Overview

Distribution

S Gansu, C and NW Guizhou, Hainan, SW Henan, W Hubei, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Sichuan, C Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan [N Myanmar]
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 35 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark gray, fissured into square plates or shed; crown conical or cylindric-pyramidal; branchlets green, gray-green, or -brown, glaucous, turning brown when dry, glabrous; winter buds almost cylindric, slightly resinous. Needles 5(-7) per bundle, triangular in cross section, 8-15 cm × 1-1.5 mm, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3(-7), median or 2 marginal. Pollen cones erect or drooping, slender or stout, cylindric or ovoid-ellipsoid. Seed cones pedunculate (peduncle 2-3 cm), green, maturing yellow or brown-yellow, conical-cylindric, dehiscent at maturity, shedding seeds. Seed scales rhombic-obovate, 3-4 × 2.5-3 cm; apophyses rhombic or triangular, not ridged, apex obtuse-rounded or acuminate, not recurved or slightly recurved; umbo not obvious. Seeds yellow-brown, dark brown, or black, obovoid, 1-1.5 cm × 6-10 mm, wingless or abaxial margin ridged, rarely shortly winged. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct of 2nd year.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus armandii occurs in mountains at altitudes from 900 m to 3,500 m a.s.l.; usually in association with other conifers and seldom in pure stands. Common conifer genera in these mixed forests are Abies, Picea, Pseudotsuga, and in SW China also Larix. More often than these conifers, the pines tend to occupy rocky areas with thin soils where other trees, among them angiosperms, are less competitive.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Mountains, river basins; 1000-3300 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus armandi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Pinus armandii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus armandii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Despite the threatened status of two of its three varieties, the species as a whole remains Least Concern because these two varieties occupy only tiny sections of the total distribution and population.
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Population

Population
The overall population trend is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Logging for local use could have impacted this common and widespread species. A governmental ban on logging in China probably has little impact, as this is not a commercial timber tree. The threat is therefore thought to be insubstantial.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in some protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Pinus armandii

Pinus armandii (family Pinaceae), the Chinese white pine, is a species of pine native to China,[2] occurring from southern Shanxi west to southern Gansu and south to Yunnan, with outlying populations in Anhui and Taiwan; it also extends a short distance into northern Burma.[3] In Chinese it is known as "Mount Hua pine" (华山松).

It grows at 1,000-3,300 m altitude, with the lower altitudes mainly in the northern part of the range. It is a tree reaching 35 m (115 ft) height, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter.[4]

Description[edit]

Juvenile cone
Pinus armandii - Kunming Botanical Garden - DSC02782.JPG

It is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 8–20 cm long. The cones are 9–22 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, with stout, thick scales. The seeds are large, 10–16 mm long and have only a vestigial wing; they are dispersed by Spotted Nutcrackers. The cones mature in their second year, this is a juvenile female cone:

Varieties

The species has two or three varieties:

IUCN has listed var. dabeshanensis (assessed as Pinus dabeshanensis)[6] as vulnerable and var. mastersiana as endangered.[7]

Pinus armandii has also been reported in the past from Hainan off the south coast of China, and two islands off southern Japan, but these pines differ in a number of features and are now treated as distinct species, Hainan white pine Pinus fenzeliana and Yakushima white pine Pinus amamiana respectively.

Uses[edit]

Pinus armandii seeds are harvested and sold as pine nuts. These nuts are responsible for "Pine Mouth Syndrome".[8] The wood is used for general building purposes; the species is important in forestry plantations in some parts of China. It is also grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens in Europe and North America. The scientific name commemorates the French missionary and naturalist Armand David, who first introduced it to Europe.

Chinese culture[edit]

The tree, because of its evergreen foliage, is considered by the Chinese as an emblem of longevity and immortality. Its resin is considered an animated soul-substance, the counterpart of blood in men and animals. In ancient China, Taoist seekers of immortality consumed much of the tree’s resin, hoping thereby to prolong life. Legend says that Qiu Sheng (仇生) who lived at the time of King Chengtang of Shang (商成汤王) (reigned 1675-1646 BCE), founder of the Shang Dynasty, was indebted for his longevity to pine-resin.[9] The Shouxing, Chinese God of Longevity (寿星), is usually represented standing at the foot of a pine, while a Fairy-crane perches on a branch of the tree. In traditional pictures of "happiness, honor and longevity", (福禄寿三星), the pine-tree represents longevity, in the same manner as the bat symbolizes good fortune due to its homonymic association with the Chinese character for good luck (福). A fungus, that the Chinese call Fu Ling grows on the root of the pine-tree, and is believed by the Chinese to suppress all sensations of hunger, cure various diseases, and lengthen life.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus armandii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  2. ^ Astifan, William (2012). "Pinus Armandii: Chinese White Pine_Haverford College Arboretum Association". 37(4). 
  3. ^ Critchfield (1966). Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication 991. 
  4. ^ Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Thomas S. Elias & Robert R. Mill. "Pinus armandii". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  5. ^ Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Thomas S. Elias & Robert R. Mill. "Pinus fenzeliana var. dabeshanensis". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus dabeshanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  7. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus armandii var. mastersiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Destaillats F. et al. (2011). "Identification of the Botanical Origin of Commercial Pine Nuts Responsible for Dysgeusia by Gas-Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Fatty Acid Profile". Journal of Toxicology 2011: Article ID 316789. doi:10.1155/2011/316789. PMC 3090612. PMID 21559093. 
  9. ^ a b De Groot, J.J.M. (2003). The Religious System of China. Vol. IV. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-3354-9.  p. 297

Further reading[edit]

  • Fang, Jim-Min, Wei-Yu Tsai, and Yu-Shia Cheng. "Serratene triterpenes from Pinus armandii bark." Phytochemistry 30.4 (1991): 1333-1336.
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Notes

Comments

The timber is used for construction, railway sleepers, furniture, and wood fiber.
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