The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • J.F. Arnold. 1785. In: Reise Mariazell: 8, t. s.n.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
    1. Al-mana, Fahed A., and Houchang Khatamian. 1984. Effect of selected  soilless media and slow-release fertilizers on the growth and nutrient  levels of Austrian pine seedlings. Hortscience 19(3):526.
    3. Arbez, M., and C. Millier. 1971. Contribution a l'étude  de la variabilité géographique de Pinus nigra Arn.  Añnales des Sciences Forestiéres 28:23-49.
    5. Aughanbaugh, J. E., H. R. Muckley, and O. D. Diller. 1958.  Performance records of woody plants in the Secrest Arboretum.  Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Departmental Series 41. Columbus.  90 p.
    7. Barrick, W. E., J. A. Flore, and Harold Davidson. 1979. Deicing salt  spray injury in selected Pinus spp. Journal of the American  Society for Horticultural Science 104:617-622.
    9. Blecic, V. 1967. Gymnospermae. Catalogus Florae Jugoslaviae 1-2:8-9.  (Ljubljana, Yugoslavia).
    11. Caborn, J. M. 1965. Shelterbelts and windbreaks. Faber and Faber,  Ltd., London. 288 p.
    13. Caput, C., Y. Belot, D. Auclair, and N. Decourt. 1978. Absorption of  sulphur dioxide by pine needles leading to acute injury. Environmental  Pollution 16:3-15.
    15. Clement, A., and S. P. Gessel. 1985. N.S, P status and protein  synthesis in the foliage of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.)  Karst) and Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold var. nigra).  Plant and Soil 85:345-359.
    17. Cordell, Charles E., and Darroll D. Skilling. 1975. Cylindrocladium  root rot. In Forest nursery diseases in the United States. p.  23-26. G. W. Peterson and R. S. Smith, Jr., tech. coords. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 470. Washington, DC. 125  p.
    19. Cown, D. J. 1974. Physical properties of Corsican pine grown in New  Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry 4:76-93.
    21. Critchfield, William B., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1966. Geographic  distribution of the pines of the world. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Miscellaneous Publication 991. Washington, DC. 97 p.
    23. Dallimore, W., and A. Bruce Jackson. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae  and Ginkgoaceae. 4th ed., revised by S. G. Harrison. Edward Arnold,  Ltd., London. 729 p.
    25. Delevoy, G. 1949. À propos de la systématique de Pinus  nigra Arnold. Travaux Station de Recherches, Série B 12.  Groenendaal, Belgique. 33 p.
    27. Delevoy, G. 1949. Contribution à l'étude de quelques  variétés de Pinus nigra en Belgique. 1. De  l'influence de l'origine des graines. Travaux Station de Recherches, Série  B 8. Groenendaal, Belgique. 15 p.
    29. Delevoy, G. 1950. Contribution à l'étude de quelques  variétés de Pinus nigra en Belgique. Bulletin de  la Société Centre Forestière de Belgique 57:49-64. 
    31. Duffield, J. W. 1952. Relationship and species hybridization in the  genus Pinus. Zeitschrift für Forstgenetik und  Forstpflanzenzüchtung 1:93-100.
    33. Duffield, J. W., and E. B. Snyder. 1958. Benefits from hybridizing  American forest tree species. Journal of Forestry 56:809-815.
    35. Elkiey, T., D. P. Ormrod, and B. Marie. 1982. Foliar sorption of  sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone by ornamental woody plants.  Hortscience 17(3):358-360.
    37. Erdman, Gayne G. 1966. Promising conifers for western Iowa. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-8. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 8 p.
    39. Fineschi, S. 1984. Determination of the origin of an isolated group  of trees of Pinus nigra through enzyme gene markers. Silvae  Genetica 33:169-172.
    41. Freeland, R. 0. 1944. Apparent photosynthesis in some conifers during  the winter. Plant Physiology 19:179-185.
    43. Fukarek, P. 1958. Die Standortstrassen der Schwarzföhre (Pinus  nigra Arn.). Centralblatt fuer das gesamte Forstwesen 75:203-207.
    45. Goor, A. Y., and C. W. Barney. 1976. Forest tree planting in and  zones. Arnold Press, New York. 504 p.
    47. Heit, C. E. 1958. The effect of light and temperature on germination  of certain hard pines and suggested methods for laboratory testing.  Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 48:111-117.
    49. Heit, C. W. 1967. Propagation from seed. Part 10. Storage methods of  conifer seeds. American Nurseryman 126(8):14-15, 38-54.
    51. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    53. Johnson, C. L. 1976. Factors affecting the establishment and  distribution of Corsican pine natural regeneration at Kolkham Nature  Reserve. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 70(2):95-102.
    55. Kaya, Z., K. K. Ching, and S. G. Stafford. 1985. A statistical  analysis of karyotypes of European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold)  from different sources. Silvae Genetica 34:148-156.
    57. Keys, Roy N., and Franklin C. Cech. 1977. Evaluation of Austrian pine  seed sources on amended and unamended strip mine spoils. In Proceedings,  Twenty-fifth Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, July  27-29, 1977, Orono, ME. p. 104-115. University of Maine School of Forest  Resources, Orono.
    59. Kolevska-Pletikapic, B., S. Jelaska, J. Berljak, and M. Vidakovic.  1983. Bud and shoot formation in juvenile tissue culture of Pinus  nigra. Silvae Genetica 32:115-119.
    61. Krugman, Stanley L., and James L. Jenkinson. 1974. Pinus L.  pine. In Seeds of the woody plants in the United States. p.  598-638. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    63. Lee, Chen Hui. 1968. Geographic variation in European black pines.  Silvae Genetica 17:165-172.
    65. Lee, Chen Hui. 1970. Response of different European black pine  provenances to nitrogen fertilization. Silvae Genetica 19:122-123.
    67. Lee, Chen Hui, 1979. Absence of growth-wood property correlation in  twenty-seven black pine seed sources. Wood and Fiber 11:22-28.
    69. Liddicoet, A. R., and F. I. Righter. 1960. Trees of the Eddy  Arboretum, Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, California. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Paper 43. Pacific Southwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 41 p.
    71. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native  and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  541. Washington, DC. 375 p.
    73. McWilliam, J. R. 1959. Interspecific incompatibility in Pinus.  American Journal of Botany 46:425-433.
    75. Merrill, W., L. Zang, K. Bowen, and B. R. Kistler. 1979. Naemacyclus  minor needlecast in Pinus nigra in Pennsylvania. Plant  Disease Reporter 63:994.
    77. Miller, Hugh G., John D. Miller, and Jean M. Cooper. 1980, Biomass  and nutrient accumulation at different growth rates in thinned  plantations of Corsican pine. Forestry 53:23-39.
    79. Mirov, N. T. 1967. The genus Pinus. Arnold Press, New York  602 p.
    81. Morris, R. W., W. B. Critchfield, and D. P. Fowler. 1980. The  putative Austrian x red pine hybrid: a test of paternity based on  allelic variation at enzyme-specifying loci. Silvae Genetica 29:93-100.
    83. Morrow, Robert R. 1975. Austrian pine: no substitute for red pine.  Journal of Forestry 73:656.
    85. Nicholls, Thomas H., and George W. Hudler. 1971. Dothistroma pini  on Pinus nigra in Minnesota. Plant Disease Reporter 55:1040.
    87. Nikolic, D., and N. Tucic. 1983. Iso enzyme variation within and  among populations of European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold).  Silvae Genetics. 32:80-89.
    89. Peterson, Glenn W. 1962. Root lesion nematode infestation and control  in a plains forest tree nursery. USDA Forest Service, Research Note 75.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 2  p.
    91. Peterson, Glenn W. 1975. Dothistroma needle blight of pines. In  Forest nursery diseases in the United States. p. 72-75. G. W.  Peterson and R. S. Smith, Jr., tech. coords. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 470. Washington, DC.
    93. Peterson, Glenn W. 1977. Infection, epidemiology, and control of  diplodia blight of Austrian, ponderosa, and Scots pine. Phytopathology  67:511-514.
    95. Peterson, Glenn W., and Ralph A. Read. 1971. Resistance to Dothistroma  pini within geographic sources of Pinus nigra. Phytopathology  61:149-150.
    97. Pool, Raymond J. 1961. Handbook of Nebraska trees. University of  Nebraska Conservation and Survey Division, Bulletin 32. Lincoln. 179 p.
    99. Read, Ralph A. 1958. Great Plains shelterbelt in 1954. University of  Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 441. Lincoln. 125 p.
    101. Read, Ralph A. 1976. Austrian (European black) pine in eastern  Nebraska; a provenance test. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-180.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 8  p.
    103. Rehder, Alfred. 1940. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs in North  America. 2d ed. Macmillan, New York. 996 p.
    105. Righter, F. I., and J. W. Duffield. 1951. Interspecific hybrids in  pines. Journal of Heredity 42:75-80.
    107. Röhrig, E. von. 1966. European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold)  and its forms. Part II. First results from provenance experiments.  Silvae Genetica 15:21-26.
    109. Röhrig, E. von. 1969. European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold)  and its forms. Part III. Experiments with seedlings of different  provenances. Silvae Genetica 18:92-94.
    111. Rouse, G. D. 1978. Some investigations into the girth increment of  Corsican pine at Bristol Forest. Quarterly Journal of Forestry  70(3):139-142.
    113. Sander, Donald H. 1963. Height-age curves for Austrian pine in  windbreaks on loess soils of Nebraska. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note RM-13. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 2 p.
    115. Schütt, P. 1959. Züchtung mit Kiefern Teil 2. Kreuzungen.  Resistenzzuchtung und zytologie. Mitteilungen der  Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst-und Holzwirt shaft 42. Forstgenetik  und Forstpflanzenzuchtung. p. 1-40.
    117. Shaw, George Russell. 1914. The genus Pinus. Arnold Arboretum  Publication 5. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 96 p.
    119. Skilling, Darroll D. 1975. Lophodermium, needle cast of pines. In  Forest nursery diseases in the United States. p. 67-68. G. W.  Peterson and R. S. Smith, Jr., tech. coords. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 470. Washington, DC. 125 p.
    121. Smith, J. R., and B. W. Ferry. 1979. The effects of simazine, applied  for weed control, on the mycorrhizal development of Pinus seedlings.  Annals of Botany 43:93-99.
    123. Tinus, Richard W., and Stephen E. McDonald. 1979. How to grow tree  seedlings in containers in greenhouses. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report RM-60. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Fort Collins, CO. 256 p.
    125. Tobolski, James J., and M. Thompson Conkle. 1977. Enzyme  identification of Austrian x Japanese red pine hybrids in seed from  mixed pollen controlled crosses. In Proceedings, Tenth Central  States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, September 22-23, 1976. p.  35-41. Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources,  West Lafayette, IN.
    127. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1986. Twenty-year performance of Scotch,  European black (Austrian), red, and jack pines in eastern Nebraska. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper RM-267. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 14 p.
    129. Vidakovic, Mirko. 1958. Investigations on the intermediate type  between the Austrian and Scots pine. Silvae Genetica 7:12-19.
    131. Vidakovic, Mirko. 1966. Some characteristics of the needle  structure and growth in hybrids between Austrian pine and Japanese red  pine. Silvae Genetica 15:155-160.
    133. Vidakovic, Mirko. 1974. Genetics of European black pine  (Pinus nigra Am.). Annales Forestales 6:57-86.
    135. Wheeler, N. C., H. B. Kriebel, C. H. Lee, and others. 1976. 15-year  performance of European black pine in provenance tests in North Central  United States. Silvae Genetica 25:1-6.
    137. Wright, Jonathan W., and Ira Bull. 1962. Geographic variation in  European black pine: two-year results. Forest Science 8:32-42.
    139. Wright, Jonathan W., and W. J. Gabriel. 1958. Species hybridization  in the hard pines, series Sylvestris. Silvae Genetica 7:109-115.
    141. Wright, Jonathan W., Walter A. Lemmien, and David S. Canavera. 1969.  Abundant natural hybridization between Austrian and Japanese red pines  in southern Michigan. Forest Science 15:269-274.
    143. York, H. H., and E. W. Littlefield. 1942. The naturalization of  Scotch pine, northeastern Oneida County. Journal of Forestry 40:552-559.


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