The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Mill. 1768. In: Gard. Dict., ed. 8: Abies No. 3.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • The Gardeners Dictionary: . . . eighth edition no. 3. 1768. (Gard. Dict. (ed. 8))
    1. Bakuzis, E. V., and H. L. Hansen. 1965. Balsam fir-a monographic  review. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 445 p.
    3. Barrett, J. W., ed. 1980. Regional silviculture of the United States.  p. 25-65. John Wiley, New York.
    5. Baskerville, G. L. 1966. Dry-matter production in immature balsam fir  stands: roots, lesser vegetation, and total stand. Forest Science  12(l):49-53.
    7. Bender, F. 1967. Canada balsam-its preparation and uses. Canada  Department of Forestry and Rural Development Forestry Branch, Department  Publication 1182. Ottawa, ON. 7 p.
    9. Bendtsen, B. Alan. 1974. Specific gravity and mechanical properties  of black, red, and white spruce and balsam fir. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper FPL-237. Forest Products Laboratory. Madison, WI. 28 p. 
    11. Blum, Barton M., David A. McLean. 1984. Chapter 6: Silviculture,  forest management, and the spruce budworm. In Schmitt, Daniel  M.; Grimble, David G.; Searcy, Janet L.; tech. coords: Managing the  spruce budworm in eastern North America. Agric. Handb. 620. Washington,  DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture: 83-10 1.
    13. Blum, Barton M., Harold M. Klaiber, and Arthur G. Randall. 1981.  Northeastern spruce-fir. In Choices in silviculture for American  forests. p. 10-15. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.
    15. Crawford, Hewlette S., and Richard W. Titterington. 1979. Effects of  silvicultural practices on bird communities in upland spruce-fir stands.  In Management of north central and northeastern forests for  nongame birds. Workshop proceedings. p. 110-119. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report NC-51. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN.
    17. Dery, Patrick J., and Donald H. DeHayes. 1981. Variation in specific  gravity and tracheid length among balsam fir provenances. In Proceedings,  Twenty-seventh Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.  115-127. University of Vermont, Burlington. USDA Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.
    19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    21. Frank, Robert M., and John C. Bjorkbom. 1973. A silvicultural guide  for spruce-fir in the northeast. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NE-6. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA. 29 p.
    23. Frank, Robert M., and Barton M. Blum. 1978. The selection system of  silviculture in spruce-fir stands-procedures, early results, and  comparisons with unmanaged stands. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-425. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 15 p. 
    25. Frank, Robert M., and Lawrence 0. Safford. 1970. Lack of viable seeds  in the forest floor after clearcutting. Journal of Forestry  68(12):776-778.
    27. Fryer, John H., and F. Thomas Ledig. 1972. Microevolution of the  photosynthetic temperature optimum in relation to the elevational  complex gradient. Canadian Journal of Botany 50:1231-1235.
    29. Ghent, A. W. 1958. Studies in forest stands devastated by the spruce  budworm. Il. Forest Science 4:135-146.
    31. Griffin, Ralph H., and James E. Johnson. 1980. Polymorphic site index  curves for spruce and balsam fir growing in even-aged stands in northern  Maine. University of Maine Life Sciences and Agriculture Experiment  Station, Bulletin 765. Orono. 22 p.
    33. Hampf, Frederick E. 1965. Site index curves for some forest species  in the eastern United States (rev.). USDA Forest Service, Eastern  Region, Upper Darby, PA. 43 p.
    35. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    37. Johnston, William F. 1986. Manager's handbook for balsam fir in the  north central states. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NC-111. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 27 p.
    39. Keays, J. L. 1975. Biomass of forest residuals. AlChE Journal  71(146):10-21.
    41. Lester, Donald T. 1968. Variation in cone morphology of balsam fir,  Abies balsamea. Rhodora 80:83-94.
    43. Lester, D. T., C. A. Mohn, and J. W. Wright. 1976. Geographic  variation in balsam fir: 11-year results in the Lake States. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 6:389-394.
    45. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native  and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  541. Washington, DC. 375 p.
    47. Lowe, W. J., H. W. Hocker, Jr., and M. L. McCormack, Jr. 1977.  Variation in balsam fir provenances planted in New England. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 7:63-67.
    49. McKnight, M. E., D. T. Jennings, S. C. Hacker, and F. B. Knight.  1988. North American coniferaphagous choristoneura: a bibliography. USDA  Forest Service, Bibliographies and Literature of Agric. No. 59.  Washington, DC. 580 p.
    51. Millikin, D. E. 1955. Determination of bark volumes and fuel  properties. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada 56(13):106108.
    53. Page, G. 1976. Quantitative evaluation of site potential for spruce  and fir in Newfoundland. Forest Science 22:131-143.
    55. Randall, Arthur G. 1976. Natural regeneration in two spruce-fir  clearcuts in eastern Maine. University of Maine, Research in the Life  Sciences 23(13). Orono. 10 p.
    57. Robinson, John F., and Eyvind Thor. 1969. Natural variation in Abies  of the southern Appalachians. Forest Science 15:238-245.
    59. Rudolf, Paul 0. 1966. Botanical and commercial range of balsam fir in  the Lake States. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-16. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.
    61. Safford, Lawrence 0. 1968. Ten-year average growth rates in the  spruce-fir region of northern New England. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-93. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 20  p.
    63. Sanders, C. J.; Stark, R. W.; Mullins, E. J.; Murphy, J., eds. 1985.  Recent advances in spruce budworm, research. Proceedings, CANUSA spruce  budworms research symposium, Bangor, ME, Sept. 16-20. Ottawa, ON:  Canadian Forestry Service: 527 p.
    65. Shaw, G. G., and C. H. A. Little. 1977. Natural variation in balsam  fir foliar components of dietary importance to spruce budworm. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 7:47-53.
    67. Sinclair, Steve, Bob Garett, and Jim Bowyer. 1981. Potential lumber  grade yields from balsam fir and spruce budworm killed balsam fir.  Timber Producers Bulletin 36: 10-11.
    69. Solomon, Dale S. and Robert M. Frank. 1983. Growth response of  managed uneven-aged northern conifer stands. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-517. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall,  PA. 17 p.
    71. Solomon, Dale S., Richard A. Hosmer, and Homer T. Hayslett, Jr. 1987.  FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir and northern hardwood  types. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-602. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 17 p.
    73. Sonderman, David L. 1970. Balsam fir. USDA Forest Service, American  Woods Series FS-234. Washington, DC. 8 p.
    75. Svinicki, Jane A. 1981. Five-year over-view of retail Christmas tree  market. p. 6-8. 1981 Christmas Merchandiser, National Christmas Tree  Association, Milwaukee, WI.
    77. Thor, Eyvind, and Paul E. Barnett. 1974. Taxonomy of Abies in the  southern Appalachians: variations in balsam monoterpenes and wood  properties. Forest Science 20:32-40.
    79. Titterington, R. W., H. S. Crawford, and B. N. Burgason. 1979.  Songbird responses to commercial clearcutting in Maine spruce-fir  forests. Journal of Wildlife Management 43(3):602-609.
    81. USDA, Forest Service. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 271. Washington, DC. 762 p.
    83. USDA, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United  States. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    85. USDA, Forest Service. 1974. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering  material. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72  (rev.). Washington, DC. 439 p.
    87. Walker, Lawrence C. 1967. Silviculture of the minor southern  conifers. p. 56-62. In Stephen F. Austin State College School of  Forestry, Bulletin 15. Nacogdoches, TX.
    89. Weetman, G. F., W. W. Grapes, and G. J. Frisque. 1973. Reproduction  and ground conditions 5 years after pulpwood harvesting: results from 37  study areas in eastern Canada. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of  Canada LRR/51. Pointe Claire, PQ. 97 p.
    91. Westveld, Marinus. 1954. A budworm vigor-resistance classification  for spruce and balsam fir. Journal of Forestry 52:11-24.


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