The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Nutt. 1849. In: N. Amer. Sylva 3: 138.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • The North American Sylva 3: 138. 1849. (N. Amer. Sylv.)
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
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    1. Alexander, Robert R. 1977. Cutting methods in relation to resource  use in central Rocky Mountain spruce-fir forests. Journal of Forestry  75:395-400.
    2.  
    3. Alexander, Robert R. 1980. Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir 206. In:  Eyre, F. A., ed. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada.  Washington, DC, Society of American Foresters. 148 p.
    4.  
    5. Alexander, Robert R. 1985. Diameter and basal area distributions in  old-growth spruce-fir stands on the Fraser Experimental Forest. Research  Note RM-451. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 4 p.
    6.  
    7. Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Silvicultural systems and cutting methods  for old-growth spruce-fir forests in the central and southern Rocky  Mountains. General Technical Report RM-126. USDA Forest Service, Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 33 p. 
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    9. Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Ecology, silviculture, and management of  the Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir type in the central and southern  Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 659.  Washington, DC. 144 p.
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    11. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on National Forests in  the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain regions. General Technical Report  RM-162. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Fort Collins, CO. 47 p.
    12.  
    13. Alexander, Robert R., and Carleton B. Edminster. 1980. Management of  spruce-fir in even-aged stands in the central Rocky Mountains. Research  Paper RM-217. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 14 p.
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    15. Alexander, Robert R., and Orvill Engelby. 1983. Engelmann  spruce-subalpine fir. In: Burns, R. M., tech. comp. p. 59-64.  Silvicultural systems for major forest types of the United States. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 445. Washington, DC. 
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    17. Alexander, Robert R., Raymond C. Shearer, and Wayne D. Shepperd.  1984. Silvical characteristics of subalpine fir. General Technical  Report RM-115. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 29 p.
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    19. Baker, Frederick S. 1944. Mountain climates of the western United  States. Ecological Monographs 14:225-254.
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    21. Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of  Forestry 7:179-181.
    22.  
    23. Bates, Carlos G. 1923. Physiological requirements of Rocky Mountain  trees. Journal of Agricultural Research 24:97- 154.
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    25. Bier, J. E., P. J. Salisbury, and R. Waldie. 1948. Decay in fir,  Abies lasiocarpa and amabilis, in the upper Fraser region of British  Columbia. Canadian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 66. 28  p.
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    27. Billings, W. D. 1969. Vegetational pattern near timberline as  affected by fire-snowdrift interaction. Vegetatio 19:192-207.
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    29. Clark, M. D. 1969. Direct seeding experiments in the Southern  Interior Region of British Columbia. Research Note 49. Forest Service,  British Columbia Department of Lands, Forest and Water Resources.  Victoria, BC. 10 p.
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    31. Daubenmire, R. 1943. Vegetation zones in the Rocky Mountains. Botany  Review 9:325-393.
    32.  
    33. Daubenmire, R. 1952. Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent  Washington and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification.  Ecological Monographs 22:309-330.
    34.  
    35. Daubenmire, R., and Jean B. Daubenmire. 1968. Forest vegetation of  eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Technical Bulletin 60. Washington  Agriculture Experiment Station, Pullman, WA. 104 p.
    36.  
    37. Day, R. J. 1964. Microenvironments occupied by spruce and fir  regeneration in the Rocky Mountains. Research Branch Publication 1037.  Canadian Department of Forestry, Ottawa, ON. 25 p.
    38.  
    39. Eis, Slavo J. 1965. Development of white spruce and alpine fir  seedlings on cutover areas in the central interior of British Columbia.  Forestry Chronicle 41:419-431.
    40.  
    41. Franklin, Jerry F. 1980. Correspondence, December 18, 1980. USDA  Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Corvallis, OR.
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    43. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. Report PNW-8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 417 p. 
    44.  
    45. Franklin, Jerry F., and Russel G. Mitchell. 1967. Succession status  of subalpine fir in the Cascade Range. Research Paper PNW-46. USDA  Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 15 p.
    46.  
    47. Franklin, Jerry F., Richard Carkin, and Jack Booth. 1974. Seeding  habits of upperslope tree species. Part 1: A 12-year record of cone  production. Research Note PNW-213. USDA Forest Service, Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 12 p.
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    49. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects.  Miscellaneous Publication 1229. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 654 p. 
    50.  
    51. Haeffner, Arden D. 1971. Daily temperatures and precipitation for  subalpine forests, Colorado. Research Paper RM-80. USDA Forest Service,  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 48  p.
    52.  
    53. Hanley, David P., Wyman C. Schmidt, and George M. Blake. 1975. Stand  succession and successional status of two spruce-fir forests in southern  Utah. Research Paper INT-176. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest  and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 16 p.
    54.  
    55. Herring, L. J., and R. G. McMinn. 1980. Natural and advanced  regeneration of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir compared 21 years  after site treatment. Forestry Chronicle 56:55-57.
    56.  
    57. Hinds, Thomas E., and Frank G. Hawksworth. 1966. Indicators and  associated decay of Engelmann spruce in Colorado. Research Paper RM-25.  USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Fort Collins, CO. 15 p.
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    59. Hodson, E. R., and J. H. Foster. 1910. Engelmann spruce in the Rocky  Mountains. Circular 170. USDA Forest Service. Washington DC. 23 p.
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    61. Johnson, D. D., and J. Cline. 1965. Colorado mountain soils. Advances  in Agronomy 17:223-281.
    62.  
    63. Jones, John R. 1971. Mixed conifer seedling growth in eastern  Arizona. Research Paper RM-77. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 19 p.
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    65. Kaufmann, Merrill R. 1982. Leaf conductance as a function of  photosynthetic photon flux density and absolute humidity difference from  leaf to air. Plant Physiology 69:1018-1023.
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    67. Kaufmann, Merrill R. 1982. Evaluation of season, temperature, and  water stress effects on stomata using a leaf conductance model. Plant  Physiology 69:1023-1026.
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    69. Kaufmann, Merrill R. 1984. A canopy model (RM-CWU) for determining  transpiration of subalpine forests. Part 1: Model development. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 14:218-226.
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    71. Kaufmann, Merrill R. 1984. A canopy model (RM-CWU) for determining  transpiration of subalpine forests. Part 11: Consumptive water use in  two watersheds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14:227-232.
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    73. Kaufmann, Merrill R., and Charles A. Troendle. 1981. The  relationship of leaf area and foliage biomass to sapwood conducting area  in four subalpine forest tree species. Forest Science 27(l):477-482. 
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    75. Kaufmann, Merrill R., Carleton B. Edminster, and Charles A.  Troendle. 1982. Leaf area determination for three subalpine trees  species in the central Rocky Mountains. Research Paper RM-238. USDA  Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 7 p.
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    77. Keen, F. P. 1958. Cone and seed insects of western forest trees.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1169. Washington, DC.  168 p.
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    79. Kirkwood, J. E. 1922. Forest distribution on the northern Rocky  Mountains. Montana State University Bulletin 247. Missoula. 180 p.
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    81. Larsen, J. 1930. Forest types of the northern Rocky Mountains and  their climatic controls. Ecology 11:631-672.
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    83. LeBarron, Russell K., and George M. Jemison. 1953. Ecology and  silviculture of the Engelmann spruce-subalpine-fir type. Journal of  Forestry 51:349-355.
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    85. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees. Volume 1.  Conifers and important hardwoods. Miscellaneous Publication 1146. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 9 p. plus 313 maps.
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    87. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees  (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agriculture  Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375 p.
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    89. Liu, Tang-Shui. 1971. A monograph of the Genus Abies. Department of  Forestry, College of Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei,  Taiwan, Chin. 698 p.
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    91. Marr, John W. 1961. Ecosystems of the east slope of the Front Range  in Colorado. Series in Biology 8. University of Colorado Press. Boulder,  CO. 134 p.
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    93. Marr, John W., J. M. Clark, W. S. Osburn, and M. W. Paddock. 1968.  Data on mountain environments. Part III: Front Range in Colorado, four  climax regions 1959-64. Series in Biology 29. University of Colorado  Press. Boulder, CO. 181 P.
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    95. McCaughey, Ward W., and Wyman C. Schmidt. 1982. Understory tree  release following harvest cutting in spruce-fir forests of the  Intermountain West. Research Paper INT-285. USDA Forest Service,  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 19 p, 
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    97. Miller, Robert L., and Grover Choate. 1964. The forest resource of  Colorado. Resources Bulletin INT-3. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 55 p.
    98.  
    99. Noble, Daniel L., and Frank Ronco Jr. 1978. Seedfall and  establishment of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in clearcut openings  in Colorado. Research Paper RM-200. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 12 p.
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    101. Oosting, Henry J., and John F. Reed. 1952. Virgin spruce-fir in the  Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming. Ecological Monographs 22:69-91.
    102.  
    103. Pearson, G. 1931. Forest types in the southwest as determined by  climate and soil. Technical Bulletin 247. U.S. Department of  Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 144 p.
    104.  
    105. Peterson, Robert S. 1963. Effects of broom rusts on spruce and fir.  Research Paper TNT-7. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 10 p.
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    107. Shearer, Raymond C. 1980. Regeneration establishment in response to  harvesting and residue management in a western larch-Douglas-fir forest.  In: Proceedings, Symposium on environmental consequences of timber  harvesting in the Rocky Mountains, September 11-13, 1979. 249-269.  General Technical Report INT-90. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Missoula, MT, Ogden, UT. 526 p. 
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    109. Shearer, Raymond C., and David Tackle. 1960. Effect of hydrogen  peroxide on germination of three western conifers. Research Note INT-80.  USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Ogden, UT. 4 p.
    110.  
    111. Society of American Foresters. 1980. Forest cover types of the  United States and Canada. F. H. Eyre, ed. Washington, DC. 148 p.
    112.  
    113. Sudworth, George B. 1916. The spruce and balsam fir trees of the  Rocky Mountain region. Bulletin 327. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Washington, DC. 43 p.
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    115. Thornthwaite, C. W. 1948. An approach toward a rational  classification of climate. Geography Review 38(l):55-94.
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    117. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1974. Wood handbook.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72. Washington, DC.  431 p.
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    119. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody  plants of the United States, C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 50. Washington, DC. 883  p.
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    121. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey Staff. 1975. A basic  system of soil class for making and interpreting soil survey. USDA Soil  Conservation Service, Agriculture Handbook 436. Washington, DC. 754 p. 
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