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Overview

Brief Summary

Pinaceae -- Pine family

    David F. Van Haverbeke

    European black pine (Pinus nigra), also called Austrian pine,  was one of the early tree introductions into the United States, first  reported in cultivation in 1759 (52). Black pine was one of the first  conifers tested for adaptability in the Sandhills of Nebraska in the 1891  Bruner plantation, Holt County, and in 1909 on the Nebraska National  Forest. It was also planted by homesteaders on the Great Plains in the  early 1900's to provide beauty and protection from wind and snow on the  treeless prairies.

    The most common seed sources of European black pine introduced into the  United States have been from Austria and the Balkans (69). Sources from  other parts of the natural range are relatively scarce in this country,  except in a few arboreta. The best of these, however, grow as much as 50  percent faster than the typical Austrian sources. Today, European black  pine is one of the most common introduced ornamentals in the United  States.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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Not only is black pine more resistant to sea wind than the Scots pine. The Corsican black pine can reach the ripe age of 600 years! Understandably, most of the conifers planted in the dunes are black pine species. Nevertheless, they don't grow well if they receive the full blast of sea wind and therefore are often sheltered by a stretch of deciduous trees. Thanks to these pines, there are many new species of birds, plants and mushrooms living and growing in the dunes and on the Wadden Islands. Besides the Corsican pines, Austrian pines are also a common species found planted in Dutch forests.
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© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

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Distribution

European black pine is native to Europe and Asia. Its range there
extends from Spain and Morocco east to eastern Turkey, south to Cypress,
and north to northeastern Austria and the Crimea, Russia. In the United
States European black pine widely planted in northern states in New
England, around the Great Lakes, and in the Northwest. It has
naturalized in New England and the Great Lakes States [21].
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 50 m in native range; bark gray or dark brown; branchlets pale brown or orange-brown, glabrous; winter buds ovoid or cylindric-ovoid, slightly resinous. Needles 2 per bundle, pale or dark green, straight or curved, 4-19 cm × 1-2 mm, somewhat rigid, resin canals 3-17, median, base with persistent sheath. Seed cones subsessile, yellowish or pale brown, shiny, 3-8 × 2-4 cm, deciduous. Apophyses slightly or obtusely keeled; umbo mucronate.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Description

European black pine is an introduced, medium-sized, two-needle pine [7].
Mature height (approximately 80 years of age [21]) ranges from 66 to 165
feet (20-50 m) [11]. Some characters vary depending on the subspecific
taxon; the type variety has dark brown to black bark that is widely
split by flaking fissures into scaly plates [14]. The bark becomes
increasingly creviced with age [17]. European black pine is
fast growing and usually has a pyramidal form. It has deep lateral
roots. European black pine is long lived; harvest rotation times of up
to 360 years have been used in Europe [21].
  • 11. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380]
  • 14. Mitchell, Alan F. 1972. Conifers in the British Isles: A descriptive handbook. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 33. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 322 p. [20571]
  • 17. Rose, C. I. 1979. Observations on the ecology and conservation value of native and introduced tree species. Quarterly Journal of Forestry. 73(4): 219-229. [22219]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]
  • 7. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]

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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds green, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The wide but fragmented (disjunct) range of P. nigra throughout S Europe and Turkey guarantees a diverse ecology. It is generally a lower montane species, but around the Black Sea it is found in hills. It grows on a variety of soils, from podzolic sands to limestone, often dependent on region and climate. It can form pure stands (which may have been helped by foresters), but is more commonly associated with Pinus sylvestris throughout its range, while regionally P. halepensis, P. brutia, P. mugo, P. pinea, P. peuce, or P. heldreichii can be found with it. It is more tolerant to maritime influences like salt-laden winds than P. sylvestris, so it often occurs closer to the sea. The geographic variation is partly ecologically determined, with subsp. laricio more salt tolerant than subsp. nigra, which occurs further inland. Undergrowth in dense pine forests dominated by this species is usually sparse; more often it forms a mozaic with heathland (Erica, Calluna, Vaccinium), which can also be present under more open canopies after selective felling or natural disturbance. The extensive plantations and forest management of this species in Europe over several centuries have made the distinctions with natural forests less clear.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: natural

In Europe trees usually associated with European black pine include
Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), Swiss mountain pine (P. mugo), Aleppo
pine (P. halepinsis), Italian stone pine (P. pinea), and Heldreich pine
(P. heldreichii). In the United States where it has become naturalized,
European black pine may be developing natural associations [21].
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Habitat characteristics

European black pine is mainly suited to northern temperate climate zones
in the United States; it does not grow well in the southern states [21].
Different provenances (seed sources by geographic area) or varieties are
adapted to different soil types: Austrian and Pyrenees pines grow well
on a wide range of soil types, Corsican pine grows poorly on
limestone-derived soils, and Crimean pine grows well on poorer,
limestone-derived soils. Most provenances will also show good growth on
podzolic soils. Whatever the soil type, however, the soils need to be
deep for good growth [11,21]. European black pine grows well on high pH
soils in New England. Some provenances exhibit better winter hardiness
than others [21].

In Europe, European black pine is found at elevations ranging from 820
to 5,910 feet (250-1,800 m) [21].
  • 11. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch

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Soils and Topography

European black pine is adapted to many soil types and topographic  habitats. In its native range the species commonly is separated into three  geographic groupings: western, central, and eastern. Sources from southern  France and Spain, the western group, often are indifferent to soil type;  sources from Corsica, Italy, and Sicily, the central group, grow poorly on  limestone soils; while sources from the Balkans and the Crimea, U.S.S.R.,  the eastern group, appear to do well on the poorer limestone soils (31).  Black pine also grows well on podzolic soils (8).

    In England, Austrian material does well as a shelterbelt tree in exposed  situations near the sea on light, dry, shallow soils, sands, chalks, and  limestone. It is less well-suited than Corsican strains in infertile, "stiff,"  or wet soils (6).

    Although European black pine often is found on poor, calcareous, sandy,  and even pure limestone soils, it requires a deep soil. On good sites,  Italian, Sicilian, and Corsican strains are fast growing (up to 40 m or  131 ft tall) and straight (23,40).

    In Europe, black pine is found at elevations ranging from 250 to 1800 m  (820 to 5,910 ft). In Austria, it is found on poor dolomite and limestone  sites from 260 to 500 m (850 to 1,640 ft) and on good soils from 300 to  700 m (980 to 2,300 ft); at about 610 m (2,000 ft) in the Dinaric Alps of  the Balkans; at 1200 m (3,940 ft) in the Sierra de Segura of southeastern  Spain; and from 900 to 1800 m (2,950 to 5,910 ft) on Corsica (40).

    In the United States the major experience with European black pine has  been with Austrian sources. Most planting stock is provided by private  nurseries, and several million trees are produced annually in the  Northeastern States. The species has been especially successful in the  Northeast on soils of high pH in the southern part of the area formerly  planted to red pine (Pinus resinosa) (69). There is evidence,  however, that black pine is not a good choice to replace red pine on many  northeastern sites (42). After 21 growing seasons, black pine averaged  about 2.1 m (7 ft) shorter and 3.2 cm (1.25 in) less in d.b.h. on several  New York soil types.

    In the Great Plains region, European black pine is not a demanding  species and is being planted on soils of the orders Aridisols, Entisols,  Mollisols, and Vertisols. More specifically it grows well throughout a  broad range of soils including sandy loams, silty clays, and calcareous  soils. It is about as adaptable to most Great Plains windbreak and  shelterbelt sites as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), although on  the very poor sites it suffers considerable mortality. Once established,  however, the rate of height growth is good, and density and form of the  crown are superior to ponderosa pine (50). Survival, height, vigor, and  crown development throughout the Great Plains region are best in deep,  permeable, well-drained, and mostly sandy loams along river lowlands and  stream valleys where the water table is 6.1 m (20 ft) or less below the  surface; they are poorest on shallow, sandy, or silty soils underlain by  claypan or gravel.

    After early success in the turn of the century plantings in the Nebraska  Sandhills, black pine was not considered as desirable for extensive  plantings as eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), jack pine  (Pinus banksiana), or ponderosa pine. In Iowa, black pine was  reported to be tolerant of high-lime soils, where survival and growth were  best on western and northern exposures (19).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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Climate

In parts of its native European habitat, black pine grows in a cool to  cold temperate climate (23). The northern varieties are very frost-hardy,  withstanding temperatures of -30° C (-22° F), and the southern  varieties tolerate -7° C (19° F) temperatures. Annual  precipitation varies from 610 to 1020 mm (24 to 40 in). The species has  been shown to carry on photosynthesis at -5° C (23° F), with  respiration still detectable at -19° C (-2° F) (21). Black pine  withstands the weight of ice well and is considered hardy except in the  coldest, hottest, and driest regions.

    In the United States, black pine is mainly suited to Climatic Zone IV,  which includes most of Nova Scotia, southern Maine, New Hampshire,  Vermont, New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, northern Indiana, northern  Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, northern Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado,  Utah, Idaho, Montana, southwestern Alberta, and central British Columbia  (52). It has either failed or has performed poorly in the southern states  of Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, Georgia, northern Florida, and  Arkansas.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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Habitat & Distribution

Widely cultivated. Beijing Shi, Hubei (Wuhan Shi), Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang [native to NW Africa, SW Asia, S Europe]
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita singeri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus nigra
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Anungitea dematiaceous anamorph of Anungitea continua is saprobic on dead, fallen needle of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Pinus nigra

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Chroogomphus rutilus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus nigra
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous pycnium of Coleosporium tussilaginis parasitises live needle of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Digitosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Crumenulopsis sororia is saprobic on dead branch (small) of Pinus nigra
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces variisporus is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dendrodochium anamorph of Dendrodochium pinastri is saprobic on branch of Pinus nigra

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum minimum is associated with Pinus nigra

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum triplex is associated with Pinus nigra
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Leptoglossus occidentalis sucks sap of unripe seed (in 1-year old cone) of Pinus nigra
Remarks: season: 5-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
subcuticular or partially subepidermal pycnium of Melampsora populnea parasitises live needle of Pinus nigra
Remarks: season: 5-6
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Dothistroma coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella pini infects and damages live needle of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Phaeolus schweinitzii infects and damages live root of mature tree of Pinus nigra
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiopsis gigantea is saprobic on dead, decayed trunk (cut end) of Pinus nigra
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula torulosa is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus nigra
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpeny conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph of Strasseria geniculata is saprobic on dead twig of Pinus nigra
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella dubia is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus nigra
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / secondary infection
erumpent pycnidium of Sclerophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Sydowia polyspora secondarily infects gall-midge infected leaf of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma batschii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus nigra

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyela curva feeds within unripe male catkin (sporophylls) of Pinus nigra
Other: sole host/prey

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Associated Forest Cover

European black pine in its many forms grows naturally throughout the  Mediterranean region in association with Scotch pine, Swiss mountain pine  (Pinus mugo), Aleppo pine (P. halepensis), Italian stone  pine (P. pinea), and Heldreich pine (P. heldreichii) (11,40,69).  Other pine species that share the same geographic range or portions of it  with European black pine include Swiss stone pine (P. cembra), Balkan  pine (P. peuce), maritime pine (P. pinaster), and P.  brutia and its variant P. pithyusa (11). In England some  naturally regenerating European black pines, from principally Corsican  sources, are associated with birch (Betula pendula), willows (Salix  caprea and S. cinerea), and oak (Quercus robur) on the  sand dunes, saltmarshes, and intertidal sand and mudflats of the north  Norfolk coast (27).

    In the United States, European black pine is associated with numerous  species consequent to its use in landscape and environmental plantings.  Its apparent tendency to escape, possibly to naturalize, and to hybridize  with certain other pines may, in time, result in some natural species  associations in this country.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

European black pine is susceptible to infection  by many pathogens that damage seedlings, foliage, stems, and roots (26).  Damping-off and seedling root rots, caused by Rhizoctonia solaniPhytophthora cactorum, and Pythium debaryanum, and loss of  seedling vigor caused by the dagger nematode (Xiphinema americanum(45) are among the most common causes of seedling damage in nurseries.

    Dothistroma needle blight, caused by the fungus Dothistroma pini, is  one of the most damaging of the foliage diseases of black pine. The  fungus has been found in 23 States in the United States and in three  Provinces in Canada. Dothistroma needle blight is widespread and causes  extensive damage to Austrian pine in Christmas tree plantings in Minnesota  (43), and in shelterbelt, ornamental, and Christmas tree plantings in the  central and southern Great Plains (48). Infection of current-year needles  first occurs in mid-July, while infection of second-year needles begins in  late May in the Great Plains and in British Columbia. Symptoms develop in  early September to early November and consist of yellow and tan spots and  bands that appear water-soaked on the needles. The bands and spots may  turn brown to reddish brown, and the distal end of the needle becomes  chlorotic, then necrotic, while the base of the needle remains green.  Infected needles are cast prematurely (46).

    Genetic resistance to Dothistroma needle blight has been detected in  European black pine. In a Nebraska test of 21 geographic sources (51),  some individual trees within 16 sources were highly resistant, while those  from one Yugoslavian source showed universally high resistance (48).

    Lophodermium needle cast of pines, caused by Lophodermium pinastriis a serious disease of European black pine in the Lake States,  causing browning and premature dropping of needles and terminal bud  dieback (60). A needle disease caused by the fungus Nemacyclus minor  has been reported from Pennsylvania (38).

    Diplodia tip blight, caused by the fungus Diplodia pinea, is a  very damaging twig and stem disease of European black pine, especially to  trees more than 30 years old. Entire new shoots are killed rapidly by the  fungus. Trees repeatedly infected have some branches killed back to the  main stem (47).

    Black pine seedlings in nurseries are susceptible to the fungi Cylindrocladium  scoparium and C. floridanum. These fungi cause root rot,  damping-off, and needle blight (9).

    Damage to black pine by insects and other pests is apparently of lesser  consequence than that from fungal pathogens. The species has been reported  to be injured by pine aphids, pine beetles, and pine weevils, but growing  trees, on the whole, are relatively free from insect pests (12). Damage by  rabbits and sapsuckers has been noted (19,42).

    Some incidence of attack in northeastern United States from the  Zimmerman pine moth (Dioryctria zimmermani), the European pine  sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer), and the European pine shoot moth has  been observed (68).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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General Ecology

Post-fire Regeneration

Tree without adventitious-bud root crown

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: fresh

European black pine attains sexual maturity at ages ranging from 15 to
40 years. Trees from Corsican sources in England produce their first
heavy seed crops at 25 to 30 years of age, with maximum production at 60
to 90 years of age. Large seed crops are produced at 2- to 5-year
intervals [21]. The winged seeds are wind dispersed [11]. Fresh seed
does not require stratification for good germination, but stored seeds
can be cold stratified for up to 60 days to hasten germination [11].

European black pine can be propagated by grafting [21].
  • 11. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Immediate Effect of Fire

No specific information on the effect of fire on European black pine is
available in the English language literature.

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Fire Ecology

In Europe, European black pine is associated with Scotch pine, a species
which is maintained by periodic fire. No information on the fire
adapations of European black pine is available in the English language
literature.

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Successional Status

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Facultative Seral Species

European black pine is intolerant of shade and needs to be planted in
full sun [21,22]. In England direct sowing of European black pine seeds
is successful on north-facing slopes on young sand dunes [21]. European
black pine (Corsican pine) plantations in England develop a more closed
canopy than similar-aged plantations of Scotch pine [17].
  • 17. Rose, C. I. 1979. Observations on the ecology and conservation value of native and introduced tree species. Quarterly Journal of Forestry. 73(4): 219-229. [22219]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]
  • 22. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]

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Reaction to Competition

European black pine is classed as  intolerant of shade, and, therefore, must be planted in situations where  it will receive full sunlight. Those from Austria and the Balkans have  received increasing attention during recent decades from foresters and  Christmas tree growers in the Northeastern United States as an alternative  to red pine, which has been heavily damaged by the European pine shoot  moth (Rhyacionia buoliana). It has proven especially successful on  soils of high pH in the southern part of the area formerly planted to red  pine (69).

    At Ithaca, NY, a series of four-paired, quarter-acre plots of red pine  and black pine were established on a series of somewhat poorly drained to  excessively well-drained acidic, silty loam, and other associated soils  typical of New York's southern tier, to compare their performances. After  21 growing seasons, black pine averaged about 1.8 m (6 ft) in height and  3.2 cm (1.25 in) in diameter less than red pine over all sites. Branches  were usually thicker and closer together, suggesting slower early height  growth; stems suffered sapsucker damage, and the trees had many double  forks and malformed shoots. These tests suggested that European black  pine, from this source at least, was a poor choice to replace red pine on  many northeastern sites (42).

    In the Great Plains shelterbelt planting, European black pine was  frequently intermixed with ponderosa pine within the same row. Survival  was about 5 percent better and height growth was about 0.7 m (2.3 ft) more  for black pine over a 12- to 19-year period on the deep to medium,  permeable, well-drained silty and sandy loams of loess origin (50).  Heights of trees also were more uniform within black pine rows because of  freedom from damage by tip moths (Rhyacionia spp.). Density  and form of crowns also were superior to ponderosa pine.

    In West Virginia, 10 sources of European black pine, ponderosa pine,  black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), autumn olive (Elaeagnus  umbellata), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) were tested  on strip mine spoils. Although all hardwood species grew faster than the  pines, Yugoslavian sources grew faster and survived best of all other  black pine sources (29).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Rooting Habit

All varieties of European black pine are  considered to be deep laterally rooted and, therefore, to perform best in  deep soils (22,49).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

In Ontario European black pine pollen is released from May to June.
Individual ovulate cones are only receptive to pollen for approximately
3 days, but collectively are receptive from May to June. Fertilization
takes place 13 months after pollination. Cones mature from September to
November and seeds are dispersed from October to November [21].
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

At present, grafting is the most common  method for vegetatively propagating European black pine. Needle fascicles  have been rooted, but only fascicles from 1-year-old short shoots on young  (5-year-old) plants were able to form callus or to root. Propagation by  cuttings and air-layering has not been reported.

    The side graft method is the usual practice, but cleft and veneer grafts  can also be used. Grafting is done on actively growing stock, and removal  of the stock by pruning must be gradual after scion growth begins.

    Stock-scion incompatibility in black pine is not a serious problem,  especially if the stock and the scion are of the same race. Black pine can  be grafted onto Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. khasya, P. montanaP. mugo, and P. contorta; but semi-incompatibility has been  found with P. ponderosa, P. radiata, and P. armandii (67).

    Research in Yugoslavia indicates that a wide range of auxin  concentrations, can promote the development of rootable plantlets from  shoot tip explants (30).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seedling Development

European black pine is easily grown from  seed and transplants well. Fresh seeds require no pre-sowing  stratification; but stored seeds can be cold-stratified up to 60 days to  hasten germination. Ninety-nine percent germination was obtained from  seeds stored 10 years in closed containers at 6.6 percent moisture content  (ovendry-weight basis) at 0° to 2° C (32° to 36° F).  No loss of viability occurred in seeds stored in sealed containers at room  temperature after 2 years. Storage at moisture contents as low as 2  percent or as high as 12 percent, however, was detrimental to seeds stored  for long periods (25). A light period of 8 hours at 30° C (86°  F) and a dark period of 20° C (68° F) for 16 hours is  recommended for germination (24). Germination is epigeal (31). Seeds from  Corsican sources tend to germinate more slowly than those from Austria and  Calabria (55).

    In nurseries, nonstratified seeds are sown in the fall or spring, at a  density to obtain 540 to 650 seedlings per square meter (50 to 60/ft²).  Seeds should be sown at a depth of 13 to 19 mm (0.5 to 0.75 in).

    Black pine seedlings can be produced in peat-perlite containers using  low rates of fertilizers (e.g. Osmocote 18N-2.6P-10K) (1). Experiments  with 3-year-old nursery seedlings from 27 different European provenance  locations demonstrated that nitrogen and manganese ion uptake was  significantly enhanced, but that uptake of potassium, phosphorus,  magnesium, boron, zinc, and aluminum ions was suppressed by 45 percent  urea (33). Application of a pre-emergence herbicide was found to enhance  mycorrhizal formation in nursery-grown seedlings (61).

    In Germany, seedlings of all provenances of black pine from Corsica,  Spain, and southern France suffered severe frost damage in the nursery,  and those from southern Italy suffered some damage; but seedlings from  eastern provenances (Austria, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Cyprus) were  undamaged (54). Experience in the United States strongly suggests that  black pine seed be obtained from the Balkan Peninsula or from the Crimea,  for improved winter hardiness (32).

    Nursery-grown seedlings are commonly field-planted as 2-0, 2-1, or 2-2  seedlings. Field-plantable seedlings can be greenhouse grown in containers  in 9 months following a predetermined schedule of temperature, moisture,  relative humidity, and nutrient application (62).

    In England, germination success of direct-sown Corsican black pine seed  was found to be strongly dependent on aspect; satisfactory germination was  achieved on north-facing slopes on young sand dunes nearest the sea (27).  Newly germinated seedlings suffered very heavy losses from voles and  rabbits but became unpalatable to them within 2 months.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seed Production and Dissemination

Seeds are dispersed from  October through November of the second growing season. Seeds are reddish  brown, often mottled, 6.4 mm (0.25 in) long at one end of a membranous  wing 19 mm (0.75 in) long (49). Two winged seeds are produced on the upper  surface of each scale of the cone except for those at the tip and base.

    Seeds are extracted from harvested cones by air-drying for 3 to 10 days  or kiln-drying at 46° C (115° F) for 24 hours. Sound seeds are  separated from empty seeds by flotation in 95 percent ethanol (31). The  number of sound seeds per cone in Austrian black pine ranges from 30 to  40, of which 15 to 20 are germinable (67).

    Cleaned seeds average 57,300 per kilogram (26,000/lb) with a range from  30,900 to 86,000/kg (14,000 to 39,000/lb). Seeds from the Crimea, Turkey,  and Cyprus tend to be the largest, ranging from 38,600 to 45,900/kg  (17,500 to 20,800/lb), and those from Corsica the smallest, ranging from  61,700 to 79,400/kg (28,000 to 36,000/lb) (31,67).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Flowering and Fruiting

European black pine is monoecious, with  staminate (microsporangiate) and ovulate (megasporangiate) strobili borne  separately on the same tree (67). Staminate strobili, clustered at the  base of new shoots, mostly on older lateral branches in the lower crown,  are cylindrical, short-stalked, bright yellow, about 2 cm (0.8 in) long  with numerous scales, and contain pollen in great quantity (12,49,52).

    One or two ovulate strobili (conelets) emerge near the end of the new  growth of terminal and lateral branches; they are cylindrical, small,  bright red, and short-stalked or sessile (12,49,67). Pollen dispersal and  conelet receptivity occur from May to June. Individual ovulate conelets  are receptive for the pollen for only about 3 days, however (67). After  pollen dispersal, the staminate strobili dry and fall within several  weeks. The scales of the ovulate strobili close within a few days of  pollination, and the conelets begin a slow developmental process. At the  beginning of the second growing season, the ovulate strobili are only  about 2 cm (0.8 in) long (47). Fertilization takes place in the spring or  early summer about 13 months after pollination, and the cones, now turned  green in color begin to grow rapidly from about May until maturity in the  fall (67).

    The fruit, a tough, coarse, woody, yellow-green cone during the  pre-ripening second summer, changes to shiny yellow-brown to light brown  at maturity from September to November of the second growing season  (12,49,52). Cones are descending, sessile, ovoid, and 5 to 8 cm (2 to 3  in) long. Cone scales are shiny, thickened at the apex, and end in a short  spine on the dorsal umbo.

    Minimum seed bearing age is 15 to 40 years (40,52,67). In England, black  pine from Corsican sources produce their first heavy cone crops at ages 25  to 30 years and reach maximum production between 60 and 90 years of age  (27). The interval between large cone crops is 2 to 5 years.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Growth

Growth and Yield

European black pine transplants well when  small, or when larger if transplanted in the dormant season (49). It is a  fast and vigorously growing tree of pyramidal form with full, dark  foliage. In England, its habit has been described as bushy in youth,  presenting a coarse appearance and having poor stem form; this severely  limits its timber value, although it grows rapidly, is hardy, and provides  an excellent windbreak (6).

    In the Great Plains region black pine grows relatively rapidly during  the first 20 years after planting-approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) per year on  the average site (57). Similar rates of growth have been reported in Iowa,  where 12-year-old trees average 3.9 m (12.9 ft) in height (19). The  fastest growing source in a Nebraska provenance study, a disease resistant  source from Yugoslavia, was 5.9 m (19.4 ft) tall at age 12 (51) and 9.7 m  (31.8 ft) tall at age 20 (64). Average heights of 4.4 m (14.5 ft) and  diameters of 13.5 cm (5.3 in) were recorded in a 15-year-old Michigan  provenance plantation (68).

    The average growth rate of European black pine in Great Plains  shelterbelts decreases 7.6 cm (3.0 in) per year from about age 20, so that  annual height increase is only 6.1 to 9.1 cm (2.4 to 3.6 in) 50 years  after planting. Height growth in the Loess Plains of Nebraska compares  favorably with height growth in Europe up to age 50. Height growth in  Europe, however, is slower during the early years and faster after 40 to  50 years (57).

    A 25-year-old stand of planted black pine in Michigan State University's  Kellogg Forest is similar in growth to red pine stands on the same forest  and, like them, is being thinned for pulpwood and pruned for timber  production (69). Use of faster growing black pine sources does not cause  the production of lower wood quality (34).

    Forest plantings established in the North Central and Northeastern  United States during recent decades are generally thrifty. Data on growth  of older stands, however, is limited to a few relatively small plantings,  such as the group of 50-year-old trees in the University of Michigan's  Nichols Arboretum at Ann Arbor. These trees are similar in growth rate to  nearby red pine, Scotch pine, and eastern white pine (P. strobus) (69).  European black pine, in the Secrest Arboretum at Ohio State University's  Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, OH, has performed  as follows (3):

      Age  Average d.b.h.  Average height      yr  cm  in  m  ft      10  9.7  3.8  5.3  17.4      13  10.7  4.2  6.3  20.6      19  14.2  5.6  9.6  31.5      24  16.0  6.3  11.7  38.5      25  18.0  7.1  11.8  38.8      31  17.8  7.0  14.5  47.7      40  22.4  8.8  17.1  56.0      45  24.1  9.5  17.6  57.7        At age 45, the above trees would produce about 0.4 m³ (14 ft³)  of wood per tree.

    Height growth of Corsican material in England was proportional to the  preceding winter's rainfall from October to March if soil moisture was  below field capacity, and volume increment was proportional to the  preceding year's height growth. Diameter growth began when the mean 5-day  temperature rose to 10° C (50° F) and ended when the mean  temperature fell below 10° C (50° F) (56). Wood density of  Corsican black pine grown in England was higher than that of other  commercially grown exotics, and resin contents as high as 20 percent were  found in the heartwood of individual trees (10).

    European black pine matures at about 80 years of age, commonly  developing a flat, round, or spreading crown. The species attains heights  of 20.1 to 50.3 m (66 to 165 ft) (52,69). Minimum rotation periods of 160  to 180 years have been reported for black pine in Corsica, 240 to 360  years being the normal to produce trees 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter (12).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Within the climatically and topographically diverse and disjunct  distribution of European black pine, recognizable differences in the  population have evolved through natural selection. As early as the third  century B.C., Theophrastis (370-285 B.C.) recognized several striking  variations within what is here called Pinus nigra.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus nigra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus nigra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D

Contributor/s

Justification
The very wide distribution and abundance of this species places it well beyond a category of threat. The only subspecies under threat is Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica, which occupies a tiny part of the entire range of the species. Pinus nigra has an exceptionally disjunct natural distribution, and genotypes will undoubtedly differ markedly in some isolated subpopulations. On a regional or local scale therefore, there may well be conservation issues that are not reflected in the assessment of the species, or of its five recognized subspecies.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native of central and southern Europe and Asia Minor. Now widely planted throughout North America (Elias, 1980).

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Population

Population
No declines have been recorded.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No range wide threats have been identified.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in many protected areas throughout its range.
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Management considerations

Most of the European black pine planted in the United States is from
Austrian sources [21].

European black pine seedlings up to about 2 months of age are subject to
predation by voles and rabbits; older seedlings apparently become
unpalatable [21].

Insects and diseases: European black pine seedlings are damaged by
damping off fungi and seedling root rots. Mature trees are easily
infected by Dithostroma needle blight, the most damaging foliage disease
of European black pine. Other diseases include Lophodermium needle
cast, which is damaging to European black pine in the Great Lakes States
[21]. European black pine is also moderately to highly susceptible to
infection by brown spot needle disease [18]. The dagger nematode
damages seedlings. Insect damage to European black pine is generally of
less importance than damage by fungal pathogens [21].
  • 18. Skilling, Darroll D.; Nicholls, Thomas H. 1974. Brown spot needle disease-biology and control in Scotch pine plantations. Research Paper NC-109. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 19 p. [10512]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

More info for the terms: resistance, tree

In the United States European black pine is mainly planted for
shelterbelts, as a street tree, and as an ornamental [21,22]. It is
recommended for windbreaks in the Northern Great Plains on medium to
deep moist or upland soils [16]. Its value as a street tree is largely
due to its resistance to salt spray (used in road de-icing) and various
industrial pollutants, and its intermediate drought tolerance [21]. It
is resistant to snow and ice damage. In Missouri European black pines
were undamaged by a sleet storm that caused widespread and extensive
damage to many other street trees [4].

One- to three-year-old European black pine seedlings were found to have
no symptoms of ozone damage after exposure to 0.020 ppm of ozone for
5-hour periods (treatment repeated over one growing season) [5].
  • 16. Read, Ralph A. 1964. Tree windbreaks for the Central Great Plains. Agric. Handb. 250. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [2897]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]
  • 22. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 4. Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology. 20: 71-73. [5993]
  • 5. Davis, D. D.; Umbach, D. M.; Coppolino, J. B. 1981. Susceptibility of tree and shrub species and response of black cherry foliage to ozone. Plant Disease. 65(11): 904-907. [12517]

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Palatability

White-tailed deer showed intermediate preference for European black pine
as compared to other ornamental species (including yews [Taxus spp.],
other conifers, and various hardwoods) [2].
  • 2. Conover, M. R.; Kania, G. S. 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for different ornamental species. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 16: 175-179. [8933]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: tree

In Wyoming mule deer that were forced onto a conifer tree nursery by
bad weather browsed European black pine in preference to ponderosa pine
(Pinus ponderosa), blue spruce (Picea pungens), bristlecone pine (Pinus
aristata), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). Damage
was concentrated on the lateral branch buds and needles [9].
  • 9. Hammer, Dennie A. 1989. Deer damage to an Austrian pine tree nursery in Wheatland, Wyoming. In: Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hamre, R. H., technical coordinators. Proceedings, 9th Great Plains wildlife damage control workshop; 1989 April 17-20; Fort Collins, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-171. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 105-108. [9815]

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Wood Products Value

More info for the term: fuel

The wood of European black pine is similar to that of Scotch pine and
red pine (Pinus resinosa), which is moderately hard and
straight-grained. European black pine wood, however, is rougher, softer,
and not as strong [21].

In the Mediterranean region European black pine wood is used for general
construction, fuel, and in other purposes [21].

In the United States European black pine is of little importance as a
timber species. It is planted mainly for shelterbelts [21].
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

European black pine is recommended for planting on strip-mined lands in
Pennsylvania [10]. It has probably not been widely used for
surface-mine plantings. European black pine is similar to red pine in
climatic adaptation and growth performance on acid minesoils. It is
recommended for use in Ohio on fine-clay, poorly drained minesoils with
a pH of 5 to 7, although suitable native pines are preferred [22]. In
Idaho it was reported as having good potential for revegetating sites
denuded by heavy metal pollution from smelter emissions [1].
  • 1. Carter, Daniel B.; Loewenstein, Howard. 1978. Factors affecting the revegetation of smelter-contaminated soils. Reclamation Review. 1(3/4): 113-119. [22577]
  • 10. Hughes, H. Glenn. 1990. Ecological restoration: fact or fantasy on strip-mined lands in western Pennsylvania?. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration '89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 237-243. [14699]
  • 22. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]

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Special Uses

European black pine is a widespread and important timber-producing tree  of central and southern Europe, especially Corsica. The wood resembles  Scotch pine but is rougher, softer in texture, and possesses less  strength. Although the wood has a relatively larger proportion of sapwood  to heartwood and thus requires a long rotation, it is used extensively  throughout the Mediterranean region for general construction, fuelwood,  and other purposes for which pine timber is needed (12).

    Elsewhere, black pine has been grown more for estate and landscape uses  than as a timber crop, although in England during World War II it proved  serviceable for box boards and pit props.

    The species has been planted extensively in cold, semi-arid, exposed  coastal regions for protection and sand dune fixation because of its  capacity to withstand drought, to grow on light, dry sandy soils of low  productivity, and to tolerate fill (6). This frost-hardy, windfirm, and  light-demanding species has been widely used for nearly 100 years in  windbreaks and roadside plantings throughout the eastern Great Plains of  the United States, where its dense foliage and stiff branches withstand  wind, ice, and heavy snow.

    The species has not been widely grown in the United States for timber  production, although estate, school, and experimental plantings have been  thinned for pulpwood and timber products (69). It is occasionally tapped  for resin, but its pitch is not as high in quality as that of slash pine  (Pinus elliottii).

    European black pine is grown for Christmas trees in the North Central  and Northeastern States (34) where it is not subject to heavy damage from  the European shoot moth and tip moth, but where it is severely damaged by  Dothistroma, Lophodermium, and Diplodia needle and tip blights.

    It is being increasingly used in urban and industrial environmental  improvement plantings because of its rapid growth and protoplasmic  insensitivity to salt spray (4) and to industrial dust, dry soil, and  smoke containing sulfur dioxide (7). Excised shoots of black pine and  other conifer species are capable of absorbing more S02, N02,  and 03 than shoots of a number of deciduous species (18). It  also provides wildlife habitat and might be used as a wood source (39).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

David F. Van Haverbeke

Source: Silvics of North America

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: natural

The currently accepted scientific name of European black pine is Pinus
nigra Arnold [13,21]. The species is genetically diverse. Numerous
subspecies, varieties, and forms have been named; there is much
controversy as to the correct interpretation of these infrataxa [21].
In general, there are three main groups of European black pine races
recognized: (1) the western group from around Austria, France, and Spain
(Austrian and Pyrenees pines), (2) the central group (Corsican pine) from
Corsica, Italy, and Sicily, and (3) the eastern group (Crimean pine) from
the Balkans and the Crimea [11,23].

Some natural hybrids with other European pines have been reported.
Artificial hybrids have also been created [23].
  • 11. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380]
  • 13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 21. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1990. Pinus nigra Arnold European black pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 395-404. [13178]
  • 23. Anon. 1979. Pinus nigra nigra. American Nurseryman. 149(12): 34, 36. [22216]

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Common Names

European black pine
Austrian pine
Corsican pine
Crimean pine
Pyrenees pine

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