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Overview

Brief Summary

Lebanon Cedar (Cedrus libani) is native to the eastern Mediterranean region, including Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria (Choukas-Bradley 1987; Bird 1994; Kurt et al. 2008). It is more widely planted as a highly regarded ornamental (Dirr 1998). Lebanon Cedars have a thick, massive trunk and very wide-spreading branches, the lower ones sweeping the ground. The dark green, densely packed leaves are borne in horizontal tiers. Young trees are slender pyramids, but become flat-topped as they mature. A typical 10-year-old specimen would be around 6 meters tall; after 40 to 70 years, it might reach 12 to 18 meters, but these trees can grow to a maximum size of about 23 to 37 meters in height with a 24 to 30 meter spread. (Bird 1994; Dirr 1998)

The Lebanon Cedar (Cedrus libani) resembles a number of other Cedrus cedars. Cedrus deodara has pendulous leading shoot and branch tips (i.e., the entire new shoot gently droops), whereas C. libani has upright, stiff leading shoots, occasionally with just the branch tips drooping. Cedrus atlantica has densely pubescent (downy) blue leaves, whereas C. libani has glabrous (smooth) or sparsely pubescent green leaves. (Choukas-Bradley and Alexander 1987; Cope 2001)

The natural habitat of Cedrus libanii in the mountains of Lebanon has been substantially impacted by humans over centuries. Intensive logging for ship building and construction, as well as land-clearing for agriculture, were recorded as early as the 3rd millennium B.C. Vanishing forests were already mentioned during the 1st century B.C. and depletion of these forests has continued. It is now estimated that the current 2,000 hectares of patchy cedar forests found in Lebanon are the remnants of more than 500,000 hectares of post-glacial forest. In Turkey, cedar forests cover almost 110,000 hectares and occur primarily in the Taurus mountains, the steep slopes of which have somewhat sheltered its forests from overexploitation and extirpation. (Fady et al. 2008 and references therein)

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Distribution

Range Description

Occurs in the mountains adjacent to the northeastern Mediterranean coast in Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and western Cypress.

Turkey: the main subpopulation runs from the western Taurus Mountains, east to the province of Hayat with two small remnant subpopulations in the Black Sea region of at elevations of 700–1,400 m (Boydak 1996). It has an estimated actual area of occupancy (AOO) of 993 km² (Khuri et al. (1999).

Syria: there is one reported subpopulation in the north, on the eastern side of Jabal an-Nusayriya. This is at an elevation of between 1,200–1,850 m and has an actual AOO of 1.5 km2 (Khouzami 1994).

Lebanon: it has a wider distribution than in Syria and occurs along the Mount Lebanon chain in more or less two subpopulations; one in the south, which includes the Maaser el Shouf and in the north the important site of Horsh Ehden (Talhouk, 2001). The actual AOO of Cedrus libani in Lebanon is 22 km2 (Talhouk 2001).

Cypress: Restricted to the Tripylos area in Paphos State Forest (AOO is less than 8 km2) in the Troodos Mountains (800 to 1,400 m) in western Cyprus (Tsintides et al. 2007, Eliades 2008).

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Lebanon Cedar is native to the eastern Mediterranean region, including Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria (Choukas-Bradley 1987; Bird 1994; Kurt et al. 2008). It is more widely planted as a highly regarded ornamental (Dirr 1998).

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Physical Description

Morphology

The Lebanon Cedar has a thick, massive trunk and very wide-spreading branches, the lower ones sweeping the ground. The dark green, densely packed leaves are borne in horizontal tiers. Young trees are slender pyramids, but become flat-topped as they mature. (Bird 1994; Dirr 1998)

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Size

Mature height is about 40 meters (a typical 10-year-old specimen would be around 6 meters tall) (Bird 1994).

After 40 to 70 years, Lebanon Cedar reaches 12 to 18 meters, but it can grow to a maximum size of about 23 to 37 meters in height with a 24 to 30 meter spread (Dirr 1998).

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Look Alikes

Lookalikes

Cedrus libani resembles a number of other Cedrus cedars. Cedrus deodara has pendulous leading shoot and branch tips (i.e., the entire new shoot gently droops), whereas C. libani has upright, stiff leading shoots, occasionally with just the branch tips drooping. Cedrus atlantica has densely pubescent (downy) blue leaves, whereas C. libani has glabrous (smooth) or sparsely pubescent green leaves. (Choukas-Bradley and Alexander 1987; Cope 2001)

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Usually occurs on north and westerly-facing slopes at elevations between 1,300 and 3,000 m, but in Turkey it can occur as low as 500 m (Atalay and Recep 2010). Soils are well drained and usually calcareous although in Lebanon trees do occur on sandstone formations (Talhouk 2001). The climate is of cool and moist winters with abundant snow at higher elevations. In Cypress, Turkey and Lebanon it can occur in pure stands, but more often it is associated with the conifers Abies cilicica, Juniperus excelsa and J. oxycedrus. At lower elevations it is associated with Pinus nigra and Pinus brutia. Commonly associated broadleaved species include: Quercus cerris, Sorbus torminalis, and Prunus ursina (Talhouk 2001). In Syria it occurs in a degraded mixed forest with oak, pine and fir (Khouzami 1994). In Cypress it is often associated with Pinus brutia and Quercus alnifolia and mixed forest with Platanus orientalis. In Cypress, good seed crops are typically produced once every five to seven year and there is a 50-60 % seed viability.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Lebanon Cedar is currently found in the mountains of Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon from 1,400 to 2,200 meters above sea level (Quezel and Medail 2003, cited in Fady et al. 2008).

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Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ganoderma lucidum is saprobic on dead stump of Cedrus libani
Other: minor host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

The largest specimens of Lebanon Cedar are several hundred years old, but the tree grows surprisingly quickly in its early years--around 15 cm each year for around 70 years--then slows down (Bird 1994).

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Phylogeography

Fady et al. (2008) studied the genetic variation of Cedrus libani across Turkey and Lebanon. Substantial genetic variation was detected, consistent with the general pattern that eastern Mediterranean conifers tend to harbor higher levels of genetic variation than conifer populations elsewhere (likely due to the fact that their populations during the late glacial maximum (18,000 years ago) were somewhat sheltered in favorable environments and did not suffer strong demographic and genetic bottlenecks). However, this high genetic diversity was not evenly partitioned among C. libani populations. Based on their genetic data, Fady et al. support proposals to recognize two divergent C. libani taxa, one in Lebanon and one in Turkey, which they suggest should be treated as distinct subspecies. The authors suggest that the overall lower genetic diversity found in cedars from Lebanon (as compared with Turkey) is likely the result of overexploitation in the form of logging and/or grazing.

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Systematics or Phylogenetics

Cedrus phylogeography

Based on different molecular markers, AFLP, SSR, and RAPD molecular markers, We distinguish within Mediterranean cedars, two groups: the first one is made of Cedrus atlantica, while the second one is made of Cedrus libani and Cedrus brevifolia, these latter two species being genetically similar despite important divergence previously observed for morphological and physiological traits.

C. deodara, the Himalayan cedar constitutes a separate gene pool from the Mediterranean cedars. The

large genetic distances observed between C. deodara and Mediterranean cedars reflect the high geographical distance between these two regions and an ancient divergence between these taxa.

  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Grenier G., Bariteau M., Brown S., Siljak-Yakovlev S. et Savouré A., 2001. Karyotype analysis reveals interspecific differentiation in the Cedrus genus despite genome size and base composition constancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2001- 103: 846-854.
  • Fady B., Lefèvre F., Reynaud M., Vendramin G.G., Bou-Dagher-Kharrat M., Andizei M., Pastorelli R., Savouré A., Bariteau, M., gene flow among different taxonomùic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003- 107:1132-1138.
  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Mariette S., Fady B., Lefevre F., Grenier G., Plomion C. et Savouré A., Geographical diversity and genetic relationships among Cedrus species assayed by AFLP. 2007. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 275-285
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Cedrus phylogeography

Based on different molecular markers, AFLP, SSR, and RAPD molecular markers, We distinguish within Mediterranean cedars, two groups: the first one is made of Cedrus atlantica, while the second one is made of Cedrus libani and Cedrus brevifolia, these latter two species being genetically similar despite important divergence previously observed for morphological and physiological traits.

C. deodara, the Himalayan cedar constitutes a separate gene pool from the Mediterranean cedars. The

large genetic distances observed between C. deodara and Mediterranean cedars reflect the high geographical distance between these two regions and an ancient divergence between these taxa.

  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Grenier G., Bariteau M., Brown S., Siljak-Yakovlev S. et Savouré A., 2001. Karyotype analysis reveals interspecific differentiation in the Cedrus genus despite genome size and base composition constancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2001- 103: 846-854.
  • Fady B., Lefèvre F., Reynaud M., Vendramin G.G., Bou-Dagher-Kharrat M., Andizei M., Pastorelli R., Savouré A., Bariteau, M., gene flow among different taxonomùic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003- 107:1132-1138.
  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Mariette S., Fady B., Lefevre F., Grenier G., Plomion C. et Savouré A., Geographical diversity and genetic relationships among Cedrus species assayed by AFLP. 2007. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 275-285
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Supplier: Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat

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Cedrus phylogeography

Based on different molecular markers, AFLP, SSR, and RAPD molecular markers, We distinguish within Mediterranean cedars, two groups: the first one is made of Cedrus atlantica, while the second one is made of Cedrus libani and Cedrus brevifolia, these latter two species being genetically similar despite important divergence previously observed for morphological and physiological traits.

C. deodara, the Himalayan cedar constitutes a separate gene pool from the Mediterranean cedars. The

large genetic distances observed between C. deodara and Mediterranean cedars reflect the high geographical distance between these two regions and an ancient divergence between these taxa.

  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Grenier G., Bariteau M., Brown S., Siljak-Yakovlev S. et Savouré A., 2001. Karyotype analysis reveals interspecific differentiation in the Cedrus genus despite genome size and base composition constancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2001- 103: 846-854.
  • Fady B., Lefèvre F., Reynaud M., Vendramin G.G., Bou-Dagher-Kharrat M., Andizei M., Pastorelli R., Savouré A., Bariteau, M., gene flow among different taxonomùic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003- 107:1132-1138.
  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Mariette S., Fady B., Lefevre F., Grenier G., Plomion C. et Savouré A., Geographical diversity and genetic relationships among Cedrus species assayed by AFLP. 2007. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 275-285

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Cedrus phylogeography

Based on different molecular markers, AFLP, SSR, and RAPD molecular markers, We distinguish within Mediterranean cedars, two groups: the first one is made of Cedrus atlantica, while the second one is made of Cedrus libani and Cedrus brevifolia, these latter two species being genetically similar despite important divergence previously observed for morphological and physiological traits.

C. deodara, the Himalayan cedar constitutes a separate gene pool from the Mediterranean cedars. The

large genetic distances observed between C. deodara and Mediterranean cedars reflect the high geographical distance between these two regions and an ancient divergence between these taxa.

  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Grenier G., Bariteau M., Brown S., Siljak-Yakovlev S. et Savouré A., 2001. Karyotype analysis reveals interspecific differentiation in the Cedrus genus despite genome size and base composition constancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2001- 103: 846-854.
  • Fady B., Lefèvre F., Reynaud M., Vendramin G.G., Bou-Dagher-Kharrat M., Andizei M., Pastorelli R., Savouré A., Bariteau, M., gene flow among different taxonomùic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003- 107:1132-1138.
  • Bou Dagher-Kharrat M., Mariette S., Fady B., Lefevre F., Grenier G., Plomion C. et Savouré A., Geographical diversity and genetic relationships among Cedrus species assayed by AFLP. 2007. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 275-285

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Gardner, M.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The area of occupancy (AOO) of 1,024.5 km2 does not take into account the two remnant locations in the Black Sea region of Turkey but it is assumed that these will not take the AOO over the 2,000 km2 threshold for Vulnerable B2. In total there are slightly more than 10 locations - one in Cypress, two in Lebanon, one in Syria and seven in Turkey. The population is severely fragmented, particularly the Syrian and Lebanese subpopulations. The area of occupancy, the quality of habitat is in decline and there is a loss of mature individuals particularly in the areas outside of Cypress due to a range of detrimental factors including: grazing by goats, urbanization, selective cutting, pest infestation and severe damage in some of the Lebanese forests due to winter sports. So the species as a whole qualifies for a Vulnerable listing.
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The natural habitat of Cedrus libani in the mountains of Lebanon has been substantially impacted by humans over centuries. Intensive logging for ship building and construction, as well as land-clearing for agriculture, were recorded as early as the 3rd millennium B.C. Vanishing forests were already mentioned during the 1st century B.C. and depletion of these forests has continued. It is now estimated that the current 2,000 hectares of patchy cedar forests found in Lebanon are the remnants of more than 500,000 hectares of post-glacial forest. In Turkey, cedar forests cover almost 110,000 hectares and occur primarily in the Taurus mountains, the steep slopes of which have somewhat sheltered its forests from overexploitation and extirpation. (Fady et al. 2008 and references therein)

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Population

Population
The largest stands are in southern Turkey in the Taurus Mountains where there are extensive forests occurring from Boz Mountain (Acipayam) in the west and Ahir and Nur (Amanos) mountains in the east. Its distribution continues towards the southern boundary of Inner Anatolia (Atalay and Recep 2010). Approximately one third of these forests are in a degraded state (Boydak 1996). In Lebanon the subpopulation is in the form of 15 fragmented stands, more than half of which have an area of occupancy of less than 1 km2 and are in a state of severe degradation (Talhouk 2001). In Syria the species forms isolated pockets on the crest of Djebel Ansarieh (Rolley n.s.). There are five separate stands in Cypress, the largest at Triplyos comprises about 16,000 mature individuals (Eliades 2008).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The most threatened subpopulations are those in Lebanon and Syria where there has been a long history of forest destruction. It is estimated that only 5% of the original forest in these two countries remains today (WWF and IUCN 1994). In Lebanon there has been a recent decline in the forest in Tannourine due to the insect Cephalcia tannourinensis. The weakened trees are then attacked by two further pests which belong to the genera Ernobius and Dasineura (Talhouk 2001). The Lebanese forests of Shouf are being debilitated by the cedar moth (Dichelia sp.). Further threats in Lebanon include urbanization, selective felling for use in the craft industry, severe damage from the activities of winter sports and grazing by goats (Khuri and Talhouk 1999).
In Cypress, the main threats are fire and possibly climate changes. Because of the narrow distribution of this species, one fire has the potential of destroying most, if not the entire population. More recently, research has shown a direct correlation between decreasing annual rainfall and canopy die-back. Debilitated trees have also become prone to insect attack (Christou et al. 2001).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Many Cedrus libani forests are in protected areas yet they still suffer from degradation. All remnant forests in Lebanon are protected, including the cedars of Bsharre which are now in a World Heritage Site containing a small stand of the oldest and largest cedar specimens known (Beals 1965). Despite laws forbidding damage to the cedar trees there is little enforcement; encroachment by housing development is a serious threat to the trees. In Turkey the testing topography of the Taurus mountains together with the forestry infrastructure have greatly aided the preservation of remnant forests (Khuri and Talhouk 1999). Here there have also been extensive planting projects, for example between 1994 and 1996, 5,750 ha of cedar trees were planted, some of which are outside the natural range of the species (Boydak 1996). The small fragmented stand in Syria is part of the 'Cedar-Fir Protected Area'. Seed set is low and there is evidence of insect damage to the cones (Musselman 1999). In Lebanon and Syria a more integrated and better coordinated approach (such as exists in Turkey) is needed. Particular attention is needed in conserving old-growth stands which will soon be lost through poor regeneration and natural death as such stands are important sources of genetic material for reforestation and habitat restoration (Khuri and Talhouk 1999).
In Cypress all the stands have recently been declared as Natura 2000 Sites while some were designated as National Nature Reserves in 1984 and 2000. All human activities and grazing are excluded from the native stands. There is an effective fire protection system in place and a permanent monitoring plan. Gene banks have also been established in the form of ex situ conservation plantations.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Traditional people in southern Turkey produce a wood extract, called katran, from C. libani, and use it to protect wooden structures against insects and fungi, to fight parasites and bacteria, and to heal wounds and cure various diseases in humans and domestic animals, both internally and externally. Kurt et al. (2008) discuss traditional methods of producing katran, its use by local people, and its chemical composition.

The wood of Lebanon Cedar has been greatly appreciated since ancient times for its durability, density, color, and insecticidal properties (Fady et al. 2008). According to biblical references, wood from this tree was used in the construction of King Solomon's temple (Choukas-Bradley and Alexander 1987).

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Wikipedia

Cedrus libani

Cedrus libani is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Mediterranean region.[1][2][3]

Lebanon Cedar in the Forest of the Cedars of God. Person shows scale.

There are two distinct types of Cedrus libani that are considered to be different subspecies or varieties:

Description[edit]

Cedrus libani is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 40 m (130 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in diameter. The crown is conic when young, becoming broadly tabular with age with fairly level branches.

The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots and short shoots. The leaves are needle-like, spaced out on the long shoots, and in clusters of 15-45 on the short shoots; they are 5–30 mm (14–1 316 in) in length, quadrangular in cross-section, and vary from green to glaucous blue-green with stomatal bands on all four sides. The seed cones are produced often every second year, and mature in 12 months from pollination; mature cones in late autumn are 8–12 cm (3–4 34 in) long and 4–6 cm (1 12–2 38 in) wide.

Taxonomy[edit]

Cedrus libani was first classified by the French botanist Achille Richard. There are two distinct types that are considered either as subspecies or varieties:

Some botanists also classify the Cyprus Cedar (Cedrus brevifolia)[4] and Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica)[5][6] as subspecies of C. libani. However, a majority of the modern sources[1][7][8][9][10][11][12] consider them distinct species.

Ecology[edit]

In Lebanon and Turkey it occurs most abundantly at altitudes of 1,000-2,000 m (3,300–6,500 ft), where it forms pure forests or mixed forests with Cilician Fir (Abies cilicica), European Black Pine (Pinus nigra), and several juniper (Juniperus) species. On Cyprus, it occurs at 1,000-1,525 m (3,300–5,000 ft) (reaching the summit of Mount Paphos). In the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, it occurs at 1,370–2,200 m (4,500–7,200 ft) in pure forests or mixed with Abies species and Juniperus thurifera.[1]

History, symbolism and uses[edit]

Cedar of Lebanon cone showing flecks of resin
Male cone of Cedar of Lebanon

The Cedar of Lebanon was important to various ancient civilizations. The trees were used by the Phoenicians for building commercial and military ships, as well as houses, palaces, and temples. The ancient Egyptians used its resin in mummification, and its sawdust has been found in the tombs of Egyptian Pharaohs. The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh designates the cedar groves of Lebanon as the dwelling of the gods to which Gilgamesh, the hero, ventured.

Hebrew priests were ordered by Moses to use the bark of the Lebanon Cedar in the cleansing ceremony following the conclusion of a period of leprosy.[13] The Hebrew prophet Isaiah used the Lebanon Cedar as a metaphor for the pride of the world.[14] According to the Talmud, Jews once burned Lebanese cedar wood on the Mount of Olives to celebrate the new year. Foreign rulers from both near and far would order the wood for religious and civil constructs, the most famous of which are King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem and David's and Solomon's Palaces. Because of its significance the word Cedar is mentioned 75 times (Cedar 51 times, Cedars 24 times) in the Bible, and played a pivotal role in the cementing of the Phoenician-Hebrew relationship.[clarification needed] Beyond that, it was also used by Romans, Greeks, Persians, Assyrians and Babylonians.

Over the centuries, extensive deforestation has occurred, with only small remnants of the original forests surviving. Deforestation has been particularly severe in Lebanon and on Cyprus; on Cyprus, only small trees up to 25 m (82 ft) tall survive, though Pliny the Elder recorded cedars 40 m (130 ft) tall there.[15] Extensive reforestation of cedar is carried out in the Mediterranean region, particularly Turkey, where over 50 million young cedars are being planted annually.[16] The Lebanese populations are also now expanding through a combination of replanting and protection of natural regeneration from browsing by goats, hunting, forest fires, and woodworms.[17]

Historically, there were various attempts at conserving the Lebanon Cedars. The first was made by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who issued a decree protecting parts of the Cedars of Lebanon in AD 118. In the Middle Ages, the Mamluk Caliphs also made an attempt at conserving the Cedars and regulating their use, followed by the Maronite Patriarch Yusuf Hbaych, who placed them under his protection in 1832. In 1876, Queen Victoria financed a wall to protect the Cedars of God (near Bsharri) from the ravages of goat herding.

National and regional significance[edit]

The Lebanese flag, with the Lebanon Cedar in the middle

The Lebanon Cedar is the national emblem of Lebanon, and is displayed on the Lebanese flag and coat of arms. It is also the logo of Middle East Airlines (MEA), which is Lebanon's national carrier. Beyond that, it is also the main symbol of Lebanon's "Cedar Revolution", along with many Lebanese political parties and movements, such as the Kataeb (Phalange), the Lebanese Forces, the National Liberal Party, and the Future Movement.[18] Finally, Lebanon is sometimes metonymically referred to as the Land of the Cedars.[19][20]

As a result of long exploitation, few old trees remain in Lebanon, but there is now an active program to conserve and regenerate the forests. The Lebanese approach has emphasized natural regeneration rather than planting, and this by creating the right conditions. The Lebanese state has created several Cedar Reserves or nature reserves that contain cedars, including the Chouf Cedar Reserves, the Jaj Cedar Reserve, the Tannourine Reserve, the Ammouaa and Karm Shbat Reserves in the Akkar district, and the Forest of the Cedars of God near Bsharri.[21][22][23] Extensive replanting is taking place in Turkey, where approximately 300 square kilometres (74,000 acres) of cedar are planted annually.[17]

Horticultural use[edit]

The Lebanon Cedar is widely planted as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, often being planted in landscape avenues, and as focal point trees in large landscapes. The most prominent landscaping feature in London's historic Highgate Cemetery is its "Circle of Lebanon", where a Lebanon Cedar stands in the centre of a circular trench cut into the ground and lined with mausoleums.[24] Alarmingly, very mature specimens drop branches - perhaps weighing two or three tons - without warning and not necessarily in bad weather. As a result, you may see one where risk to life is more likely, i.e. overhanging pavements or road junctions with restraining 'harnesses' on branches run back up to the central trunk.

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[25]

See also[edit]

Lebanon cedar forest in Mesopotamian mythology
old growth Cedrus libani forest and World Heritage Site

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3-87429-298-3.
  2. ^ Greuter, W., Burdet, H. M., & Long, G. (eds.), (1984). Med-Checklist – A critical inventory of vascular plants of the circum-mediterranean countries. Cedrus libani
  3. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Cedrus libani. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  4. ^ GRIN Taxonomy for Plants Cedrus.
  5. ^ Güner, A., Özhatay, N., Ekim, T., & Başer, K. H. C. (ed.). 2000. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 11 (Supplement 2): 5–6. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1409-5
  6. ^ Eckenwalder, J. E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-974-3.
  7. ^ Gymnosperm database Cedrus.
  8. ^ NCBI Taxonomy Browser Cedrus.
  9. ^ Flora of China vol. 4
  10. ^ Qiao, C.-Y., Jin-Hua Ran, Yan Li and Xiao-Quan Wang (2007): Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cedrus (Pinaceae) Inferred from Sequences of Seven Paternal Chloroplast and Maternal Mitochondrial DNA Regions. Annals of Botany 100(3):573-580. Available online
  11. ^ Farjon, A. (2008). A Natural History of Conifers. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-869-0.
  12. ^ Christou, K. A. (1991). The genetic and taxonomic status of Cyprus Cedar, Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.) Henry. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Greece.
  13. ^ Leviticus 14:1-4
  14. ^ Isaiah 2:13
  15. ^ Willan, R. G. N. (1990). The Cyprus Cedar. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Yearbk. 1990: 115-118.
  16. ^ Anon. History of Turkish Forestry. Turkish Ministry of Forestry.
  17. ^ a b Khuri, S., & Talhouk, S. N. (1999). Cedar of Lebanon. Pages 108-111 in Farjon, A., & Page, C. N. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Conifers. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. ISBN 2-8317-0465-0.
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  19. ^ Budge, E.A.W. (2010). The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians. HardPress. p. 261. 
  20. ^ Cromer, G. (2004). A war of words: political violence and public debate in Israel. Cass series on political violence. Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-5631-1. 
  21. ^ Talhouk, S. N. & Zurayk, S. 2003. Conifer conservation in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 411-414.
  22. ^ Semaan, M. & Haber, R. 2003. In situ conservation on Cedrus libani in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 415-417.
  23. ^ Cedars of Lebanon Nature Reserve
  24. ^ Highgatecemetery.net
  25. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Cedrus libani". Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
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