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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the California (USA): Mendocino, Sonoma, Santa Cruz, San Mateo and Monterey Counties.
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Global Range: Monterey, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties, California.

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border

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Occurrence in North America

CA HI

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Gowen cypress is restricted to the Coast Ranges of central and
northwestern California [14,22,26]. Gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana
ssp. goveniana) occurs in only two areas of Monterey County, California:
Huckleberry Hill, and between San Jose Creek and Gibson Creek [26].
Mendocino cypress occurs in a narrow, discontinuous strip along the
Mendocino County coast known as the "Mendocino White Plains" or "pine
barrens" [26,27]. A grove also occurs in Sonoma County [26]. Gowen
cypress is cultivated in Hawaii [32].
  • 14. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 22. Smith, James Payne, Jr.; Berg, Ken. 1988. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th ed. Special Publication No. 1. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. 168 p. [7494]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 32. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]

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Calif.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: tree

Gowen cypress is a native, evergreen tree. It has a bushy growth form and grows
from 16.5 to 23 feet (5-7 m) tall [5,18,27]. Mendocino cypress has a
single, slender trunk and sparse crown [18,27]. It grows from 3.3 to
6.6 feet (1-2 m) tall on sterile soils and from 33 to 165 feet (10-50 m)
tall on richer soils [5,18,27]. Mature leaves of both subspecies are
0.04 to 0.08 inches (1-2 mm) long, although they can be up to 0.4 inch
(10 mm) long on vigorous shoots [27]. Ovulate cones are solitary, up to
0.8 inch (20 mm) long. Staminate cones are 0.12 to 0.16 inch (3-4 mm)
long [18,27]. The bark is smooth and fibrous, becoming rougher with
age. It can be several centimeters thick [5,27]. The bark of Mendocino
cypress occurs in strips, peeling easily after death of the tree, but
otherwise intact [27]. Gowen cypress forms a well-defined taproot and
numerous laterals the first year [8,27]. The root systems of
Gowen cypress are extensive and shallow, less than 1 foot (30 cm) deep
[26].
  • 18. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 5. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 8. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]

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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Primary plant stem smooth, Tree with bark smooth, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Leaves opposite, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds black, Seeds winged, Seeds equally winged, Seed wings narrower than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Shrubs or small trees to 5 m tall; bark smooth or rough, fibrous; crown globose to columnar, dense or sparse; branchlets not arranged in a plane, ultimate ones 4-angled, ca. 1 mm in diam. Leaves green, not glaucous, without a conspicuous abaxial gland, apex acute. Pollen cones 3-4 × 1.5-2 mm; microsporophylls each with 3-6 pollen sacs. Seed cones grayish brown, not glaucous, globose, 1-2.5(-3) × 1-1.5 cm; cone scales 6-10, each fertile scale with numerous seeds. Seeds 3-4(-5) mm.
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Description

Shrubs or small trees usually to 10 m, but to 50 m under favorable conditions, or bearing cones at as little as 2 dm on shallow hardpan soils; crown globose to columnar, dense or sparse. Bark smooth or rough, fibrous. Branchlets decussate, 1--1.5 mm diam. Leaves without abaxial gland or sometimes with embedded abaxial gland that does not produce drop of resin, not glaucous. Pollen cones 3--4 ´ 1.5--2 mm; pollen sacs 3--6. Seed cones globose, 1--2.5(--3) cm, grayish brown, not glaucous; scales 3--5 pairs, smooth, umbo nearly flat at maturity. Seeds 3--4(--5) mm, dark brown to jet black, sometimes slightly glaucous.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Cupressus abramsiana C. B. Wolf; C. goveniana var. abramsiana (C. B. Wolf) Little; C. goveniana var. pigmaea Lemmon; C. pigmaea (Lemmon) Sargent
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in chaparral, 'pine barrens', and open pine woodland with Pinus attenuata, P. contorta, P. muricata, P. ponderosa, P. radiata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Arctostaphylos, Quercus, and Rhododendron, often in groves of up to 1000 trees or more; on sandstone outcrops, white or yellow sandy slopes, and leached, virtually sterile sandy 'hardpan', where it becomes dwarfed. The altitudinal range is from near sea level to 1200 m a.s.l. The climate is of the Mediterranean type with dry, hot summers, but in a narrow coastal strip cooled by frequent fog, and winter rain.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Closed-cone coniferous forest of the coastal ranges of the coastal ranges of California, often with Pinus muricata (Bishop pine).

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Habitat characteristics

Gowen cypress is confined to poorly drained, acidic, podzolic soils,
usually on exposed sites [16,26]. In Mendocino County, these areas are
flooded during the winter, forming shallow bogs or ponds [26,27].

Gowen cypress occurs at elevations from 100 to 990 feet (30-300 m). Mendocino
cypress occurs at elevations below 1,650 feet (500 m) [26].
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: natural

Gowen cypress can occur in dense thickets as well as in open groves.
Dense thickets are common in regenerating burns [26]. In Monterey
County, Gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana) and bishop
pine (P. muricata) form almost impenetrable thickets [16]. In some
areas Gowen cypress is associated with closed-cone coniferous woodlands
and closed-cone pine-cypress forests [5,24,26].

Mendocino cypress is associated with redwood (Sequoia
sempervirens)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and other north coast
coniferous forests in Mendocino County [26]. This subspecies is also a
component of the Mendocino pygmy cypress forest, which intergrades with
upland redwood and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)-grand fir (Abies
grandis
) forests [6].

Gowen cypress (C. g. ssp. goveniana) is a component of the Monterey
pygmy cypress forest, which intergrades with Monterey pine (Pinus
radiata
) forest on deep soils [6].

Publications naming Gowen cypress as a community dominant are listed
below.

Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of
California [6]
The vascular plant communities of California [24]
The closed-cone pines and cypress [26]

Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with Gowen
cypress include Monterey cypress (Hesperocyparis macrocarpa), Mendocino White
Plains lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. bolanderi), shore pine (P.
c. ssp. contorta), valley oak (Quercus lobata), Coulter willow (Salix
coulteri
), Monterey ceanothus (Ceanothus rigidus), glory brush (C.
gloriosus var. exaltatus), waveyleaf ceanothus (C. foliosus), sandmat
manzanita (Arctostaphylos pumila), Hooker manzanita (A. hookeri), hairy
manzanita (A. columbiana), glossyleaf manzanita (A. nummularia),
Eastwood manzanita (A. glandulosa), Pacific bayberry (Myrica
californica
), giant chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla), salal
(Gaultheria shallon), Eastwood's goldenbush (Enceliopsis fasciculata),
chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium
ovatum
), Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum), coast
Labrador tea (Ledum glandulosum var. columbianum), navarretia
(Navarretia atractyloides), skunkweed (N. squarrosa), bush monkeyflower
(Mimulus aurantiacus), evergreen violet (Viola sempervirens), pink sand
verbena (Abronia umbellata), Monterey sedge (Carex montereyensis),
California canarygrass (Phalaris californica), and beargrass
(Xerophyllum tenax) [6,7,16,24,26].
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 24. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 5. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 6. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 7. Howitt, Beatrice F.; Howell, John Thomas. 1964. The vascular plants of Monterey County, California. Wasmann Journal of Biology. 22(1): 1-184. [22168]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

229 Pacific Douglas-fir
232 Redwood
234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone
248 Knobcone pine
255 California coast live oak

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K006 Redwood forest
K009 Pine - cypress forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K030 California oakwoods
K033 Chaparral

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES27 Redwood
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub

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Coastal closed-cone pine forests, especially on sterile soils; 60--800m.
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Jiangsu [native to W United States]
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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the term: fire suppression

Fires occurring too frequently in Gowen cypress groves may destroy them,
as reproduction could be eliminated before it has a chance to produce
cones. Conversely, fire suppression could threaten the species [1].
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]

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Plant Response to Fire

Gowen cypress trees release large quantities of seed after fire [27].
Both subspecies produce dense thickets after fire [26]. The Huckleberry
Hill grove of Gowen cypress in Monterey County was reduced from over 100 acres
(40 ha) to only a few hectares by a 1901 fire. By 1948, the grove had almost
returned to its prefire size [26].
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Most fires probably kill Gowen cypress. Cypress thickets are conducive
to crown fires, which kill most trees. Some trees survive when fires
are patchy [26]. Large trees could probably survive surface fires.

Cones of the California cypress species open as the resin melts and
boils. Rapid charring of the thick cone scales extinguishes the flames,
leaving seeds unburned [1].
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: crown residual colonizer, root crown

Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: serotinous

Gowen cypress is a fire-adapted, fire-dependent species [13,26]. It has
slightly fire-resistant bark and serotinous cones. Its low branching
habit makes it susceptible to crown fires [1,26]. The serotinous cones
of the California cypress species persist on trees for years [13,28].
Cone opening is erratic and almost negligible except when cones are
exposed to extreme heat; then it is rapid and uniform [16,28]. When
opened by the heat of a fire, the seeds fall on exposed mineral soil
[13,27]. Most seed falls in the first few months following fire [28].
Fires that occur in late summer and fall and are followed by winter
rains ensure seed dissemination on bare mineral substrates and moist
conditions for germination [26]. Successful cypress reproduction is
generally restricted to burned sites [26]. No information was available
on fire-free intervals for communities dominated by Gowen cypress.
Tecate cypress (Hesperocyparis forbesii), however, a
cypress found in southern California, has an average interval between
fires of 25 years, ranging from 15 to 63 years [1,26]. Cypress trees of
southern California generally reach cone-bearing age before another fire
occurs [26].
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 28. Zedler, Paul H. 1986. Closed-cone conifers of the chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 14-17. [18648]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

Facultative Seral Species

Site requirements for cypress seedlings are typical of those for pioneer
conifers. Seedlings are shade intolerant and survive best in full
sunlight on bare mineral soil [1,26]. According to Armstrong [1],
cypress trees of southern California are very sensitive to lack of
light, losing their foliage when growing in shade.
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: litter, tree

Gowen cypress reproduces exclusively from seed. Mendocino cypress cone
production is abundant on dwarfed and mature trees, but is rare or
absent on young vigorous trees [27]. Staminate cones are usually first
produced when trees are 6 to 7 years old, but have developed on 1- and
2-year-old seedlings of Mendocino cypress and Gowen cypress, respectively [8,27].
Ovulate cones are produced on trees that are 4 years of age or older. The
cones require 2 years to mature [1,27], and contain from 90 to 130 seeds [8,27].
The cones of California cypress are closed; they persist on the tree until
opened by the heat of a fire or from desiccation due to age [8,26].
Seeds are shed gradually over several months after the cones open [26].
Detached cones will open, but they rarely result in seedling
establishment, usually due to lack of a suitable seedbed [1]. Seed
dispersal is primarily by wind and rain [26].

Gowen cypress germination rates range from 23 to 53 percent [16]. Seeds
require bare mineral soil for germination and establishment. Seedling
mortality is high on shaded sites with abundant litter because of
damping-off fungi [1,26]. Seedlings are sensitive to excessive moisture
[27].
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 8. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Cypress species pollination occurs in late fall and spring [27]. Seeds
mature 15 to 18 months after pollination. Ovulate cones remain closed
until opened by heat or age [8,27].
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 8. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hesperocyparis goveniana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hesperocyparis goveniana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Callitropsis goveniana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The assessment of the species as a whole is driven by that of the nominate variety (var. goveniana) as it has the greatest extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) as well as numbers of mature individuals. This variety was assessed as Endangered under the B criterion. The area of occupancy for the species is estimated as 180 km2, with severe fragmentation. The continuing decline in area of occupancy, extent of habitat and number of mature individuals lead to this species being assessed as EN B2ab(ii,iii,v).

History
  • 1998
    Vulnerable
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Endemic to California, Cupressus goveniana occurs across a very narrow range as two subspecies, ssp. goveniana and ssp. pigmaea. There are 26 recent (1980's) occurrences that are presumed extant, plus seven historic and one extirpated. Threats to this species are development, vehicle use, recreational activity, and competition with non-native plants.

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The California Native Plant Society [22] lists Gowen cypress as a 1B
plant: rare in California.
  • 22. Smith, James Payne, Jr.; Berg, Ken. 1988. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th ed. Special Publication No. 1. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. 168 p. [7494]

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U.S. Federal Legal Status

Cupressus goveniana subsp. goveniana is Threatened [31].
  • 31. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Species Program, [Online]

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Population

Population
The total population of this species probably consists of fewer than 2,300 mature individuals, perhaps unless the dwarfed individuals with seed cones on the Mendocino “white plains” are also counted as such.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Urbanization, agriculture (conversion of wild land to pasture), and changes in fire regimes are threats to this species.
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Comments: Development, vehicles, altered fire regimes, competition with non-native plants.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Some (parts of) subpopulations are within protected areas.
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Biological Research Needs: Research optimum management for this taxon.

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Management considerations

Grazing and trampling by livestock are detrimental to cypress seedlings.
Fire followed by intensive grazing could eliminate a cypress grove [1].

Gowen cypress grows best on the coast. Although waterlogged soils may
result in dwarfed trees, Gowen cypress could be safely used for low
hedges and windbreaks because of its dense growth habit [26,27].

Gowen cypress seedlings are susceptible to damping-off fungi [26]. Both
subspecies are highly susceptible to coryneum canker (Coryneum
cardinale
), which can kill trees [27]. Fungicides are effective in
preventing the spread of the disease but cannot eradicate it once
infection has begun [27].
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Rodents and deer consume cypress seedlings [27]. Cypress are considered
undesirable forage for livestock, although young plants are occasionally
browsed [27].
  • 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Wood Products Value

More info for the term: density

Cypress (Hesperocyparis spp.) wood is generally durable and stable. It is
suitable for a wide range of exterior uses including joinery, shingles,
and boats. Possible interior uses include moulding and panelling [29].
Cypress shelterbelts provide good firewood. Most cypress species
develop a large proportion of heartwood, which splits well, dries
quickly, and is clean burning. Cypress wood is moderately fast burning
because of its medium density. As cypress woods are prone to sparking,
they are recommended only for enclosed fires [29].
  • 29. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]

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Wikipedia

Cupressus goveniana

Cupressus goveniana is a species of cypress endemic to coastal California in the United States, where it is found in small, scattered populations, not in large forests.

Description[edit]

It is an evergreen tree with a conic to ovoid-conic crown, very variable in size, with mature trees of under 1 m (3 ft 3 in) on some sites, to 50 m (160 ft) tall in ideal conditions. The foliage grows in dense sprays, dark green to somewhat yellow-green in color. The leaves are scale-like, 2–5 mm (0.08–0.20 in) long, and produced on rounded (not flattened) shoots. The seed cones are globose to oblong, 11–22 mm (0.43–0.87 in) long, with 6 to 10 scales, green at first, maturing brown or gray-brown about 20–24 months after pollination. The cones remain closed for many years, only opening after the parent tree is killed in a wildfire, thereby allowing the seeds to colonize the bare ground exposed by the fire. The male cones are 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) long, and release pollen in February/March; typically, cones of C. goveniana are smaller than those of C. macrocarpa.

Taxonomy[edit]

There are two or three varieties, treated as distinct species by some botanists:

Monterey County, strictly coastal, within 3 km (1.9 mi) of the coast and below 200 m (660 ft) altitude. Foliage dark green, not rough, with leaf tips not spreading; cones globose.
Mendocino and Sonoma counties, coastal, within 10 km (6.2 mi) of the coast and below 500 m (1,600 ft) altitude. Doubtfully distinguishable from var. goveniana, with very similar foliage and cones. More modern taxonomic thinking classifies Mendocino Cypress as a separate species Cupressus pigmaea, and not a variety of C. goveniana.
Santa Cruz and San Mateo counties, in the Santa Cruz Mountains 10–20 km (6.2–12 mi) inland and at 300–760 m (980–2,490 ft) altitude. More distinct, and could well be a valid species, with yellow–green foliage slightly rough-textured from the acute and slightly spreading leaf tips; cones often oval. It also shows similarities to Cupressus sargentii.

Ecology[edit]

Gowen cypress occurs with Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, in the only two groves where C. macrocarpa is known to occur naturally.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Farjon (2011). "Cupressus goveniana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved November 29, 2013. 
  2. ^ C. Michael Hogan & Michael P. Frankis (January 27, 2009). "Monterey Cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa". iGoTerra. 
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Notes

Comments

Populations from the three regions of Cupressus goveniana ---north coast, Santa Cruz Mountains, and Monterey Peninsula---differ in foliage and seed characters and have been treated as varieties or species; additional interpopulational variation occurs within these regions. Trees from Santa Cruz Mountain populations may have originated through hybidization with C . sargentii (E. Zavarin et al. 1971). The pygmy forests of this species and Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon on the shallow hardpan soils of coastal terraces of the Mendocino white plains are a remarkable example of phenotypic plasticity.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

Gowen cypress

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Synonyms

Callitropsis goveniana (Gordon) D.P. Little [36]
Cupressus goveniana Gord. [1,5,12,13,35]
Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana Gord., Gowen cypress
Cupressus goveniana ssp. pygmaea (Lemm.) Bartel, Mendocino or pygmy cypress [5,30]
Cupressus pygmaea (Lemmon) Sarg. [18]
Neocupressus goveniana (Gordon) de Laub. [34]
  • 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 12. Ledig, F. Thomas. 1987. Genetic structure and the conservation of California's endemic and near-endemic conifers. In: Elias, T. S., ed. Conference on the conservation and management of rare and endangered plants: Proceedings of symposium; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 18. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 30. Bartel, Jim A. 1991. Nomenclatural changes in Dudleya (Crassulaceae) and Cupressus (Cupressaceae). Phytologia. 70(4): 229-230. [22637]
  • 34. de Laubenfels, D. J. 2009. Nomenclatural actions for the New World cypresses (Cupressaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 19(3): 300-306. [87295]
  • 35. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2013. Flora of North America north of Mexico, [Online]
  • 36. Little, Damon P. 2006. Evolution and circumscription of the true cypresses (Cupressaceae: Cupressus). Systematic Botany. 31(3): 461-480. [87294]
  • 5. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]

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The currently accepted scientific name of Gowen cypress is Hesperocyparis goveniana (Gordon) Bartel [25,33].

Mendocino cypress was previously considered a variety of Gowen cypress,
but was been given subspecies status by J. Bartel [30] (see Synonyms).
  • 25. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2013. PLANTS Database, [Online]
  • 30. Bartel, Jim A. 1991. Nomenclatural changes in Dudleya (Crassulaceae) and Cupressus (Cupressaceae). Phytologia. 70(4): 229-230. [22637]
  • 33. Baldwin, Bruce G.; Goldman, Douglas H.; Keil, David J.; Patterson, Robert; Rosatti, Thomas J.; Wilken, Dieter H., eds. 2012. The Jepson manual. Vascular plants of California, second edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1568 p. [86254]

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