate (peduncle 2-3 cm), gray-brown or pale brown with purple or gray tints, cylindric, ellipsoid, or lanceolate-cylindric when open, 7-20 cm, maturing in 2 years, then soon shedding seeds and falling. Apophyses slightly raised, apex resinous; umbo terminal. Seeds red-brown, black mottled, broadly and obliquely obovoid, compressed, 5-6 mm; wing pale brown, 1.8-2.5 cm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Physical Description

Tall trees 60 m with a broadly conical crown. Trunks are relatively straight and eventually develop relatively thick, irregularly furrowed, dark grayish brown bark. Relatively slender, mostly gray twigs develop needles in fascicles of 5; these are slender, mostly 6–10 cm long, bluish green, triangular in cross-section and persist for only 2 or 3 years before turning yellowish and being shed. Seed cones are produced in clusters of 2–4 toward the branch tips; each cone is stalked, mostly 8–16 cm long, mainly cylindric-ellipsoid, often somewhat curved, and not long-persistent on the tree. Cone scales are spread at maturity, relatively thin, unarmed, and somewhat resinous at the blunt tip. The paired seeds are brown and mostly 20–30 mm long, including a flattened body and an elongate, asymmetrical wing. Source documents: Kral (1993), Krüssman (1985), Farjon et al. (1997), Farjon (2005).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 3.0 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Formal Description

Trees to 40(–60) m tall with a broadly conical crown. Trunks usually relatively straight, to 1.0(–1.5) m dbh; bark gray and relatively smooth on young trees, becoming dark grayish brown, relatively thick, irregularly furrowed and somewhat flaking on mature trees; wood relatively soft, pale, not very resinous. Branches irregular, often whorled, more or less divaricate. Twigs relatively slender, glabrous or more commonly minutely pubescent at the short-shoot bases, smooth, light green, soon turning gray; winter buds 5–9 mm long, oblong-ovoid, slightly resinous, the scales thin, papery, appressed; scales subtending short shoots minute, curved, nondecurrent, not long-persistent. Short-shoots producing fascicles of 5 needles; bundle sheaths thin, papery, caducous. Needles persisting 2 or 3 years, (5–)6–10(–13) cm long, 0.6–0.9 mm wide, narrowly acerose, straight, relatively flexible, bluish green (often appearing somewhat grayish), triangular in cross-section; angles minutely serrulate; ventral pair of surfaces each with 2 or 3 stomatal lines; fibrovascular bundle 1 per needle, associated with 2 or 3 resin ducts near the epidermis. Pollen cones (microstrobili) numerous, densely fasciculate at base of current year’s growth, 10–15 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, yellow. Seed cones (megastrobili) mostly in whorls of 2–4 near the branch tips, pendulous; stalks 15–24 mm; cones (6–)8–16(–25) cm long, 4–8 cm wide (when open), cylindric-ellipsoid to narrowly oblong-ovoid, often somewhat arcuate or twisted, dull brown, open at maturity, dropping soon after seeds have been dispersed. Cone scales 40–100, relatively thin and flexible; apophysis not thickened, rhombic, rounded to obtuse; umbo terminal, blunt (unarmed), usually resinous. Seeds paired, flattened, with the body 5–8 mm long, 3–5 mm wide, reddish brown to brown, sometimes mottled; adnate wing 15–20(–30 mm long), asymmetrically ovoid-triangular, brown. Source documents: Kral (1993), Krüssman (1985), Farjon et al. (1997), Farjon (2005).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus strobus is widely (and disjunctly) distributed in regions as widely different in climate and topography as Newfoundland and Chiapas, Mexico. The variety strobus is confined to the NE part of the species range, where winters are cold and snowy; var. chiapensis occurs in the wet mountains with frequent fog in the southern part. These populations were once connected, presumably as late as the last Ice Age, when P. strobus and other trees were all pushed southward before the advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. In the northern part, P. strobus mainly grows in the lowland hills around the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, in the Appalachian Mountains to 1,200 m a.s.l. In its southern extension it is confined to much higher altitudes between 800 m and 2,200 m a.s.l. Annual precipitation varies greatly from area to area, with lows at around 500 mm and highs in Mexico to 3,000 mm. The southern var. chiapensis experiences no frost, while long and cold winters are the norm in most of the range of var. strobus. Both varieties are major or minor components of mixed forests, with other conifers and/or with broad-leaved trees. There is a similarity of several broad-leaved (angiosperm) tree species in the forests of the southern Appalachians and the mountains of Veracruz and Chiapas, Mexico, but in the colder north P. strobus grows with species not common to both the northern and southern ranges.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

White Pine is native to northern Illinois, where original stands of this pine are uncommon (see Distribution Map). However, this pine has been introduced to forested areas throughout the state. Illinois lies along the southern edge of the range for this boreal species, which is found primarily around the Great Lakes, the Northeast, southern Canada, and parts of the Appalachian Mountains. Habitats include upland woodlands, sandy woodlands, and forested bogs. This last habitat is less typical than the others.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: competition, fern, xeric

Eastern white pine occurs on a variety of sites along the full moisture
gradient from wet bogs and moist streambottoms to xeric sand plains and
rocky ridges [7,67].  In Maine and New Brunswick, eastern white pine
occurs in well0drained, raised bogs [8]; in Michigan, it occurs on sand
dunes [42].  In the southern Appalachian Mountains and in Pennsylvania,
pure stands mainly occur on northerly aspects, in coves, and on
streambottoms [11].  Eastern white pine is common on the east shore of
lakes where blowdowns create openings for regeneration [28].

In New England, eastern white pine usually occurs between sea level and
2,000 feet (610 m) in elevation; on Catamount Mountain in the Adirondack
Mountains of New York, it occurs up to 3,168 feet (966 m).  In the
southern Appalachian Mountains, it occurs between 1,200 and 3,500 feet
(370-1,070 m) [11,28]

Eastern white pine grows on nearly all soil types within its range.  It
is most competitive on fairly infertile sandy soils, such as
well-drained outwash soils.  On clay or poorly drained soils, eastern
white pine occurs only as individuals or in small groups.  It grows on
fine sandy loams and silty loams on disturbed sites if there is little
hardwood competition [68].

Eastern white pine is the characteristic old-field species in New
England.  Nearly pure stands develop on old fields where seed is ample
and sod is intact [53].  In the Hudson River valley, eastern white pine
dominates the finer textured, less rocky old-field sites, whereas oak
communities dominated the coarser textured, rockier sites [15].

Tree associates of eastern white pine not mentioned in Distribution and
Occurrence include sweet birch (Betula lenta), bigtooth aspen (Populus
grandidentata), quaking aspen (P. tremuloides), black cherry (Prunus
serotina), and black oak (Quercus velutina) [11]. 

Understory species are scarce in pure stands of eastern white pine.  On
dry sites, associates include blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), wintergreen
(Gaultheria procumbens), dwarf bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera),
sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum),
clubmosses (Lycopodium spp,), and broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus).
On moist, rich sites associates include wood sorrel (Oxalis spp.),
partridgeberry (Mitchella repens), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia
nudicaulis), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), and hay-scented
fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula).  Other associates include bigleaf
aster (Aster macrophyllus), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense),
and bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) [11,41,25].
  • 11.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]
  • 15.  Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Canham, Charles D.; McDonnell, Mark J.; Streng,        Donna R. 1990. Effects of environment and land-use history on upland        forests of the Cary Arboretum, Hudson Valley, New York. Bulletin of the        Torrey Botanical Club. 117(2): 106-122.  [13301]
  • 25.  Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to        forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of        Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural        Resources. 217 p.  [11510]
  • 28.  Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological        perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p.  [19376]
  • 41.  Ohmann, Lewis F.; Ream, Robert R. 1971. Wilderness ecology: virgin plant        communities of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Res. Pap. NC-63. St.        Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central        Forest Experiment Station. 55 p.  [9271]
  • 42.  Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern        Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170.  [10557]
  • 53.  Spurr, Stephen H. 1956. Forest associations in the Harvard Forest.        Ecological Monographs. 26(3): 245-262.  [7451]
  • 67.  Wendel, G. W.; Della, Bianca, Lino; Russell, James; Lancaster, Kenneth        F. 1983. Eastern white pine including eastern hemlock. In: Burns,        Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types        of the United States. Agric. Handb. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-134.  [20409]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]
  • 7.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]
  • 8.  Damman, A. W. H. 1977. Geographical changes in the vegetation pattern of        raised bogs in the Bay of Fundy region of Maine and New Brunswick.        Vegetatio. 35(3): 137-151.  [10158]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: codominant, hardwood, tree, xeric

Eastern white pine frequently dominates or codominates xeric northern
pine forests [7,40].  In mixed hardwood forests, it often occurs as a
scattered dominant tree towering above the surrounding hardwoods
[19,40].

Publications listing eastern white pine as dominant or codominant are as
follows:

A multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky
   Mountains National Park [3]
The vegetation of Wisconsin [7]
The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley [9]
Field guide:  forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin [25]
Plant communities of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, U.S.A.  [29]
A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America [37]
Virgin plant communities of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area [41]
Forest associations in the Harvard Forest [53]
Plant community pattern analysis:  a cartographic approach applied in
   the Lac des Deux-Montagnes area (Quebec) [62]
  • 19.  Hibbs, David E. 1982. White pine in the transition hardwood forest.        Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 2046-2053.  [20411]
  • 25.  Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to        forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of        Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural        Resources. 217 p.  [11510]
  • 29.  Kurmis, Vilis; Webb, Sara L.; Merriam, Lawrence C., Jr. 1986. Plant        communities of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, U.S.A. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 64: 531-540.  [16088]
  • 3.  Callaway, Ragan M.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; White, Peter S. 1987. A        multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky        Mountains National Park. American Midland Naturalist. 118(1): 107-120.        [15604]
  • 37.  Monk, Carl D.; Imm, Donald W.; Potter, Robert L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.        1989. A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America.        Vegetatio. 80: 167-181.  [9297]
  • 40.  Ohmann, Lewis F. 1979. Northeastern and north central forest types and        their management. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Evans, Keith E., compilers.        Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds:        Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January 23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen.        Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 22-31.  [18074]
  • 41.  Ohmann, Lewis F.; Ream, Robert R. 1971. Wilderness ecology: virgin plant        communities of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Res. Pap. NC-63. St.        Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central        Forest Experiment Station. 55 p.  [9271]
  • 53.  Spurr, Stephen H. 1956. Forest associations in the Harvard Forest.        Ecological Monographs. 26(3): 245-262.  [7451]
  • 62.  Vincent, Gilles; Bergeron, Yves; Meilleur, Alain. 1986. Plant community        pattern analysis: a cartographic approach applied in the Lac des        Deux-Montagnes area (Quebec). Canadian Journal of Botany. 64: 326-335.        [16948]
  • 7.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]
  • 9.  Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint        Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ.        Montreal. 147 p.  [8925]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

     1  Jack pine
     5  Balsam fir
    14  Northern pin oak
    15  Red pine
    18  Paper birch
    19  Gray birch - red maple
    20  White pine - northern red oak - red maple
    21  Eastern white pine
    22  White pine - hemlock
    23  Eastern hemlock
    24  Hemlock - yellow birch
    25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    26  Sugar maple - basswood
    27  Sugar maple
    30  Red spruce - yellow birch
    31  Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
    32  Red spruce
    33  Red spruce - balsam fir
    35  Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir
    37  Northern white-cedar
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    43  Bear oak
    44  Chestnut oak
    45  Pitch pine
    51  White pine - chestnut oak
    53  White oak
    57  Yellow-poplar
    59  Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
    60  Beech - sugar maple
   108  Red maple

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest
   K097  Southeastern spruce - fir forest
   K099  Maple - basswood forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K101  Elm - ash forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest
   K108  Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
   K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES19  Aspen - birch

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Soils and Topography

The major soil orders found in the white pine range are Inceptisols,  Ultisols, Spodosols, Entisols, and Alfisols (14,50,66). In New England the  important subgroups are excessively drained or somewhat excessively  drained sandy deposits or stratified sand and gravel deposits. Most of the  parent materials are glaciofluvial deposits-subgroups Typic Udorthents,  Typic Haplorthods, and Typic Udipsamments; glacial tills-subgroups Lithic  Dystrochrepts and Lithic Haplorthods; or weathered igneous rocks (loose  crystalline fragments mainly from weathered Conway granite)-subgroup  Lithic Haplorthods (42).

    In northern Minnesota, Eutroboralfs, Haplorthods, Udipsamments, and  Hapludalfs are among the most common of the great groups (2). They are  similar to the soils of New England and are more or less freely drained  and have developed on glacial outwash or till material.

    Dystrochrepts, Fragiodults, and Normudults are the major great groups  occupied by white pine in the central Appalachian Mountains (45). These  soils are weathered from acid shales and sandstones, either in place  (residual soils), deposited on lower slopes (colluvial material), or along  stream terraces (alluvial material). The soils are generally well drained  and have a coarse loamy to a fine loamy texture.

    Soils within the range of white pine are derived from granites,  gneisses, schists, and sandstones, and less commonly from phyllites,  slates, shales, and limestones. In the northern part of the Lake States  and southern Canada, white pine is usually confined to soils derived from  basalts, gabbro, diabase, and granites (70). Most of the area was covered  by the Wisconsin glaciation so the soils are young and have weakly  developed profiles (67). In New Hampshire, white pine is found on  granite-derived soils and on metamorphic crystalline schists (42). From  central Pennsylvania south and in southwestern Wisconsin, the soils are  much older, generally are finer textured, and have well developed  profiles.

    White pine grows on nearly all the soils within its range (71), but  generally competes best on well drained sandy soils of low to medium site  quality. These soils permit fair growth of white pine but not hardwoods.  On these sandy sites, white pine regenerates naturally, competes easily,  and can be managed most effectively and economically (40,47). On  medium-textured soils (sandy loams), it will outproduce most other native  commercial species in both volume and value (47). White pine also grows on  fine sandy loams and silt-loam soils with either good or impeded drainage  when there is no hardwood competition during the establishment period-as  on old fields and pastures, bums, and blowdowns. It has been found on clay  soils and on poorly drained or very poorly drained soils with surface  mounds. It can be very productive on these sites but usually occurs only  as individual trees or in small groups (47). This pine should not be  planted in heavy clay soils. Poorly drained bottom land sites and upland  depressions are also poor choices for planting (6).

    At various places within white pine's range, site quality has been  related to combinations of soil and topographic characteristics such as  texture and thickness of the A and B horizons, depth and permeability of  the underlying rock or pan, depth to the water table, natural drainage  class, topographic position, slope percent, and aspect. In the unglaciated  regions of Ohio and central Indiana, site quality for white pine increases  as the soil becomes coarser in texture and declines as the moisture  equivalent and wilting percentage increase in the A and B horizons (71).  But thickness of the A horizon had the greatest influence on rate of  growth.

    In Massachusetts white pine site quality increased with the increase in  silt and clay fraction of the A horizon, with higher pH value of the B or  C horizon, with increased stone and gravel fraction greater than 2 mm  (0.08 in) in the A horizon, with greater nitrogen content in the A  horizon, and with higher percent organic matter in the B horizon (46). In  general, the higher site indices are associated with the poor soil  drainage classes. On reclaimed soils, white pine should not be planted on  sites with a pH of less than 4.0 (6).

    In New Hampshire, the average height of dominant and codominant trees  increased as the soil tended to be less well drained (7,71). Site  productivity in Maine showed the following responses: increase with a  reduction in soil drainage; increase with pH increases in surface mineral  horizons; decrease with increased content of stones larger than 0.6 cm.  (0.25 in) in the C horizon, but increase with the contents of stones in  surface horizon; increase with thickness of the A horizon; increase with  soil depth to a bulk density of 1.40 or greater; increase with increasing  availability of soil moisture in the upper 76 cm (30 in) of soil (59).

    In the southern part of its range, white pine grows best on soils along  rivers and streams and grows somewhat more slowly on well drained sites  (22). The growth of white pine in plantations in eastern Tennessee was  found to decrease with increased plasticity of the B horizon (71).

    Pine often grows better than some of its associates on poor soils or  sites, such as in northeastern Iowa where white pine was 8 site index  points better than oaks on the poor soils (71). In a comparison of site  index and growth of 10 species in the southern Appalachians, white pine  exceeded all species in growth, except on the best sites, where  yellow-poplar outranked it in height only. In New England, white pine  frequently pioneers on abandoned agricultural land but only on the  well-drained to excessively drained deposits-outwash, sandy tills, and  shallow bedrock. White pine may form part of the climax (edaphic) on the  driest of these materials or may alternate with oak (42).

    In New England and New York, white pine generally grows at elevations  between sea level and 460 m (1,500 ft), occasionally higher. In  Pennsylvania, the elevation ranges from 150 to 610 m (500 to 2,000 ft)  (71). In the southern Appalachians, white pine grows in a band along the  mountains between 370 and 1070 m (1,200 and 3,500 ft) above sea level,  occasionally reaching 1220 m (4,000 ft). In Pennsylvania and the southern  Appalachians, most white pine is found on northerly aspects, in coves, and  on stream bottoms. Elsewhere, aspect seldom restricts its occurrence (71).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Climate

The climate over the range of white pine is cool and humid. The  distribution of white pine coincides reasonably with that part of eastern  North America where the July temperature averages between 18° and 23°  C (65° and 74° F).

    Annual precipitation ranges from about 510 mm (20 in) in northern  Minnesota to about 2030 mm (80 in) in northwestern Georgia. In the area  surrounding the Great Lakes, about two-thirds of the precipitation occurs  during the warm season, April to September. Elsewhere, half of the  precipitation occurs during the warm season. The length of the growing  season ranges from 90 to 180 days.

    Throughout the range of white pine, precipitation is about 1 to 1.5  times the evaporation from shaded free water surfaces (71). Annual  potential evapo- transpiration is between 430 and 710 mm. (17 and 28 in),  of which 56 to 68 percent occurs in the warm season. There is a moisture  surplus in all seasons.

    Average depth of frost penetration ranges from about 25 cm (10 in) in  the southern Appalachians to more than 178 cm (70 in) in parts of central  and northern Minnesota. Average annual snowfall ranges from 13 cm (5 in)  in northern Georgia to more than 254 cm (100 in) in New England and  southern Canada (51).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Mesic to dry sites; 0--1500m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Man., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., Ohio, R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; Central America in Guatemala.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Beijing Shi, Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Liaoning [native to E Canada, Guatemala, S Mexico, E United States]
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In temperate North America, the species occurs in well-drained to mesic soils in a wide range of habitats, at elevations of 0–1500 m (but mostly below 500 m). Seedling establishment generally is poor in calcareous soils with low organic content. Along the Great Lakes, Pinus strobus is a component of interdunal pineries on sand dunes. It can occur in bogs. It also is a component of mixed conifer/deciduous broadleaf hardwood forests. The species has been planted in monocultures in plantations and also has been used to revegetate mine spoils.

The var. chiapensis occurs in various montane and cloud forests, often mixed with broadleaf hardwoods, usually in well-drained loamy soils, at elevations of (500–)800–2000 m. Source documents: Price (1989), Kral (1993), Farjon et al. (1997), Farjon (2005).

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

Seedlings of white pine are grown in nursery beds for field planting. They may either be left in the nursery for 2 to 3 years and directly planted into the field, or they may be transplanted after the second year and left in a transplant bed for 1 or 2 years before field plantings. This will produce a seedling approximately 12 to 16 inches in height with 1/4 to 1/2 inch caliper. Field establishment of seedlings is accomplished with tree planting procedures, using machine transplanters or hand planting.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

Many insects feed on pines, including White Pine. These species include the caterpillars of many moths (see Moth Table) and the caterpillars of the butterfly Callophrys nipon (Eastern Pine Elfin). Other insect feeders include the caterpillars of several sawflies, the wood-boring larvae of several Long-Horned beetles, Oecanthus pini (Pine Tree Cricket), the larvae of Cecidomyia resinicola (Jack Pine Resin Midge), and several weevils (see Insect Table for a listing of these species). Pine seeds are an important source of food to many birds, particularly in boreal areas (see Bird Table). The Red Squirrel, Gray Squirrel, Southern Flying Squirrel, and White-Footed Mouse also eat the seeds. Branches and needles are eaten by White-Tailed Deer and the Cottontail Rabbit; where these two animals are abundant, young saplings may not survive. Because of the good cover, some birds like to nest in pine trees. These species include the Blue-Headed Vireo, Pine Warbler, Yellow-Throated Warbler, Black-Throated Green Warbler, Bald Eagle, and several hawks. For the same reason, some birds prefer to roost in pines; this includes the Evening Grosbeak and several owls. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Acantholyda erythrocephala feeds from web on needles of Pinus strobus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Pinus strobus

Foodplant / pathogen
subcortical pycnium of Cronartium ribicola infects and damages stem of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 3-6
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed, up to 2mm diam. stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora pini is saprobic on dead bark of Pinus strobus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
gregarious, subepidermal then erumpent through cleft epidermis, dull black pycnidium of Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodina strobi feeds on needle of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 1-5
Other: uncertain

Foodplant / pathogen
Brunchorstia anamorph of Gremmeniella abietina infects and damages live twig of Pinus strobus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Fungus / saprobe
subepidermal, then exposed apothecium of Meloderma desmazieri is saprobic on leaf of Pinus strobus

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Mytilinidion scolecosporum is saprobic on wood of Pinus strobus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, in large groups perithecium of Nectria fuckeliana is saprobic on dead twig of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 3-5, 9-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Cryptosporiopsis anamorph of Pezicula livida is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Pinus strobus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pineus strobi sucks sap of live shoot of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpeny conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph of Strasseria geniculata is saprobic on dead twig of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Suillus placidus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus strobus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Thelephora terrestris is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus strobus
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Fungus / saprobe
immersed apothecium of Therrya pini is saprobic on brittle, dead, attached, lacking needles branch (small) of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 2-7

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, grouped perithecium of Valsa pini is saprobic on dead twig of Pinus strobus
Remarks: season: 11-2

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associated Forest Cover

White pine is a major component of five Society of American Foresters  forest cover types (70): Red Pine (Type 15), White Pine-Northern Red  Oak-Red Maple (Type 20), Eastern White Pine (Type 21), White Pine-Hemlock  (Type 22), White Pine-Chestnut Oak (Type 51). None of these are climax  types, although the White Pine-Hemlock type may just precede the climax  hemlock types, and Type 20 is very close to a climax or an alternating  type of climax on the sandy outwash plains of New England (42). White pine  occurs in 23 other forest types:

         1  Jack Pine 
    5  Balsam Fir 
  14  Northern Pin Oak 
  18  Paper Birch 
  19  Gray Birch-Red Maple 
  23  Eastern Hemlock 
  24  Hemlock-Yellow Birch 
  25  Sugar Maple-Beech-Yellow Birch 
  26  Sugar Maple-Basswood 
  30  Red Spruce-Yellow Birch 
  31  Red Spruce-Sugar Maple-Beech 
  32  Red Spruce 
  33  Red Spruce-Balsam Fir 
  35  Paper Birch-Red Spruce-Balsam Fir 
  37  Northern White-Cedar 
  39  Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple 
  44  Chestnut Oak 
  45  Pitch Pine 
  53  White Oak 
  57  Yellow-Poplar 
  59  Yellow-Poplar-White Oak-Northern Red Oak 
  60  Beech-Sugar Maple 
108  Red Maple

    White pine also grows with pitch pine (Pinus rigida), jack pine  (P. banksiana), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), sweet birch  (Betula lenta), bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), quaking  aspen (P. tremuloides), black cherry (Prunus serotina), black  oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Q. alba), and various  hickories (Carya spp.). The ground vegetation in a white  pine stand varies greatly, as evidenced by the number of forest cover  types in which it is a major or minor component. Beneath pure or nearly  pure stands of white pine, understory plants usually are sparse compared  to those in the pine-hardwood mixtures (70).

    In general, on dry sites the understory vegetation is usually of one or  more species of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), teaberry  (Gaultheria procumbens), dwarf bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla  lonicera), sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina), bracken (Pteridium  aquilinum), clubmoss (Lycopodium spp.), and broomsedge  (Andropogon virginicus). The moist, rich sites support a ground  vegetation made up principally of several species of woodsorrel (Oxalis),  partridgeberry (Mitchella repens), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia  nudicaulis), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema spp.), and  hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula). Intermediate sites  have ground vegetation containing various amounts of the above with  dogwood (Cornus spp.) and false lily- of-the -valley (Maianthemum  canadense).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

There are a total of 277 insects and 110  disease organisms known to attack white pine. Only 16 insects and 7  diseases cause sufficient injury or mortality to be of concern. The three  most important are white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi), white pine  blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), and Armillaria mellea  (63). The white pine weevil kills the terminal shoot, which may  include the last 2 or 3 years of growth. The tree is seldom killed unless  it is very small; lateral branches from the highest live whorl turn upward  to produce new terminal shoots. Bole crook and loss of stem length result  from this injury (71). There is evidence that white pine provenances  differ in resistance to weevils but even the lowest levels of injury are  unacceptable (25).

    Among other insect enemies are white pine aphid (Cinara strobi),  which causes damage to twigs and branches of large trees and sometimes  kills small trees; white pine sawfly (Neodiprion pinetum), which  feeds on old and new foliage; Zimmerman pine moth (Dioryctria  zimmermani); the Allegheny mound ant (Formica exsectoides), which  injects formic acid into the tree tissue; pales weevil (Hylobius  pales), which feeds on bark of young twigs and seedlings; pine root  collar weevil (H. radicis); European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia  buoliana), which feeds on buds and twigs causing crooked trunks and  branches; eastern pine shoot borer (Eucosma gloriola), which  attacks terminal needle sheaths, often causing bushiness after repeated  attacks; introduced pine sawfly (Diprion similis), which feeds on  foliage and may defoliate an entire tree in one season; and white pine  cone borer (Eucosma tocullionana), which feeds on white pine cones  and is a potentially serious pest (5).

    White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) is highly virulent  throughout the range of white pine. Trees are susceptible from the  seedling stage through maturity. Blister rust can cause high losses both  in regeneration and in immature timber stands (71).

    Red ring rot caused by Phellinus pini isthe most  important heart rot of white pine. The fungus enters through wounds, dead  limbs, or tips killed by weevils. Losses are greater in older trees but do  not build up rapidly. Haematostereum sanguinolentum, a wound  parasite, is probably the third most destructive fungus associated with  white pine. It usually enters through pruning wounds (71).

    Phaeolus schweinitzii causes one of the most common and  destructive root rots. A root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum is  found particularly on white pines growing on poorly aerated soils.  Thinnings appear to increase the incidence of this disease (71). Armillaria  mellea destroys much of the white pine seedling and sapling  reproduction for distances up to 9 m (30 ft) from hardwood stumps. The  fungus radiates and girdles pines at the root collar and causes resinosis  (33). Other root rots that attack white pine are Inonotus tomentosus  and Scytinostroma galactinium. Many fungi invade white pine  foliage. The most serious damage is caused by Bifusella linearis, which  attacks first-year needles; Scirrhia acicola, which can cause  spring shedding of all needles; and Capnodium pini, which causes  surface sooty mold on aphid secretions on needles.

    Three categories of nursery diseases are pre-emergence and  post-emergence damping off, most commonly caused by Rhizoctonia  solani, Fusarium spp., Pythium debaryanum, P. ultimum, and  Phytophthora cinnamomi; damping off and root collar rot caused by  the preceding fungi and Cylindrocladium scoparium and Diplodia  pinea; and foliage and succulent stem blights caused by Cylindrocladium  scoparium, Diplodia pinea, Phacidium infestans, and Rhizina  undulata. In the field, seedlings may be attacked by Armillaria  mellea and by most of the fungi observed in the nursery. In 3- to  10-year-old plantations in Pennsylvania, Verticicladiella procera was  identified (65).

    The bark on exposed roots and the stem in second-growth white pine  stands is thin, and fire resistance is low. Losses invariably are heavy  after a fire, with mortality continuing for several years. Also, fire  injury is probably responsible for introducing disease agents. If fires  occurred more frequently than once in 10 years, white pine reproduction  might be eliminated (53). Old trees have thicker bark and are at least  moderately resistant to fire.

    The species is relatively windfirm. if permitted full development, but  in dense stands, wind damage may be expected from an occasional severe  storm, particularly after a recent partial cutting (71). Wind-deformed  trees are subject to later compression failures in the bole. Also, white  pine is damaged by deer browsing; ice and snow, which often cause limb and  stem breakage; sulfur dioxide in stack gases resulting from large scale  burning of coal and oil refining; fluorine gas from brick kilns;  atmospheric ozone; and sea-salt spray (11,26,33,58).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: competition, fire intensity, litter, surface fire

Prescribed fire is used for eastern white pine seedbed preparation.  Two
fires conducted in consecutive years are recommended before the first
partial cut of a shelterwood system.  A fire conducted after the partial
cut may be too hot because of slash and may cause mortality of the
remaining trees.  The first fire should be in the spring before the
understory leaves emerge so that the fire is hot enough to remove most
of the soil surface organic material.  A second fire after the leaves
emerge the following year helps reduce competition.  A suggested
reasonable fire intensity for preparing a seedbed and controlling
competition is 116 to 173 btu/s/ft (400-600 kW/m).  Extreme care must be
taken if prescribed burning stands younger than 80 years old [61].

Two consecutive annual fires in a 90-year-old eastern white and red pine
stand in Ontario improved the conditions necessary for pine
regeneration.  The fires were low in intensity (22 to 23 btu/s/ft [78-79
kW/m]) and did not harm the overstory.  The litter layer was consumed,
and the understory changed from one dominated by balsam fir saplings to
one dominated by herbaceous species.  However, very little eastern white
pine reproduction occurred in the first 3 postfire years [36].

The white pine cone beetle larvae spend 9 to 10 months a year in dead
cones on the forest floor.  The beetle can be controlled by a
low-severity surface fire in early spring before it emerges [66].
  • 36.  Methven, Ian R. 1973. Fire, succession and community structure in a red        and white pine stand. Information Report PS-X-43. Chalk River, ON:        Environment Canada, Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment        Station. 18 p.  [18601]
  • 61.  Van Wagner, C. E.; Methven, I. R. 1978. Prescribed fire for site        preparation in white and red pine. In: Cameron, D. A, compiler. White        and red pine symposium; 1977 September 20-22; Chalk River, ON. Symposium        Proceedings O-P-6. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Department of the Environment,        Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre: 95-101.        [8670]
  • 66.  Wade, D. D.; Debarr, G. L.; Barber, L. R.; Manchester, E. 1989.        Prescribed fire - a cost effective control for white pine cone beetle.        In: MacIver, D. C.; Auld, H.; Whitewood, R., eds. Proceedings, 10th        conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1989 April 17-21; Ottawa, ON.        [Place of publication unkown]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: fire use

The following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species, including eastern white pine, that was not available when this species review was originally written:

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, severity

Eastern white pine colonizes burns if a seed source is nearby
[5,18,32,33].

A thick organic layer is an unfavorable seedbed because roots of new
seedlings desiccate before reaching mineral soil.  The higher the fire
severity, the more organic material is removed.  However, severe fire
also consumes seeds and rhizomes and thus reduces the early postfire
herbaceous cover which serves to shelter young seedlings from heat.
Initially, as the amount of postfire shelter is reduced by increasing
fire severity, eastern white pine survival decreases.  Eventually,
however, the reduction in organic matter depth is sufficient to
compensate for the lack of shelter and the survival of eastern white
pine increases.  Establishment is highest when mineral soil is exposed
[56].

Fire wounds provide entry to fungi which cause heart rot in eastern
white pine [32].
  • 18.  Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from        live and dead plant material- an approach to the study of forest        succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology. 55: 772-783.  [8725]
  • 32.  Little, Silas. 1974. Effects of fire on temperate forests: northeastern        United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and        ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 225-250.  [9859]
  • 33.  Maissurow, D. K. 1935. Fire as a necessary factor in the perpetuation of        white pine. Journal of Forestry. 33: 373-378.  [14453]
  • 5.  Cary, Austin. 1936. White pine and fire. Journal of Forestry. 34(1):        62-65.  [14458]
  • 56.  Thomas, P. A.; Wein, Ross W. 1985. The influence of shelter and the        hypothetical effect of fire severity on the postfire establishment of        conifers from seed. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 15: 148-155.        [7291]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: low-severity fire, severity

Once eastern white pine reaches 60 feet (18 m) in height and develops
rough bark on the lower bole, it tolerates low-severity fire [32,69].
Large individuals usually survive moderate-severity fires [69].  Fires
of more than moderate severity during the first 50 years may destroy the
entire stand [60].

Total scorching of foliage typically kills eastern white pine [32], but
scorching less than 50 percent is usually not lethal [35,61,66].  Two
stands, in which 96 percent of the eastern white and red pines were 9
inches (23 cm) in diameter or larger, were prescribed burned in late
spring (May 31 and June 15).  The percent crown scorch was estimated
after the fire and 1-year mortality was assessed.  There was no
mortality in trees with less than 46 percent crown scorch.  Mortality
was 50 percent in the 81 to 85 percent crown scorch class and 100
percent in trees with more than 96 percent crown scorch [35].

Many eastern white pine were crown scorched up to 50 percent in a March
prescribed fire ranging in intensity from 30 to 250 btu/s/ft (100-850
kW/m), but all buds emerged later in the spring [66].

A laboratory study in August in which eastern white pine seedlings were
exposed to different temperature regimes for 4 minutes, demonstrated
even less mortality with high percentages of needle scorch.  The
seedlings withstood up to 90 percent needle scorch with only 10 to 20
percent mortality.  The author suggests that there may be two lethal
temperatures, one that kills needles and one that kills terminal buds.
Therefore percent needle scorch may not be directly related to
mortality in eastern white pine [35].

Deep-burning ground fires may cause root injuries that are more serious
than crown injury.  Where 75 percent or more of the major surface roots
had been killed or severely damaged by fire, but only a third or less of
the crown was scorched, mortality 3 years after the fire was 100, 60,
and 40 percent for small trees (2 to 6 inches [5-15 cm] in diameter),
medium trees (7 to 11 inches [16-29 cm]), and large trees (greater than
12 inches [30 cm]), respectively.  For trees with less than 25 percent
root kill or injury and more than two-thirds of the crown scorched,
mortality for small, medium, and large trees was only 80, 46, and 14
percent, respectively [32].

Heated air at 144 degrees Fahrenheit (62 deg C) applied for 1 minute
killed 50 percent of 5-year-old eastern white pine seedlings that
averaged 16 inches (40 cm) in height, 0.2 inch (0.5 cm) butt diameter,
and less than 0.04 inch (0.1 cm) in bark thickness [24].
  • 24.  Kayll, A. J. 1968. Heat tolerance of tree seedlings. In: Proceedings,        annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1968 March 14-15;        Tallahassee, FL. No. 8. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station:        89-105.  [17849]
  • 32.  Little, Silas. 1974. Effects of fire on temperate forests: northeastern        United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and        ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 225-250.  [9859]
  • 35.  Methven, Ian R. 1971. Prescribed fire, crown scorch and mortality: field        and laboratory studies on red and white pine. Information Report        PS-X-31. Chalk River, ON: Department of the Environment, Canadian        Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. 10 p.  [8669]
  • 60.  Van Wagner, C. E. 1971. Fire and red pine. In: Proceedings, annual Tall        Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No.        10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 211-219.  [18940]
  • 61.  Van Wagner, C. E.; Methven, I. R. 1978. Prescribed fire for site        preparation in white and red pine. In: Cameron, D. A, compiler. White        and red pine symposium; 1977 September 20-22; Chalk River, ON. Symposium        Proceedings O-P-6. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Department of the Environment,        Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre: 95-101.        [8670]
  • 66.  Wade, D. D.; Debarr, G. L.; Barber, L. R.; Manchester, E. 1989.        Prescribed fire - a cost effective control for white pine cone beetle.        In: MacIver, D. C.; Auld, H.; Whitewood, R., eds. Proceedings, 10th        conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1989 April 17-21; Ottawa, ON.        [Place of publication unkown]
  • 69.  Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States        and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p.  [2620]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: secondary colonizer, tree

   Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
   Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
   Secondary colonizer - on-site seed
   Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: competition, forb, fuel, low-severity fire, mesic, natural, shrub

Eastern white pine is moderately fire resistant.  Mature trees survive
most surface fires because they have thick bark, branch-free boles, and
a moderately deep rooting habit.  Younger trees are not as fire
resistant [68].  The needles have relatively low resin content so are
not highly flammable [30].

Forests dominated or codominated by eastern white pine have different
FIRE REGIMES depending on site and associated species.  The natural fire
regime in eastern white pine-red pine forests consists of nonlethal
surface fires at 5- to 50-year intervals punctuated by severe
stand-replacing fires at longer intervals.  In the Boundary Waters Canoe
Area in Minnesota, low-severity fire intervals averaged 36 years, and
severe fire intervals averaged 160 years.  Eastern white pine forests
growing on more mesic sites with a substantial shade-tolerant component
probably undergo only one fire every 150 to 350 years [16,17].  Some
large individuals survive or escape severe fires and serve as seed
sources for a new stand.  Severe fire creates large open areas with ash
or mineral seedbeds and reduces competition, good conditions for eastern
white pine regeneration [19,65].

The typical fuel type under eastern white and red pine stands is an
organic layer 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) deep, a continuous needle layer, a
moderate forb and shrub layer, and a moderately dense understory.
Ground fires spread slowly in this fuel type.  Dry, windy conditions are
required for fires to crown and have a high rate of spread [23].
  • 16.  Heinselman, Miron L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary        Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quaternary Research. 3: 329-382.  [282]
  • 17.  Heinselman, Miron L. 1981. Fire intensity and frequency as factors in        the distribution and structure of northern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H.        A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others]
  • 19.  Hibbs, David E. 1982. White pine in the transition hardwood forest.        Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 2046-2053.  [20411]
  • 23.  Johnson, Edward A. 1992. Fire and vegetation dynamics: studies from the        North American boreal forest. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge:        Cambridge University Press. 129 p.  [19950]
  • 30.  Landers, J. Larry. 1991. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the        southeastern United States. In: Proceedings, 17th Tall Timbers fire        ecology conference; 1989 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL:        Tall Timbers Research Station: 61-95.  [17601]
  • 65.  Vogl, Richard J. 1977. Fire: a destructive menace or a natural process?.        In: Cairns, J., Jr.; Dickson, K. L.; Herricks, E. E., eds. Recovery and        restoration of damaged ecosystems: Proceedings of the international        symposium; 1975 March 23-25; Blacksburg, VA. Charlottesvile, VA:        University Press of Virginia: 261-289.  [10055]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, surface fire

Facultative Seral Species

Eastern white pine is intermediate in shade tolerance [2] and is present
in all successional stages.  It is a pioneer species on oldfields and
other disturbed sites, a long-lived successional species, and a
physiographic climax species on dry, sandy soils [53,68].  Eastern white
pine is sometimes a component of climax forests on certain sites such as
steep slopes and ridge tops where windfall provides regeneration
opportunities [54].

Eastern white pine forests frequently establish after disturbance and
are even-aged.  However, uneven-aged forests also occur.  Eastern white
pine has dominated an uneven-aged old-growth forest in southern Ontario
for at least 700 years.  In this forest, canopy gaps created by the
death of individual trees from surface fire or windthrow enable eastern
white pine to regenerate [44].

Eastern white pine succeeds aspen postdisturbance forests.  The diffuse
aspen canopy allows enough light for eastern white pine to regenerate
[52].  Bigtooth aspen colonized and was the early dominant on a burn in
northern Michigan, but 53 years after the fire, eastern white pine and
red maple (Acer rubrum) were dominant [49].

More shade-tolerant species succeed eastern white pine.  In the Boundary
Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota, it begins to be replaced by white spruce
(Picea glauca), eastern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir
(Abies balsamea), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) about 360 years
after fire [16].
  • 16.  Heinselman, Miron L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary        Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quaternary Research. 3: 329-382.  [282]
  • 2.  Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of        Forestry. 47: 179-181.  [20404]
  • 44.  Quinby, Peter A. 1991. Self-replacement in old-growth white pine forests        of Temagami, Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management. 41: 95-109.        [15381]
  • 49.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Teeri, James A. 1981. A 53-year record of forest        succession following fire in northern lower Michigan. Michigan Botanist.        20(1): 3-14.  [5022]
  • 52.  Squiers, Edwin R.; Klosterman, Jane E. 1981. Spatial patterning and        competition in an aspen-white pine successional system. American Journal        of Botany. 68(6): 790-794.  [17843]
  • 53.  Spurr, Stephen H. 1956. Forest associations in the Harvard Forest.        Ecological Monographs. 26(3): 245-262.  [7451]
  • 54.  Stearns, Forest. 1951. The composition of the sugar maple-hemlock-yellow        birch association in northern Wisconsin. Ecology. 32(2): 245-265.        [10588]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: cover, density, lichen, litter

Eastern white pine begins producing cones when 5 to 10 years old, but
good seed production does not occur until trees are at least 20 to 30
years old [26].  Good seed years occur every 3 to 5 years, with some
seed produced in intervening years [7].

Seeds are dispersed primarily by wind.  Seeds travel 200 feet (60 m)
within a stand and more than 700 feet (210 m) in the open.  Animals also
disperse seeds.  Gray squirrel seed caches were responsible for white
pine reproduction under red oak (Quercus rubra) stands in southern New
Hampshire [68].  White-footed mice and red-backed voles bury caches
containing 20 to 30 eastern white pine seeds beneath the litter but on
top of the mineral soil.  Caches that escape revisitation and decimation
produce seedlings [1].

Favorable seedbeds include moist mineral soil, mosses (Polytrichum
spp.), and short grass cover of light to medium density.  Dry mineral
soil, pine litter, lichen, and very thin or very thick grass covers are
poor seedbeds in full light but adequate in shade [68].  Eastern white
pine shows very limited delayed emergence the second year after seed
fall, and none after 3 years [57].

Eastern white pine colonizes disturbed sites, but a nurse crop of aspen
(Populus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), or other pioneer species promotes
best regeneration [7].  When colonizing oldfields, eastern white pine is
more likely to become established in openings than under herbs.  Even
though seedling emergence and survivorship are higher under herbs, so
too is seed and seedling predation by rodents [14].

Eastern white pine seedlings require at least 20 percent of full light
for survival.  They achieve maximum height growth in 45 percent of full
light [51].  Early growth is slow, but between 10 and 20 years of age,
the average annual height growth is about 16 inches (40 cm) per year
[68].

Eastern white pine does not reproduce vegetatively [68].
  • 1.  Abbott, Herschel G.; Quink, Thomas F. 1970. Ecology of eastern white        pine seed caches made by small forest mammals. Ecology. 51(2): 271-278.        [17702]
  • 14.  Gill, David S.; Marks, P. L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization        of old fields in central New York. Ecological Monographs. 61(2):        183-205.  [14486]
  • 26.  Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family.        In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in        the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637.  [1380]
  • 51.  Shirley, Hardy L. 1945. Reproduction of upland conifers in the Lake        States as affected by root competition and light. American Midland        Naturalist. 33(3): 537-612.  [10367]
  • 57.  Thomas, P. A.; Wein, Ross W. 1985. Delayed emergence of four conifer        species on postfire seedbeds in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 15: 727-729.  [7882]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]
  • 7.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

  
   Phanerophyte

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reaction to Competition

White pine is intermediate in shade  tolerance, and vegetative competition is a major problem (60). Although it  will tolerate up to 80 percent shade, tree growth increases as shade is  reduced (6). It can achieve maximum height growth in as little as 45  percent full sunlight (60). In competition with light-foliaged species  such as the birches and pitch pine, white pine usually gains dominance in  the stand. It can grow successfully in competition with black walnut (15).  Against the stronger competition of species such as the aspens, oaks, and  maples, however, white pine usually fails to gain a place in the upper  canopy and eventually dies (71). Pure stands of white pine seldom stagnate  because of inherent variations in vigor. This characteristic is more  pronounced on better sites and in natural stands than in plantations (6).

    In Ontario, on upland sites white pine and its associates are rated in  decreasing order of shade tolerance as follows: balsam fir (Abies  balsamea), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus  grandifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), white spruce  (Picea glauca), yellow birch, white pine, black spruce (Picea  mariana), gray birch (Betula populifolia), red oak Quercus  rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), red pine (Pinus  resinosa), jack pine, trembling aspen, bigtooth aspen, and pin cherry  (Prunus pensylvanica) (71).

    In the seedling stage, white pine is very susceptible to competition  because its height growth is slow compared to most of its associates. If  white pine survives to the sapling stage, its ability to compete is  greatly improved (71).

    At either stage, the response to release depends primarily on how strong  the competition has been and how long the pine has been in a subordinate  position. In general, pines less than 30 years old with at least one-third  of their height in live crown respond well, but response declines  proportionately with increasing age and decreasing crown length.

    White pine may function as a pioneer, as exemplified by its role as the  old field pine of New England. It may function as a physiographic climax  species on the drier, sandier soils. It may function as a long-lived  successional species, and it may be a component of climax forests  throughout its range. In Canada, however, it is considered that many of  the present white pine stands are edaphic or pyric relicts and that  present climatic conditions are against its maintenance as a major species  (71).

    Pure natural stands of white pine almost never stagnate. Because of  differences in vigor, age, and site, differentiation into crown and  diameter classes usually occurs. Dominance is more pronounced on the  better sites, at the greater stand densities, and in natural stands as  compared to plantations (71).

    White pine has been regenerated successfully by a wide variety of  methods including clearcutting, seed tree, shelterwood, and group  selection (44). If there is abundant advanced reproduction, overstory  removal is all that is necessary. Clearcutting during or just after heavy  seed crops often results in well stocked stands on light soils.  Clearcutting in small patches or stands with seed dispersed from adjacent  stands is also possible. Because of competition from other vegetation and  poor seed crops, mechanical site preparation and planting may be necessary  sometimes in conjunction with clearcutting.

    Where esthetic considerations are important, group selection may have  merit. Probably the most versatile reproduction method is the shelterwood  method. By control of overstory density with a series of  shelterwood cuts, seedbed conditions may be improved; an accumulation of  advanced seedlings is obtained over a period of years; protection of  seedlings on hot, dry aspects is afforded; weevil attacks are reduced; and  competition from herbaceous and hardwood sprout vegetation is suppressed.  Two, three, or more cuts spread over a number of years may be used, but  usually white pine can be regenerated successfully with a two-cut  shelterwood system. Seed cuts should be timed to take advantage of good  seed crops, but timing of the final cut is not critical.

    Trees in pure second-growth stands of white pine are noted for their  limbiness. The limbs live for about 15 years and persist on the trunk for  more than 25 years after they die. In the first log of these stands, there  is an average of about 60 limbs (71). Pruning has been recommended to  increase quality production. If possible, pruning should begin early when  branches are less than 5 cm (2 in) in diameter but not before dominance is  expressed. At least 25 percent of the live crown and up to 50 percent in  closed stands can be pruned without losses in height growth. To realize  full benefits of pruning, only potential crop trees should be pruned and  stands should be thinned to maximize growth (24). In Canada, pruning is  recommended on fast-growing trees in stands 35 to 80 years old because of  the inefficiency of pruning smaller trees and the lengthened rotation and  probable growth reduction in older stands (34). This recommendation  assumes that the highest returns will accrue if the trees are allowed to  grow for another 40 years before harvest.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rooting Habit

The form and distribution of the white pine root  system vary with the soil characteristics. The normal root system has just  a vestige of a taproot. Usually three to five large roots spread outward  and downward in the soil, giving the tree a firm anchor under most  conditions. In deep, coarse-textured soils, sinker roots that branch from  the laterals and grow straight down seem to be fairly common, but they are  seldom found in other soils. A concentration of fine roots within the H,  A, and B horizons seems to be greatest where the soil is fine textured,  with good structure and consistency, and a relatively high moisture  equivalent (71). A high total exchange capacity and a relatively high  content of exchangeable bases, total nitrogen, and organic matter also  favor the concentration of roots.

    Much root grafting occurs in white pine stands (12). Regardless of  either stand age, soil characteristics, or drainage class, root grafting  occurred in 30 to 67 percent of dye-injected trees in five white pine  stands in New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Exposure of the root systems  indicated that often several trees, rather than two or three, were united  by root grafts. Root grafting indicates that competition may be a factor  in white pine growth for the first 5 to 10 years of a stand. Thereafter,  root grafts begin to form, and the stand may function as a union of  grafted trees interspersed with individual trees.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecological Determinants/Niche

Although Pinus strobus can act as colonizer in reforestation of former agricultural lands, it also occurs as a mid- to late-successional species.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Eastern white pine male strobili open and shed pollen in April through
June, depending on latitude.  Fertilization occurs 13 months after
pollination.  Cones ripen and seeds are dispersed August through
September, about 2 years after cone initiation [7,26].  Seeds germinate
in the spring [7].  Terminal shoot growth is usually completed by the
end of June [68].
  • 26.  Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family.        In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in        the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637.  [1380]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]
  • 7.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

White pine does not reproduce  vegetatively under natural conditions (31). Small cuttings of the last  season's twigs, taken in late winter from trees 2 to 6 years old, root  fairly readily, however. Within 9 years, outplanted cuttings have  developed the same form and size as seedlings, and the root system  approaches that of seedlings (71). Also, trees from rooted cuttings  performed as well or better than seedling-origin trees when comparing  survival, height, and d.b.h. after 40 years (62).

    When June-collected cuttings from 17- and 30-year-old white pine were  treated with 0.1 percent indolebutyric acid (IBA) and the fungicide  Benlate, 60 and 45 percent, respectively, all of the cuttings produced  roots in 16 weeks (36). Cuttings from secondary branches of 13-year-old  white pines treated with 5 percent benomyl and 25 percent captan  fungicides resulted in root formation on 36 percent of the cuttings. When  0.1 percent or 0.5 percent IBA was added, rooting was 31 percent (64).  Multi-applications of N6 benzyladenine at 1,000  p/m to white pine needle fascicles produced roots on 22 percent of all  clones tested in 1975 (17).

    Scions from the crown of mature trees can be grafted on young stock  (31). Side grafts of scions on 3- or 4-year-old white pine stocks seem to  be a more reliable method of vegetative propagation than rooted cuttings  (71). Buds from main terminal or lateral terminal positions should be used  in grafting if early erect growth is desired (1).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seedling Development

Embryo dormancy is common in white pine,  and for nursery sowing, stratification of seeds for 60 days at 1° to  5° C (33° to 41° F) is recommended (39).

    Germination is epigeal. Bare mineral soil is not necessary for seed  germination; seeds can germinate and survive on both disturbed and  undisturbed litter layers (6). Under full exposure to sunlight, moist  mineral soil, polytrichum moss, or a shortgrass cover of light to medium  density are favorable seedbeds. Dry mineral soil, pine litter, lichen, and  very thin or very thick grass covers are unfavorable (71).

    Unfavorable seedbed conditions can be corrected by scarification or can  be overcome by shade. However, dense, low shade such as that cast by slash  piles or hardwood brush is adverse to later survival and the shade of  young stands of gray birch (Betula populifolia) or pitch pine  reduces growth in the later stages. Overstory shade resulting from a form  of shelterwood cut provides good protection during the early stages of  growth and is least damaging to later stages (71).

    Experience in North Carolina shows that during years of heavy seedfall  white pine seedlings develop well in shade cast by logging debris. Some  seedlings may die during a hot dry June, however. Thus, the roughest  tracts are reserved and regenerated by natural methods during years of  high seedfall only (52). On medium to fair sites in the central  Appalachians, white pine seedlings can be underplanted in hardwood stands  with reasonable success (69). The hardwoods, mostly oaks and hickories,  permit enough light to reach the seedlings so some height growth occurs.  Normally 3 to 5 years are required for white pine to become established,  and if the pines are released 5 to 10 years later, a high proportion  outgrow the competing vegetation. Similar results have been reported for  9- to 20-year-old underplanted white pine in Maine, Canada, and South  Carolina (16,28,71).

    White pine seedlings in the vicinity of recent pine timber cuttings  often are attacked by the pales weevil (Hylobius pales). This  insect breeds in the fresh stumps and slash; nearby seedlings are girdled  and usually killed. Most of the damage occurs during the first 3 years  after a cutting and among seedlings less than 5 years old (71).

    After the establishment period, light intensity becomes critical to the  survival and growth of white pine seedlings. At light intensities less  than 10 to 13 percent of full sunlight, survival is uniformly poor; at  least 20 percent of full sunlight seems to be required to keep the  seedlings alive. As light intensity increases above this point, growth  increases proportionately up to full sunlight unless some other condition  becomes limiting (71). Diameter growth of planted white pine increased  with increased light in clearcut stands in the Piedmont of South Carolina  (23). Height growth of underplanted seedlings after 2 years did not differ  from that of seedlings planted in a clearcut.

    Although young seedlings can survive for several weeks in soils with  moisture below the wilting coefficient, growth at a given light intensity  is best in the absence of root competition; growth is better when only an  overstory offers root competition than when both an understory and an  overstory are competing (71). Mineral soil seedbeds plus light intensities  greater than 20 percent full sunlight but less than full sunlight support  vigorous seedling growth by reducing surface soil temperatures and  providing better soil moisture conditions (41). The survival of white pine  2-2 stock was increased on shallow old pasture soils in eastern Ontario  when wedge-shaped pieces of peat saturated with water were placed at the  bottom of the planting holes to provide water and prevent desiccation  during drought periods (61). Two-O stock stored in a refrigerator can be  planted until mid-June without significant reduction in survival rate.  However, seedlings planted in July and August will not be hardened off by  the first fall frost (56).

    In some early greenhouse and nursery trials with young seedlings, the  optimum supply of nitrogen was shown to be 300 p/m; phosphorus, 350 p/m;  potassium, 150 p/m; and calcium, 200 p/m (71).

    Early white pine growth is slow. Open-grown trees are about 13 cm (5 in)  high when 3 years old; 30 cm (12 in) high when 5 years old; and 137 cm (54  in) high when 8 to 10 years old. Thereafter, height growth may be quite  rapid. Between 10 and 20 years old, open-grown dominant trees have grown  as much as 137 cm (54 in) in height in a single year. Annual increments of  91 cm (36 in) are not uncommon, but average height growth of dominant  trees during this period is about 41 cm (16 in) (71). Usually terminal  growth occurs within a 30-day period (6) and normally is completed by July  1 (56).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed Production and Dissemination

Good seed years are thought  to occur every 3 to 5 years, a few seeds being produced in most  intervening years. However, at the Massabesic Experimental Forest in  southwestern Maine, and at other New England locations, there was  virtually no seed produced for 7 years and no good seed crop for 10 years.  The major cause of these failures probably is the white pine cone beetle  (Conophthorus coniperda).

    Cones are green when immature and turn yellow-green to light brown when  ripe. Cones that float in linseed oil are considered ripe. Cones should be  collected from trees having superior growth and form. Widely spaced  dominant trees with full crowns produce the most seeds per cone (39).

    In a comprehensive German study of white pine seed production, it was  found that a 90-year-old stand produced about 73 kg of seeds per hectare  (65 lb/acre); a comparable 60-year-old stand produced only one-fifth as  much. In these stands, dominant trees produced twice as many cones as  codominant trees (71). In Maine, intermediate density stands 27.6 m²/ha  (120 ft²/acre) produced 4,430,000 viable seeds per hectare  (1,793,220/acre) in a good seed year (29). In high density stands 42.9 m²/ha  (187 ft²/acre), seedfall was 36 percent less and in low density  stands 18.4 m²/ha (80 ft²/acre), seedfall was 30 percent less  than in the intermediate density stands.

    There are 58,400 seeds per kilogram (26,500/1b) with a range from 38,600  to 116,800/kg (17,500 to 53,000/1b) (39). In a study of 250 different  parents from all parts of the white pine range, the number of good seeds  per cone ranged from 0 to 73. The lowest sets were found in stands at the  extremes of the range.

    Most of the seeds are dispersed within the month following cone  maturity. The seeds travel at least 60 m (200 ft) within a white pine  stand and more than 210 m (700 ft) in the open (71). Gray squirrels were  found responsible for much of the white pine reproduction under mature red  oak stands in southern New Hampshire; they bury and recover the seeds (3).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering and Fruiting

White pine is monoecious. The male  strobili are oval, 8 to 10 mm (0.3 to 0.4 in) long and occur mostly on the  basal part of new shoots and mostly on older lateral branches in the lower  crown. At the time of pollen shed, they are light brown to brown. Female  flowers are found most often in the upper crown, primarily at the apical  end of the main branches in the position of subterminal or lateral buds  (39). At the time of pollination, they are green, and 5 to 38 mm (0.2 to  1.5 in) long. In the northeastern United States, flowering occurs between  May and June. The male flowers develop from one to several weeks before  the female flowers.

    Trees may start to bear female flowers when 5 to 10 years old (71). In  the Philadelphia area, quantity production of female flowers does not  begin until the trees are about 6 m (20 ft) tall. At that size, 200 to 300  flowers may be produced in 1 year; the number is only a little greater on  larger or older trees. Few or no male flowers appear during the early  flowering years. Femaleness persists even on older trees 30 to 61 cm (12  to 24 in) in diameter, although trees of this size do produce small to  moderate amounts of pollen (71).

    The pattern of flowering in white pine is uncertain. In the Philadelphia  area, the better flowering trees tend to produce about the same number of  female flowers every year, with some exceptions; male flowers, however, do  not appear every year (71). Fertilization occurs about 13 months after  pollination, and cones mature usually during August and September of the  second year (39). Trees have borne cones at 5 to 10 years of age, but good  seed production cannot be expected until the trees are 20 to 30 years old  (30).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction and Life History

Pinus strobus plants become reproductively mature between 5 and 10 years of age, but do not reach peak strobilus production until the age of about 20 years. Pollen is dispersed by air between April and June (depending on latitude) and reaches the first-year megastrobili soon thereafter. Upon pollination, 13 months are required for fertilization of the ovule within the slightly enlarged one-year cone. The winged seeds mature during the second year and are dispersed by gravity and air at the end of the second year. The seed cones (megastrobili) drop from the tree soon after the seeds are dispersed.
Seeds of P. strobus are eaten by a variety of wildlife, especially small mammals. Deer and other larger mammals will browse the species when other winter forage has been exhausted. Source documents: Price (1989), Burrows and Tyrl (2001).

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Growth and Yield

White pine is a long-lived tree commonly  reaching 200 years if undisturbed; maximum age may exceed 450 years. It  has a remarkable rate of growth compared to other pine and hardwood  species within its range (20). Trees 102 cm (40 in) in d.b.h. and 46 m  (150 ft) tall were common in the virgin forests of Pennsylvania, Michigan,  and New England (71). In the "National Register of Big Trees"  (54), there are two champion white pines: one in Michigan is 168 cm (66  in) in diameter and 48.2 m (158 ft) tall, and the other in Maine is 173 cm  (68 in) in diameter and 44.8 m (147 ft) tall.

    Periodic height growth increment of dominant and codominant trees in  southern Appalachian natural white pine stands occurs at younger ages on  the better sites and tends to decline more rapidly. Height growth of both  planted and natural white pine is slow during the first 2 to 3 years.  Afterwards, growth accelerates rapidly, peaking at an average annual rate  of 1 m (3 ft) between 10 and 15 years on site index 80 (base 50 years)  (6). By age 55, the rate of annual growth is about equal on all sites (9).  For example, in stands with a site index of 36.6 m (120 ft), maximum  growth of 1.0 m (3.4 ft) per year occurred at age 14; whereas, with a site  index of 18.3 m (60 ft), maximum growth of 0.5 m (1.5 ft) per year did not  occur until age 23. By age 55, however, annual growth for all sites was  about 0.3 m (1.0 ft) per year (fig. 1).

     
Figure 1-Curves of annual increment (A) and cumulative 
height (B) for selected site indices. These curves show the 
changing pattern of growth with level of site index (9).


    Diameter growth may be as rapid as 2.5 cm (1 in) per year or as slow as  2.5 cm (1 in) in 40 years. Dominant trees ordinarily grow at the rate of 1  to 2 rings per 5 mm (5 to 10/in) to an age of 250 years. In fully stocked  stands on average sites, the average tree diameter increases at a nearly  uniform rate of 2.5 cm (1 in) every 5 to 6 years (71).

    Generally, rates of growth in basal area, cubic volume, and sawtimber  volume in natural southern Appalachian stands tend to be slower than those  in old-field plantations. For example, maximum mean annual increment in  cubic volume occurs at 60 to 70 years in natural stands and at about 25  years in plantations. Similarly, sawtimber volume in natural stands is  still increasing at 100 years, though very slowly. In New England stands,  mean annual increment in cubic volume occurs at age 40 to 50 (8).  Sustained cubic volume growth extends from about age 30 to 90. Mean annual  growth peaks at 8.6 m/ha (615.0 fbm/acre). In New England, a stocking  guide for white pine has been prepared (55) (fig. 2).

     
Figure 2-Stocking guide for nearly pure even-aged white  pine 
stands, showing basal area per acre, number of trees per acre, 
and mean d.b.h. for trees in the main crown canopy (55).


    The A curve represents 80 percent stocking, and stands above it are  considered overstocked. The B curve represents minimum stocking for full  site utilization and stands that fall below are considered understocked.  Stands between the A and B curves are considered adequately stocked. Where  a particular stand might fall in the guide is based on basal area per  acre, number of trees per acre, and mean d.b.h. for trees in the main  canopy. Tables have been prepared for different stand ages, site and  stocking percent, and cubic and sawtimber yield (table 1) (43). Yields of  about 504 m³/ha (36,000 fbm/acre) at 50 years in nearly fully stocked  managed stands are entirely possible. The average white pine stand in New  England grows from 4.2 to 11.2 m³/ha (300 to 800 fbm/acre) per year  depending on age, site index, and stocking (41). Site index for eastern  white pine is determined from the average height of dominant trees at age  50 years.

    Table 1- Yields from fully stocked, natural stands of  eastern white pine in New England (41)            Site index at base age 50 years              Stand age (yr)  15 m or 50 ft  12 m or 70 ft  27 m or 90 ft              m³/ha      Sawtimber¹              40  108  209  405        60  236  456  -        80  349  674  -      100  440  852  -      Pulpwood²              20  100  137  187        40  247  339  464        60  334  458  628        80  388  533  731      100  425  583  800        fbm/acre      Sawtimber              40    7,729  14,948  28,909        60  16,858  32,604  -        80  24,898  48,152  -      100  31,460  60,845  -      Pulpwood              20  1,423  1,952    2,677        40  3,526  4,836    6,632        60  4,771  6,543    8,974        80  5,550  7,611  10,439      100  6,077  8,334  11,431      ¹Volume to a 15 cm (6.0 in)  diameter top outside bark- fbm measured using the International  0.25-inch log rule. 
²Volume to an 8 cm (3.0 in) diameter top inside bark.        For more detailed information, refer to publications on the growth and  yield of white pine in natural stands and plantations prepared  specifically for the various parts of the range (6,10,41,49,55,57).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Systematics and Taxonomy

A disjunct population of white pines in southern Mexico and Guatemala was first described as P. strobus var. chiapensis and is still treated as such by a few authors (e.g. Farjon 1997, Flora Neotropica Monograph 75: 215). It was raised to specific rank as P. chiapensis by Andresen (1964, Phytologia 10: 417), a treatment now accepted by a majority of authors and supported by genetic research, which shows it is very distinct genetically, sharing no alleles with P. strobus and forming a distinct clade of its own, sister to two clades of American and Asian species (Liston et al. 2003, Proc. Fourth International Conifer Conference: 107-114; Syring et al. 2007a, Systematic Biology 56: 163-181; Syring et al. 2007b, Syst. Bot. 32: 703-717).

Although fairly similar to P. strobus in foliage morphology, P. chiapensis differs clearly in cone morphology, here showing a much closer resemblance to several Eurasian white pines, notably P. peuce from SE Europe and P. dalatensis from Vietnam.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Michael Frankis

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fossil History

Paleontology

The genus Pinus was present by Cretaceous times, but identification of section Strobus from fossil seed cones of this age has been equivocal (Miller, 1977). Most paleobotanical data specifically on P. strobus deals with late Quaternary range shifts from refugia in the southeastern United States northward into the present range (summarized by MacDonald et al., 1998).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Concepts and Synonymy

The var. chiapensis was described by Martínez (1940) for disjunct populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala with slightly finer needles and slightly larger cones. Some botanists continue to maintain this as a separate variety (Farjon et al., 1997), but many others do not consider these differences discrete enough to warrant formal taxonomic recognition. Pinus monticola of the western United States also was treated as a variety of P. strobus by a few botanists in the past (P. strobus var. monticola (Douglas ex D. Don) Nutt.), but this view has been rejected universally.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Classification

Until recently, the taxonomic classification of Little and Crutchfield (1969) was still widely used, which involved subdivision of the genus into three subgenera and a complex series of sections and subsections. Subsequent studies, including analysis of molecular data resulted in the recognition of only two subgenera (Price et al., 2003), the so-called Soft or Haploxylon, Pines (subgenus Strobus) and the so-called Hard or Diploxylon Pines (subgenus Pinus), each of which still is divided into a complex series of sections and subsections. In either classification, P. strobus is the type of Pinus subgenus Strobus section Strobus subsection Strobi.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Physiology and Biochemistry

Phytochemical analyses have documented the heartwood phenolics (Erdtman, 1959; Norin, 1972) and the softwood oleoresins (summarized in Mirov, 1961, 1967) in the group. Volatile oils in the needles have been studied (Von Rudloff, 1975).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cell Biology

Chromosomal Data

n=12 (Baranec, 1979; Saylor, 1983); 2n=24 (Löve and Löve, 1980; Hindáková and Schwarzová, 1987; Hizume, 1988).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Population Differences    Early provenance tests by the USDA Forest Service and by Genys showed  that trees from the southern Appalachians grew more rapidly at a number of  test locations. In a followup test, Wright and others collected 177  seedlots from the southern Appalachians. After 12 years, the trees from  Georgia and parts of North Carolina and Tennessee grew most rapidly and  trees from West Virginia and Maryland grew most slowly wherever they were  tested. There are geographic differences in air pollution sensitivity,  flower production, winter injury, and susceptibility to blister rust  (4,27,35,73). White pine varies greatly in appearance in different parts  of its range, suggesting that unidentified ecological or geographical  races may exist (32). Likewise, trees immune to white pine blister rust  and weevil occur, suggesting the feasibility of selection propagation and  breeding of resistant varieties (72).

    Races and Hybrids    Eastern white pine is represented in the United States by the typical  variety, Pinus strobus var. strobus. Chiapas white pine,  P. strobus var. chiapensis, is native in the mountains of  southern Mexico and Guatemala. Four horticultural varieties have been  recognized in Connecticut (68).

    Eastern white pine crosses readily with western white pine (Pinus  monticola), Balkan pine (P. peuce), blue pine (P.  griffithii), and Japanese white pine (P. parviflora). It can  also be crossed with limber pine (P. flexilis) and Mexican white  pine (P. ayacahuite) (21). The cross P. strobus x griffithii  is more vigorous than P. strobus in Northern Ohio and more  winter hardy than P. griffithii (37).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus strobus L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Pinus strobus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus strobus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 29
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Reference: Grenandt et al., 2005.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

As a species, Pinus strobus is secure and is not considered to be of global conservation concern. Within its temperate North American range, the state of Indiana classifies the species as State-Rare. If the populations in southern Mexico and Guatemala are considered taxonomically distinct, then var. chiapensis is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN.

Within its temperate North American range, Peattie (1948) and others have noted that, following more than two centuries of commercial logging, few primary-growth stands still exist and few individuals can be found that have attained the historical maximum height of more than 40 m.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Stritch, L. & Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The vast extent of occurrence (EOO) in North America and the fact that the variety Pinus strobus var. strobus in many places is now again spreading and increasing, places it firmly as Least Concern. This assessment of the typical variety determines that of the entire species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
In North America this species is abundant over a huge range.

Population Trend
Increasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Cultivation

Pinus strobus is commonly cultivated as a shade and ornamental tree. Krüssmann (1985) listed 18 principal forms and cultivars and Dirr (1998) noted that the cultivars are too numerous to be listed in detail in his general volume on woody plants.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 3.9 of 5

Major Threats
The vast resources of timber available to European colonists from this large pine had been depleted towards the end of the nineteenth century. However, as regrowth occurred, this has not threatened the continued existence and occurrence of the species significantly. Hence, while old growth Eastern White Pine is now very rare, under the Red List Criteria P. strobus is not under threat. The situation with var. chiapensis in Mexico and Guatemala is more serious, with deforestation the main threat, followed by targeted logging of this valuable timber.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pests and potential problems

The white pine weevil is the tree's greatest insect pest affecting both timber quality and volume. Terminal leaders may be killed repeatedly and result in such serious stem crooks that the tree has reduced merchantable saw timber value.

The pales weevil is an insect that often attacks white pine seedlings in areas where white pine timber has been cut recently. Cone crops may be destroyed by the pine cone beetle. This insect compounds the problem of infrequent seed years and is a serious threat to white pine management.

Diseases, including white pine blister rust, red ring rot, root rot, wood decay, and certain needle fungi, cause losses in white pine stands. Such natural elements as snow, ice, and wind may also cause damage to white pine.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Suppliers

Too numerous to list. The species is available not only through plant nurseries but also through garden shops at large retailers.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Domestication

Long-cultivated. One of the common names, Weymouth’s pine, honors Lord Weymouth, who planted the tree extensively in England during the 1700s (Krüssmann, 1985).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Culture

Seeds of Pinus strobus germinate easily in a range of soils, although seedlings grow best in noncalcareous soils.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is known from several protected areas within its extensive range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management considerations

More info for the terms: fire management, frequency

The frequency of eastern white pine is lower in today's forests than in
presettlement forests.  Eastern white pine was heavily logged in the
1800's in the north-central United States.  Regeneration after the early
logging was poor because of the lack of seed trees and the destruction
of remaining seedlings and saplings by fire [39,41].  In the
northeastern United States, eastern white pine temporarily increased in
abundance through colonization of abandoned fields and pastures.  Many
of these stands reached commercial maturity by the early 1900's and were
harvested.  Hardwoods, which had invaded the understory, now dominate
many of these old-field sites [46].

The two-cut shelterwood method is recommended for maximizing
regeneration of eastern white pine.  The first cut removes 40 to 60
percent of the overstory, and the final cut occurs 5 to 10 years later
after seedlings are well established.  Established individuals respond
well to release [67].

Two of the more damaging pests of eastern white pine are the white pine
weevil (Pissodes strobi) and white pine blister rust (Cronartium
ribicola) [67,68].  Eastern white pine is infrequently planted in the
north-central region because of the inevitable damage caused by the rust
[40].  See Fire Management slot for control of the white pine cone
beetle (Conophthorus coniperda), which is often responsible for complete
crop failure.

The growth rate of all pine species in the New Jersey Pine Barrens
except eastern white pine has decreased since the 1950's; this decrease
in growth rate may be the caused by acid rain [22].  Eastern white pine
germination and emergence are not greatly affected by soil acidity
caused by acid rain [47,50].
  • 22.  Johnson, A. H.; Siccama, T. G.; Wang, D.; [and others]
  • 39.  Nowacki, Gregory J.; Abrams, Marc D. 1992. Community, edaphic, and        historical analysis of mixed oak forests of the Ridge and Valley        Province in central Pennsylvania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.        22: 790-800.  [19216]
  • 40.  Ohmann, Lewis F. 1979. Northeastern and north central forest types and        their management. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Evans, Keith E., compilers.        Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds:        Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January 23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen.        Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 22-31.  [18074]
  • 41.  Ohmann, Lewis F.; Ream, Robert R. 1971. Wilderness ecology: virgin plant        communities of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Res. Pap. NC-63. St.        Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central        Forest Experiment Station. 55 p.  [9271]
  • 46.  Raup, Hugh M. 1940. Old field forests of southeastern New England.        Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 21: 266-273.  [12135]
  • 47.  Raynal, D. J.; Roman, J. R.; Eichenlaub, W. M. 1982. Response of tree        seedlings to acid precipitation. I. Effect of substrate acidity on seed        germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 22(3): 377-383.        [12531]
  • 50.  Schier, George A. 1987. Germination and early growth of four pine        species on soil treated with simulated acid rain. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 17: 1190-1196.  [8632]
  • 67.  Wendel, G. W.; Della, Bianca, Lino; Russell, James; Lancaster, Kenneth        F. 1983. Eastern white pine including eastern hemlock. In: Burns,        Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types        of the United States. Agric. Handb. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-134.  [20409]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

There are no documented varieties for reforestation purposes. Local or regional ecotypes are typically utilized for this purpose. There are several varieties available for ornamental applications. Seeds and seedlings are available from most eastern conifer nurseries.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

White pine seedlings require weed control for the first few years after outplanting. Chemical and/or mechanical control can be used, preferably starting the year before planting.

Management of white pine should focus on thwarting the white pine weevil where straight trunks and tree form is desired. Growing white pine where there will be partial shade on the developing saplings and pole-sized trees (especially on the terminal leader) seems to reduce infestation by the weevil. Thus growing white pine in mixed uneven aged stands is a good idea to avoid this pest and those described below.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

White Pine prefers full to partial sunlight, well-drained conditions (moist to dry-mesic), and a rather loose soil that lacks clay. It adapts particularly well to soil containing sand or sandy loam with a pH of 4.0–7.0. Highly alkaline soil is not tolerated. White Pine is vulnerable to White Pine Blister Rust (an introduced disease), intense heat and drought, strong winds, and air pollution. It is fast-growing and widely cultivated, preferring a cool and humid climate.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: cover

Eastern white pine is used extensively for stabilizing strip-mine
spoils, especially in northern Appalachian coal fields.  Eastern white
pine has a lower soil pH limit of 4.0.  Seedlings tolerate limited shade
from herbaceous ground cover better than other pine species [58,64].
Eastern white pine growth is adversely affected by high levels of
soluble salts and by the depth of the mine soil.  These effects can be
avoided by selecting nonpyritic sandstone material for surface placement
and by minimizing soil compaction [58].

Eastern white pine planted on bituminous coal mine spoils in
Pennsylvania averaged 6.1 inches (15.5 cm) d.b.h. and 27 feet (8.2 m) in
height after 30 years [63].
  • 58.  Torbert, J. L.; Tuladhar, A. R.; Burger, J. A.; Bell, J. C. 1988.        Minesoil property effects on the height of ten-year-old white pine.        Journal of Environmental Quality. 17(2): 189-192.  [8697]
  • 63.  Vogel, Willis G. 1977. Revegetation of surface-mined lands in the East.        In: Forests for people: A challenge in world affairs: Proc. of the        Society of American Foresters 1977 national convention; 1977 October        2-6; Albuquerque, NM. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters:        167-172.  [9949]
  • 64.  Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the        eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 190 p.  [15576]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Eastern white pine provides food and habitat for numerous wildlife
species.  Songbirds and small mammals eat eastern white pine seeds.
Snowshoe hares, white-tailed deer, and cottontails browse the foliage;
the bark is eaten by various mammals [68].  Pocket gophers graze the
roots of seedlings and young trees [21].

Northeastern pine forests can support a rich community of breeding birds
[4].  Bald eagles build nests in living eastern white pine, usually at a
main branch located below the crown top [34].  Eastern white pine,
especially those with broken tops, provide valuable habitat for
cavity-nesting wildlife [10].

Young black bear cubs use large eastern white pine to climb to safety.
In northeastern Minnesota, black bear mothers and cubs spent more than
95 percent of the time in April and May within 600 feet (180 m) of
either an eastern white pine or an eastern hemlock larger than 20 inches
(50 cm) in d.b.h. [48].
  • 10.  DeGraaf, Richard M; Shigo, Alex L. 1985. Managing cavity trees for        wildlife in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 21 p.  [13481]
  • 21.  Huntly, Nancy; Inouye, Richard. 1988. Pocket gophers in ecosystems:        patterns and mechanisms. BioScience. 38(11): 786-793.  [1937]
  • 34.  Mathisen, John E. 1968. Identification of bald eagle and osprey nests in        Minnesota. Loon. 40(4): 113-114.  [13996]
  • 4.  Capen, David E. 1979. Management of northeastern pine forests for        nongame birds. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Evans, Keith E., compilers.        Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds:        Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January 23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen.        Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 90-109.  [18082]
  • 48.  Rogers, Lynn L.; Wilker, Gregory A.; Scott, Sally S. 1990. Managing        natural populations of black bears in wilderness. In: Lime, David W.,        ed. Managing America's enduring wilderness resource: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 September 11-17; Minneapolis, MN. St. Paul, MN:        University of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service; Minnesota        Agricultural Experiment Station: 363-366.  [15409]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wood Products Value

Eastern white pine is a valuable timber species in the eastern United
States and Canada.  The soft wood is of medium strength, easily worked,
and stains and finishes well.  It is used for doors, moldings, trim,
siding, panelling, cabinet work, and furniture [20,68].
  • 20.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]
  • 68.  Wendel, G. W.; Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Pinus strobus L.  eastern white        pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 476-488.  [13408]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Palatability

Eastern white pine browse is of intermediate preference to white-tailed
deer [12].  Although available, it was not browsed by moose in Ontario [6].
  • 12.  Fashingbauer, Bernard A.; Moyle, John B. 1963. Nutritive value of        red-osier dogwood and mountain maple as deer browse. Minnesota Academy        of Science Proceedings. 31(1): 73-77.  [9246]
  • 6.  Cumming, H. G. 1987. Sixteen years of moose browse surveys in Ontario.        Alces. 23: 125-156.  [8859]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Special Uses

Although the genus Pinus is used by wildlife for food and cover,  few specific observations of eastern white pine have been noted. Some  species of songbirds that consume seeds of white pine are the  yellow-bellied sapsucker, black-capped chickadee, white-breasted nuthatch,  pine warbler, pine grosbeak, and the red crossbill. Some mammals that eat  seeds, bark, and foliage of white pine are beaver, snowshoe hares, New  England cottontails, porcupine, red and gray squirrels, mice, and  white-tailed deer (48).

    White pines are useful in urban plantings. Trees grown from seeds  obtained in Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, or in adjacent regions of  New Brunswick, Maine, and New Hampshire may be more suitable than trees  obtained from other regions (27). They usually have more compact crowns  and are more resistant to snowbreak; they grow more slowly, have darker  blue-green color, and seem to be more resistant to air pollutants than  trees from other origins.

    White pine has been used extensively for stabilizing strip-mine spoils.  In the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, white pine survived well on  spoils that fell within the pH range 5.1 to 6.5, and growth was better on  lower slopes of the spoils than on upper slopes (18). On bituminous spoils  in West Virginia, white pine survived best on spoils having a pH greater  than 4.0 (13). Growth on the spoils was slow for the first 5 years, but  total height exceeded that of Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), and red  pine at 10 years.

    The bark of white pine is used as an astringent and an expectorant, and  the wood has been used to produce white pine tar, which is used as an  antiseptic, expectorant, and protective (38). White pine wood has medium  strength, is easily worked, and stains and finishes well. It is used for  furniture, patterns, matches, and many other items. White pine is also  planted for Christmas trees. The foliage has a good color and responds  well to shearing (19).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

G. W. Wendel

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Timber: The wood of white pine is light, durable, and easy to work. It is good lumber for toys, boxes, cabinet work, and similar items.

Christmas tree and ornamental: White pine is used occasionally in Christmas tree plantations and as ornamental planting in landscaping around homes and office buildings. It can also be sheared as a hedge.

Wildlife: It has fair wildlife value. Gray and red squirrels, deer, mice and 16 species of songbirds have been known to eat the seed.

Erosion control: White pine is frequently used for windbreaks and screens along fields new right-of-ways and around campsites.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS New York State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Where is it Grown

Pinus strobus is cultivated extensively as a shade tree in the United States and adjacent Canada, east of the Great Plains. It also has been grown in plantations for its lumber within this region. It apparently is no longer planted very often in the Old World.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ethnobotany

Daniel Moerman’s online database of Native American ethnobotanical uses includes 90 records for Pinus strobus (see also Moerman, 1998). The uses are too numerous to list fully here. Mainly, the bark was used in poultices for various ailments ranging from colds to coughs, pain, and skin disorders. An infusion of the bark also was ingested for coughs and as an emetic. An infusion of the young growth was used to treat a variety of ailments ranging from lung to kidney disorders and boiled young growth was used as an inhalant for coughs and colds. The pitch was applied to boils.

Eastern white pine is an important commercial timber species that produces superior-quality cut lumber for construction uses. The soft wood is easily worked, and the species also provides lumber for cabinetry, furniture-making, handcrafts, and other minor uses.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Toxicity

Pines in general are toxic. Cattle and to some extent sheep that ingest needles, young shoots, or bark during pregnancy are prone to producing weak or dead calves, apparently because some compounds in pines disrupt reproductive hormones (Burrows and Tyrl, 2001). However, apparently Pinus strobus in particular has not been studied. Most of the problems associated with this toxicity are in western states where other species of pines occur. In areas where other winter browse has been exhausted, deer that ingest pines apparently do not suffer any symptoms of poisoning.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

George Yatskievych

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Pinus strobus

Pinus strobus, commonly known as the eastern white pine, white pine, northern white pine, Weymouth pine, and soft pine[1] is a large pine native to eastern North America. It occurs from Newfoundland west through the Great Lakes region to southeastern Manitoba and Minnesota, and south along the Mississippi Basin and Appalachian Mountains to northernmost Georgia and Mississippi.[2]

This tree is known to the Native American Haudenosaunee (Iroquois nation) as the Tree of Peace. It is known as the Weymouth pine in the United Kingdom,[3] after George Weymouth who brought it to England in 1620.

Distribution[edit]

Native eastern white pine, Sylvania Wilderness, Michigan
Partial distribution map of Pinus strobus in North America

Pinus strobus is found in the Nearctic Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome of eastern North America. It prefers well-drained soil and cool, humid climates, but can also grow in boggy areas and rocky highlands. In mixed forests, this dominant tree towers over all others, including the large broadleaf hardwoods. It provides food and shelter for numerous forest birds, such as the Red Crossbill, and small mammals such as squirrels.

Eastern white pine forests originally covered much of northeastern North America. Only one percent of the old-growth forests remain after the extensive logging operations that existed from the 18th century into the early 20th century.

Old-growth forests, or virgin stands, are protected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Other protected areas with known virgin forests, as confirmed by the Eastern Native Tree Society, include: Algonquin Provincial Park, Quetico Provincial Park, and Algoma Highlands, Ontario; Huron Mountains, Estivant Pines, Porcupine Mountains State Park, and the Sylvania Wilderness Area in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; Hartwick Pines State Park in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan; Menominee Indian Reservation, northeastern Wisconsin; the Lost 40 Scientific and Natural Area (SNA) near Blackduck, and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Minnesota; White Pines State Park, Illinois; Cook Forest State Park, Hearts Content Scenic Area, and Anders Run Natural Area, Pennsylvania; and the Linville Gorge Wilderness, North Carolina.

Small groves or individual specimens of old-growth eastern white pines are found across the range of the species, including: Ordway Pines, Maine; Ice Glen, Massachusetts; and numerous sites in Adirondack Park, New York. Many sites with conspicuously large pines represent advanced old field succession. The tall white pine stands in the Mohawk Trail State Forest and at the William Cullen Bryant Homestead in Massachusetts are old field examples.

As an introduced species, Pinus strobus is now naturalizing in the Outer Eastern Carpathians subdivision of the Carpathian Mountains, in the Czech Republic and southern Poland. It has spread from specimens planted as ornamental trees in gardens and parks.

Description[edit]

P. strobus foliage

Like all members of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible, bluish-green, finely serrated, and 5–13 cm (2.0–5.1 in) long, and persist for 18 months, i.e. from the spring of one season to the autumn of the next, when they are shed by abscission.

P. strobus cone

The cones are slender, 8–16 cm (3.1–6.3 in) long (rarely longer than that) and 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) broad when open, and have scales with a rounded apex and slightly reflexed tip. The seeds are 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) long, with a slender 15–20 mm (0.59–0.79 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed. Cone production peaks every 3 to 5 years.

Mature trees can easily be 200 to 250 years old. Some white pines live over 400 years. A tree growing near Syracuse, New York was dated to 458 years in the late 1980s and trees in both Wisconsin and Michigan have approached 500 years in age.

Dimensions[edit]

Measuring the circumference of a white pine

The eastern white pine, Pinus strobus, has the distinction of being the tallest tree in eastern North America. In natural pre-colonial stands it is reported to have grown to as tall as 70 m (230 ft). There is no means of accurately documenting the height of trees from these times, but eastern white pine may have reached this height on rare occasions. Even greater heights have been attributed to the species referenced in popular accounts such as Robert Pike's "Tall Trees, Tough Men", but such accounts are unverifiable.

Total trunk volumes of the largest white pines are around 28 m3 (990 cu ft) with some past giants reaching a possible 37 or 40 m3 (1,300 or 1,400 cu ft). Photographic analysis of giant pines suggests volumes closer to 34 m3 (1,200 cu ft).

Height[edit]

Pinus strobus grows approximately 1 m (3.3 ft) per year between the ages of 15 and 45 years, with slower height increments before and after that age range.[4] The current tallest eastern white pines reach between 50–57.55 m (164.0–188.8 ft), as determined by the NTS—Native Tree Society.[5] Three locations in the Southeastern United States and one site in the Northeastern United States have been identified with trees reaching 55 m (180 ft) tall.

The southern Appalachians have the most locations and the tallest trees in the present day range of Pinus strobus. One survivor is a specimen known as the "Boogerman Pine" in the Cataloochee Valley, of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. At 57.55 m (188.8 ft) tall, it is the tallest accurately measured tree in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It has been climbed and measured by tape drop by the NTS. Before it lost its top in Hurricane Opal in October 1995, the Boogerman Pine was 63 m (207 ft) tall, as determined by Will Blozan and Robert Leverett using ground-based measurement methods.

The tallest eastern white pines in Hartwick Pines State Park of northern Michigan reach 45–48 m (148–157 ft) in height.

In the Northeasern U.S., 8 sites in four states currently have trees over 48 m (157 ft) in height, as confirmed by NTS. The Cook Forest State Park of Pennsylvania has the largest collection of 45 m (148 ft) eastern white pines in the Northeast, with 110 trees measuring that height or more. The park's "Longfellow Pine" is the tallest eastern white pine in the Northeast currently. It has a height of 55.96 m (183.6 ft), determined by being climbed and measured by tape drop.[6]

The Mohawk Trail State Forest of Massachusetts has 83 trees reaching 45 m (148 ft) in height or more, of which six exceed 48.8 m (160 ft). This is the largest collection of 45 m (148 ft) tall eastern white pines in New England. The "Jake Swamp Tree" located here is 51.54 m (169.1 ft) tall.[7] It is the tallest accurately measured tree of any species within New England.[8] Precise measurements are maintained on this tree by NTS.

A private property in Claremont, New Hampshire has about sixty white pines in the 45 m (148 ft) height range.[citation needed] Beyond the above locations, sites with 45 m (148 ft) specimens typically have from one to fifteen trees, with most sites having less than ten trees.[citation needed]

Diameter[edit]

Diameters of the larger pines range from 1.0-1.6 m (3–5 ft), which translates to a circumference (girth) range of 3.1–5.0 m (10.2–16.4 ft). However, singled-trunk white pines in both the Northeast and Southeast with diameters over 1.45 m (4 ft 9 in) are exceedingly rare. Notable big pine sites of 40 ha (99 acres) or less will often have no more than 2 or 3 trees in the 1.2 to 1.4 m (3 ft 11 in to 4 ft 7 in) diameter class.

White pine boughs, showing yellowing and abscission of older foliage in the autumn. Upstate New York, USA.

Unconfirmed reports from colonial America gave diameters of virgin white pines of up to 2.4 m (8 ft).[9]

Mortality and disease[edit]

An illustration dated 1902, showing a variety of insect pests affecting eastern white pine

Because the eastern white pine tree is somewhat resistant to fire, mature survivors are able to re-seed burned areas. In pure stands mature trees usually have no branches on the lower half of the trunk. The white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi) and White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola), an introduced fungus, can damage or kill these trees.

Blister rust[edit]

Mortality from White Pine Blister Rust in mature pine groves was often 50–80% during the early 20th century. The fungus must spend part of its life cycle on alternate hosts of the Ribes genus, the native gooseberry or wild currant. Foresters proposed that if all the alternate host plants were removed that White Pine Blister Rust might be eliminated. A very determined campaign was mounted and all land owners in commercial pine growing regions were encouraged to uproot and kill all native gooseberry and wild currant plants.[9][10] The ramifications for wildlife and habitat ecology were of less concern at the time than timber industry protection.

Today native wild currants are relatively rare plants in New England, and planting wild currants or wild gooseberries is strongly discouraged, or even illegal in some jurisdictions. As an alternative, new strains of commercial currants have been developed which are highly resistant to White Pine Blister Rust. Possibly due to hard work of the foresters, mortality in White Pines from rust is only about 3% today.[10]

Uses[edit]

Masts[edit]

During the age of sailing ships, tall white pines with high quality wood were known as mast pines. Marked by agents of the Crown in colonial times with the broad arrow, they were reserved for the British Royal Navy.

The British built special barge-like vessels which could carry up to 50 pine trunks destined to be ship masts. The wood was often squared immediately after felling to fit in the holds of ships better.[9] A 30 m (100 ft) mast was about 91 cm × 91 cm (3 ft × 3 ft) at the butt and 61 cm × 61 cm (2 ft × 2 ft) at the top, while a 37 m (120 ft) mast was a giant 1.2 m × 1.2 m (4 ft × 4 ft) at the bottom and 76 cm (30 in) at the top. The original masts on the USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) were single trees but later they were laminated to better withstand cannonballs.

Marking of large specimens by the Crown was very controversial in the colonies, and their de facto seizure was a point of great contention among the colonists and played a significant role in the events leading to the American Revolution. During the American Revolution it became a great sport for the patriots to see how many of the King’s trees one could cut down and haul off.[11][12]

An unusual large, lone, white pine was found in colonial times, in coastal South Carolina along the Black River (far south of its normal range), and the king's mark was put upon this particular tree, giving rise to the town of Kingstree.

Lumber[edit]

Board of Pinus strobus

Eastern white pine is now widely grown in plantation forestry within its native area. The species was imported in 1620 to England by Captain George Weymouth, who planted it for a timber crop, but had little success because of White Pine Blister Rust disease.

Old growth pine in the Americas, of various Pinus species, was a highly desired wood since huge, knot-free boards were the rule rather than the exception. Pine was common and easy to cut, thus many colonial homes used pine for paneling, floors and furniture. Pine was also a favorite tree of loggers since pine logs can still be processed in a lumber mill a year or more after being cut down. In contrast, most hardwood trees such as cherry, maple, oak, and ash must be cut into 1” thick boards immediately after felling or large cracks will develop in the trunk which can render the wood worthless.[9]

Freshly cut eastern white pine is creamy white or a pale straw color but pine wood which has aged many years tends to darken to a deep rich tan. Occasionally one can find light brown pine boards with unusual yellowish-golden or reddish-brown hues. This is the famous "pumpkin pine". It is generally thought that slow growing pines in old-growth forests accumulate colored products in the heartwood, but genetic factors and soil conditions may also play a role in rich color development.[11]

Although eastern white pine was frequently used for flooring in buildings constructed before the U.S. Civil War, the wood is soft and consequently you will find cup-shaped depressions from normal wear and tear on almost every old white pine floor. George Washington realized this would happen and wisely made his Mount Vernon floors out of yellow pine which is much harder.[9]

This wood is also favoured by pattermakers for its easy working.

Foods and medicines[edit]

Closeup of bark

Eastern white pine needles contain five times the amount of Vitamin C (by weight) of lemons[citation needed] and make an excellent herbal tea. The cambium is edible. It is also a source of resveratrol. Linnaeus noted in the 18th century that cattle and pigs fed pine bark bread grew well, but he personally did not like the taste. Caterpillars of Lusk's Pinemoth (Coloradia luski) have been found to feed only on Pinus strobus.

Pine tar is produced by slowly burning pine roots, branches, or small trunks in a partially smothered flame. Pine tar mixed with beer can be used to remove tapeworms (flat worms) or nematodes (round worms). Pine tar mixed with sulfur is useful to treat dandruff, and marketed in present day products. Pine tar can also be processed to make turpentine.[13]

Native American traditional uses

The name “Adirondack” is an Iroquois word which means tree-eater and referred to their neighbors (more commonly known as the Algonquians) who collected the inner bark of this tree, Picea rubens, and others during times of winter starvation. The white soft inner bark (cambial layer) was carefully separated from the hard, dark brown bark and dried. When pounded this product can be used as flour or added to stretch other starchy products.[14][15]

The young staminate cones were stewed by the Ojibwe Indians with meat and were said to be sweet and not pitchy. In addition, the seeds are sweet and nutritious, but not as tasty as those of some of the western nut pines.[14]

Pine resin (sap) has been used by various tribes to waterproof baskets, pails, and boats. The Chippewa also used pine resin to successfully treat infections and even gangrenous wounds.[14] This is because pine resin apparently has a number of quite efficient antimicrobials. Generally a wet pulp from the inner bark was applied to wounds, or pine tar mixed with beeswax or butter and used as a salve was, to prevent infection.

Cultivation[edit]

Pinus strobus is cultivated by plant nurseries as an ornamental tree, for planting in gardens and parks.[16] The species is low-maintenance and rapid growing as a specimen tree. With regular shearing it can also be trained as a hedge. Some cultivars are used in bonsai. [17]

Cultivars[edit]

Cultivars have been selected for small to dwarf mature forms, and foliage color characteristics.[17] They include:

Christmas trees[edit]

Smaller specimens are popular as live Christmas Trees. Eastern white pines are noted for holding their needles well, even long after being harvested. They also are well suited for people with allergies, as they give little to no aroma. A standard 1.8-meter (6 ft) tree takes approximately 6 to 8 years to grow in ideal conditions. Sheared varieties are usually desired because of their stereotypical Christmas Tree conical shape, as naturally grown ones can become too thick for larger ornaments, or grow bushy in texture.[18] The branches of the Eastern White Pine are also widely used in making holiday wreaths and garland because of their soft, feathery needles.

Symbolism[edit]

Eastern White Pine is: the provincial tree of Ontario, Canada;[19] and the state tree of Maine and Michigan, United States. Its "pine cone and tassel" is the state flower of Maine.[20]

Sprigs of Eastern White Pine were worn as badges as a symbol of Vermont identity during the Vermont Republic and appears in a stained glass window at the Vermont State House, on the Flag of Vermont and the naval ensign of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

The tree is known to the Native American Haudenosaunee (Iroquois nation) as the Tree of Peace.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Pinus strobus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). 2013, August 12 accessed 12 August 2013
  2. ^ USDA: Native distribution map for Pinus strobus, accessed 1.13.2013
  3. ^ Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Craig Tufts; Daniel Mathews; Gil Nelson; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Terry Purinton; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 77. ISBN 1-4027-3875-7. 
  4. ^ Beck, D.E. (1971). "Height-Growth Patterns and Site Index of White Pine in the Southern Appalachians". Forest Science 17 (2): 252–260. 
  5. ^ NTS—Native Tree Society
  6. ^ Luthringer, D.J. 2009. Big Trees of Cook Forest. Pennsylvania Forests 100(3):8-12.
  7. ^ Jake Swamp Tree: 51.54m in August 2008.
  8. ^ The Jake Swamp Tree was climbed and measured by tape drop in November 1998 and October 2001. It was scheduled to be climbed and measured a third time in November 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ling, H. 2003. The Eastern White Pine. Native Plant Society of NJ Newsletter Winter 2003 pp 2–3.
  10. ^ a b Lombard K. and J. Bofinger. 1999. White Pine Blister Rust. NH Div. of Forests and Lands.
  11. ^ a b Nizalowski, E. 1997. The mystery of the Pumpkin Pine. Newark Valley Historical Society, Newark, NY.
  12. ^ Sloane, E. 1965. A Reverence for Wood. Balantine Books, NY.
  13. ^ Erichsen-Brown, C. 1979. Medicinal and Other Uses of North American Plants. Dover Publications, NY.
  14. ^ a b c Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn), accessed 1.13.2013
  15. ^ Fernald, M., A. Kinsey, and R. Rollins. 1943. Edible Wild Plants. Harper & Row, NY.
  16. ^ from Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (NPIN); species account, horticultural information, + photographs . accessed 1.13.2013
  17. ^ a b MBG—Missouri Botanical Garden Kemper Center for Home Gardening: Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) . accessed 1.13.2013
  18. ^ Christmas tree.org
  19. ^ Ontario symbols . accessed 1.13.2013
  20. ^ Netstate.com: Maine State Flower
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

References and More Information

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name of eastern white pine is Pinus
strobus L. [31]. Little [31] recognizes two varieties: the typical
variety and Chiapas white pine (Pinus strobus var. chiapensis Mart.).
Chiapas white pine, native to the mountains of southern Mexico and
Guatemala, is also recognized as a separate species, Pinus chiapensis
(Mart.) Andresen [43]. This writeup discusses the typical variety,
eastern white pine.
  • 31.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952]
  • 43.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

eastern white pine
northern white pine
white pine
northern pine
soft pine
Weymouth pine
pin blanc

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Strobus strobus (L.) Small

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!