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Overview

Brief Summary

Juniperus communis, the common juniper—also known as ground juniper (although ground juniper is often classified as var. depress)—is a wide-ranging shrub or small tree in the Cupressaceae (cypress family) native to cool temperate areas in the Northern Hemisphere, and may have one of the widest distributions of any woody plant. It is widely found in natural habitats, where its seed cones (“juniper berries”) and foliage are an important food source for numerous species of songbirds, ground-nesting birds, small mammals, and ungulate browsers, and there are dozens of horticultural cultivars for landscape and ornamental use (varying in form from spire-like to prostrate and trailing, and ranging in foliage color from blue to green to golden yellow). It is not used for timber due to its shrubby habit. The species has complex intraspecific variation, and according to one recent treatment, includes 7 major varieties: 3 in North America; 2 in northern Europe; and 1 in Japan. Some varieties, however, have very restricted habitat and distribution—for example, var. charlottensis occurs on Queen Charlotte island in British Columbia, Canada, in nearby Alaskan islands, and on adjacent parts of the British Columbia and Alaskan coasts—and are threatened by habitat degradation. Within North America, the ground juniper (var. depressa) is the most wide-ranging, extending through the northeastern U.S. and across much of Canada into Alaska, as well as extending south into the Rocky Mountains. It tends to grow well in disturbed areas, so its distribution has expanded during the past century. Juniperus communis is a shrub or small tree which has variable growth form, ranging from a low, spreading or upright shrub to a small tree, usually to 5 m (16.25 ft,) tall, but occasionally reaching heights up to 10 m (33 feet). Its leaves are sharp, needle-like but somewhat flattened, and ternate (occurring in threes), with a single white stomatal band on the upper side and a slight keel (ridge) on the underside. The species is dioecious—male and wind-pollinated female flowers grow on separate plants, and only female flowers develop seed cones, which have fused scales and are round and berry-like, up to 1 cm (0.5 in) in diameter. Seed cones ripen to blue or black with a glaucous (waxy) coating, and typically contain 3 to 6 seeds. The seed cones of various Juniperus species make up 2 to 5% of the diet of 66 species of North American mammals, and are also edible by humans—they add the characteristic flavor to gin, and they are featured in teas and herbal supplements. The species is often bird-dispersed, as seed germination rates may be higher following passage through a bird gut. (Adams 2008, Bailey et al. 1976, Martin et al. 1951, Royal Horticultural Society 2012.)

  • Adams, R.P. 2008. Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus. 2nd ed. Vancouver: Trafford Publishing Co. 402 p.
  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. p. 615–617.
  • Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife & plants a guide to wildlife food habits: the use of trees, shrubs, weeds, and herbs by birds and mammals of the United States. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior. New York: Dover. pp. 294–295.
  • Royal Horticultural Society. 2012. Juniperus communis. In Encyclopedia of Conifers: A Comprehensive Guide to Cultivars and Species. Accessed 12 February 2012 from http://coniferworld.com/listing.php?x=j&a=Juniperus&b=communis.
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Biology

Juniper is a slow-growing tree which may live for up to 200 years. It is dioecious, meaning the male and female flowers are on separate plants. Pollen is dispersed by the wind and the fertilised female flowers eventually produce a hard, green berry. These finally ripen to the well-known blue-black fruit, popular with the birds that are largely responsible for the spread of the tree.
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Description

There are at least two subspecies of juniper. The best known, J. communis communis, whose bushes vary between a metre and 10 metres tall, can form tall, conical spires and often appear to have been trimmed into exotic shapes. The evergreen leaves are dark green and the stems are fiercely prickly. The dark purple berries are famous for being used as flavouring for gin. The other subspecies of the plant, J. communis nana, is a matted shrub that grows close to the ground. There might also be a third subspecies, J. communis hemisphaerica, found on sea cliffs in Cornwall and Pembrokeshire. Juniper has been part of human life for centuries. The spiny branches were used as an early form of barbed wire and the berries, as well as flavouring, were used in ancient medicines for horses as well as humans.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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More info for the term: tree

Common juniper is possibly the most widely distributed tree in the world [78]. This circumboreal species occurs across North America, Europe, northern Asia and Japan [78,88]. Common juniper is almost completely circumpolar within the exception of a gap in the Bering Sea region [65]. It is widespread in North America beyond the northern limit of trees, occurring from western Alaska and British Columbia to Newfoundland, Greenland, and Iceland [78,88]. Common juniper extends southward through New England to the Carolinas and westward through northeastern Illinois, Indiana, northern Ohio, Minnesota, and Nebraska to the western mountains of Washington, California, Arizona, and New Mexico [47,56,78,88].

Distribution of North American varieties is as follows [47,56,78,88,136,63]:

Juniperus communis var. depressa northeastern North America, Idaho, Montana, the Great Plains, and Great Basin; found up to the low arctic in eastern North America

Juniperus communis var. montana high-northern latitudes, circumboreal [45]

  • 136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 45. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]
  • 63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. [23142]
  • 65. Hustich, Ilmari. 1953. The boreal limits of conifers. Arctic. 6: 149-162. [8257]
  • 78. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 88. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):



1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Occurrence in North America




AK AZ CA CO CT ID IN IA IL ME
MA MI MN MT NV NH NJ NM NY NC
ND NE OH OR PA RI SC SD UT VA
VT WA WI WV WY

 


AB BC LB MB NB NF NT NS ON PE
PQ SK YT

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Range

Junipers are found across most of the UK and are one of our three native conifers, the other two being Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and yew (Taxus baccata). However, it is extremely irregular in its distribution. The subspecies Juniperus communis communis is found in two main populations, one in the Scottish Highlands and the other on the southern English chalk. It is also abundant on parts of the Chilterns, the North Downs and especially Salisbury Plain. Juniperus communis nana is chiefly restricted to north-west Scotland's mountainous regions. Elsewhere, juniper is a widespread tree, found across both temperate and sub-arctic zones.
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Distribution: Alpine and arctic Europe and Asia, N. Africa, N. America.
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Including geographic varieties, this species is the most widely distributed native conifer in both North America and the world. (NPIN, 2007)

USA: AL , AK , AZ , CA , CO , CT , DE , GA , ID , IL , IN , IA , KY , ME , MD , MA , MI , MN , MT , NE , NV , NH , NJ , NM , NY , NC , ND , OH , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , UT , VT , VA , WA , WV , WI , WY (NPIN, 2007)

Canada: AB , BC , MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK (NPIN, 2007)

Native Distribution: Widespread from Alaska east to Labrador and S. Greenland, south to New York, and west to Minnesota and Wyoming; also south in mountains to NW. South Carolina and central Arizona; also Iceland and across N. Eurasia; to 8000-11,5000 (2438-3505 m) in south. (NPIN, 2007)

Native: (USDA GRIN, 2007)

AFRICA

Northern Africa: Algeria [n.]; Morocco

ASIA-TEMPERATE

Western Asia: Afghanistan; Turkey

Caucasus: Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan

Siberia: Russian Federation - Eastern Siberia, Western Siberia

Soviet Middle Asia: Kazakhstan [e.]; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan

Soviet Far East: Russian Federation - Kamchatka, Kurile Islands, Sakhalin

China: China - Jilin, Xinjiang, Xizang

Eastern Asia: Japan - Hokkaido, Honshu; Korea

ASIA-TROPICAL

Indian Subcontinent: Nepal; Pakistan

EUROPE

Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom

Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland

East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine [incl. Krym]

Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece;

Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Romania

Southwestern Europe: France [incl. Corsica]; Portugal; Spain

NORTHERN AMERICA

Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory;

United States - Alaska

Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec

Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan

Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont

North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois [n. & e.], Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota [n.w.], Wisconsin

Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming

Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Georgia [n.], North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia

South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico

Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: shrub, tree, tundra

Common juniper is a native, evergreen shrub or columnar tree [78,136]. Throughout most of North America, common juniper most often grows as a low, decumbent mat-forming shrub reaching up to 4.9 feet (1.5 m) in height and 7.6 to 13.1 feet (2-4 m) across [47,123]. In parts of New England common juniper occasionally grows up to 25 feet (7.6 m) in height, and a treelike growth form is reportedly common in Europe [78]. Height at maturity can range from 2 to 50 feet (0.6-15.3 m) [66]. At polar limits, common juniper grows as a dwarf shrub in forest tundra [65].

The bark of common juniper is thin, shreddy or scaly, often exfoliating into thin strips [56,123]. Twigs tend to be yellowish or green when young but turn brown and harden with age [47,123]. Leaves are simple, stiff and arranged in whorls of 3 [56,123]. Younger leaves tend to be more needlelike whereas mature leaves are scalelike [88].

Male strobili are sessile or stalked, and female strobili are made up of green, ovate or acuminate scales [123]. Berrylike cones are red at first, ripening to a glaucous bluish-black [66].

Morphological characteristics including growth form differ somewhat according to variety. General botanical characteristics by variety are as follows [56,75,123,136]:

Juniperus communis var. depressa - rarely greater than 3 feet (1 m) tall
Juniperus communis var. montana A- low, trailing, mat-forming shrub, stems freely branched, usually less than 3 feet (0.9 m) tall

Individuals can live for more than 170 years [31].

  • 123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]
  • 65. Hustich, Ilmari. 1953. The boreal limits of conifers. Arctic. 6: 149-162. [8257]
  • 66. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr.; Alexander, Robert A. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 460-469. [1268]
  • 75. Lee, Lyndon C.; Pfister, Robert D. 1978. A training manual for Montana forest habitat types. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 142 p. [1434]
  • 78. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 88. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702]

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Physical Description

Tree, Shrub, Evergreen, Dioecious, Habit erect, Plants prostrate or spreading, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark shaggy or peeling, Young shoots in flat sprays, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Leaves whorled, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaf apex mucronulate, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scales leaves not or barely overlapping, Scale leaves overlapping, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones brown, Berry-like cones pink, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds tan, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless.
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Description

Dioecious, shrubby decumbent plant. Branches dense. Leaves in whorls of threes, 8‑12 x 2‑4 mm, subulate, pungent, jointed at base, ± curved to suberect. Male cones axillary, c. 8 mm long; Female cones solitary, 20 mm long, scales 3. Fruit subglobose, bluish‑black, 8‑12 mm broad. Seeds 2‑3, ovoid.
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Description

Shrubs or small trees dioecious, to 4 m (if trees, to 10 m), multistemmed, decumbent or rarely upright; crown generally depressed. Bark brown, fibrous, exfoliating in thin strips, that of small branchlets (5--10 mm diam.) smooth, that of larger branchlets exfoliating in strips and plates. Branches spreading or ascending; branchlets erect, terete. Leaves green but sometimes appearing silver when glaucous, spreading, abaxial glands very elongate; adaxial surface with glaucous stomatal band; apex acute to obtuse, mucronate. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, of 2 distinct sizes, with straight peduncles, globose to ovoid, 6--13 mm, bluish black, glaucous, resinous to obscurely woody, with 2--3 seeds. Seeds 4--5 mm. 2 n = 22.
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Overall This tree/shrub grows in a semi-erect fashion. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)It is a "bun-like" shrub. (Weatherbee, 2006) It can be erect. (Peattie, 1930) May grow as shrubs or small trees. They are decumbent (ground hugging) or rarely upright, and the crown is generally depressed. (FNA, 2004) Usually a spreading low shrub, sometimes forming broad or prostrate clumps. It may rarely grow as a small tree with an open irregular crown. Although commonly a tree in Eurasia, Common Juniper is only rarely a small tree in New England and other northeastern United States. In the Western USA, it is a low shrub, often at timberline. (NPIN, 2007)

Flowers Flowers are yellow. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Juniper is dioecious (separate male and female plants). (FNA, 2004)

Fruit Fruit color is blue. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Berries are subglobose. (Peattie, 1930) Seed cones/fruit are two distinct sizes. The fruit have straight peduncles. Fruit are globose to ovoid, bluish black, glaucous (having a whitish waxy outer layer), and resinous to obscurely woody. Fruit bear 2-3 seeds. (FNA, 2004)

Leaves Foliage color is green. Foliage is dense year-round. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Foliage consists of prickly needles. (Weatherbee, 2006) Leaves are thin and straight. Leaves occur in whorls of 3 and are widely spreading. Leaves are free and jointed at base, prickly-pointed, and linear-subulate. They are channeled and whitened above, and grayish beneath. (Peattie, 2009) Leaves are green, but sometimes appearing silver when glaucous. They are spreading. Abaxial (away from leaf axis) glands are very elongate. Adaxial surface (toward stem) bears a glaucous stomatal band. Leaf apex can be acute to obtuse and is mucronate (abruptly projecting point). (FNA, 2004)

Stems Branches are erect and arching. (Weatherbee, 2006) It is multistemmed. Branches can be spreading or ascending. Branchlets are erect and terete (cylindrical or slightly tapering). (FNA, 2004)

Bark is brown, fibrous, and exfoliates in thin strips. That of small branchlets is smooth, while that of larger branchlets exfoliates in strips and plates. (FNA, 2004)

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Size

Plant Maximum height at 20 years is 5'. Height at maturity is 10.0'. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) It is 2-4 m tall. (Peattie, 1930) May grow to 4 m in shrub form, if trees to 10 m. (FNA, 2004)

Fruit is a berry 6-8 mm thick. (Peattie, 1930) Seed cones are 6-13 mm. Seeds are 4-5 mm. (FNA, 2004)

Leaves are 12-21 mm long x 1.5 mm broad at the base. (Peattie, 1930)

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Look Alikes

Juniperus communis is the most widespread juniper species, and many subspecies and varieties have been described. A major study, including chemical characters, is needed to clarify the taxonomy. (FNA, 2004)
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Ecology

Habitat

Arizona Mountains Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Arizona Mountain Forests, which extend from the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona to south of the Mogollon Plateau into portions of southwestern Mexico and eastern Arizona, USA. The species richness in this ecoregion is moderate, with vertebrate taxa numbering 375 species. The topography consists chiefly of steep foothills and mountains, but includes some deeply dissected high plateaus. Soil types have not been well defined; however, most soils are entisols, with alfisols and inceptisols in upland areas. Stony terrain and rock outcrops occupy large areas on the mountains and foothills.

The Transition Zone in this region (1980 to 2440 m in elevation) comprises a strong Mexican fasciation, including Chihuahua Pine (Pinus leiophylla) and Apache Pine (P. engelmannii) and unique varieties of Ponderosa Pine (P. ponderosa var. arizonica). Such forests are open and park-like and contain many bird species from Mexico seldom seen in the U.S.. The Canadian Zone (above 2000 m) includes mostly Rocky Mountain species of mixed-conifer communities such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmanni), Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and Corkbark Fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica). Dwarf Juniper (Juniperus communis) is an understory shrubby closely associated with spruce/fir forests. Exposed sites include Chihuahua White Pine (Pinus strobiformis), while disturbed north-facing sites consists primarily of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) or Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

There are a variety of mammalian species found in this ecoregion, including the endemic Arizona Gray Squirrel (Sciurus arizonensis), an herbivore who feeds on a wide spectrum of berries, bark and other vegetable material. Non-endemic mammals occurring in the ecoregion include: the Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys spectabilis NT); Desert Pocket Gopher (Geomys arenarius NT). In addition, there is great potential for restoring Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus) and Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations in the area because of its remoteness and juxtaposition to other ecoregions where these species were formerly prevalent.

There are few amphibians found in the Arizona mountain forests. Anuran species occurring here are: Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Southwestern Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus); New Mexico Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens); Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis VU); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia), a montane anuran found at the northern limit of its range in this ecoregion; Boreal Chorus Frog (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata); and Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor). The Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus NT) is an ecoregion endemic, found only in the Jemez Mountains of Los Alamos and Sandoval counties, New Mexico. Another salamander occurring in the ecoregion is the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

A number of reptilian taxa occur in the Arizona mountains forests, including: Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum NT), often associated with cacti or desert scrub type vegetation; Narrow-headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus), a near-endemic found chiefly in the Mogollon Rim area; Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense NT).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is largely a pioneer woodland species, occupying natural rock outcrops and other places with skeletal soil and abundant sunlight in woodland and light forest, both broad-leaf and coniferous forest (especially Pinus sylvestris-Betula spp.-Quercus spp.), in which it can obtain local dominance after disturbances (non-fire). It is also prevalent in the ecotone between open woodland and grassland on poor sandy soils and on stabilised inland sand dunes. It occurs often with Calluna vulgaris, Erica spp., Vaccinium spp., Arbutus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Ulex sp., Salix spp., and the above mentioned tree genera, in Russia also in grass steppes. The altitude ranges from 5 m to 2,400 m a.s.l. It seems very indifferent to soil type and occurs in dry sand, chalk downs, and loose (dolomitic) scree, as well as in acidic peat, with low or fluctuating ground water levels.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: heath, ultramafic soils

Common juniper can grow on a wide range of sites. It grows on dry, open, rocky, wooded hillsides, sand terraces, maritime escarpments, and on exposed slopes and plateaus throughout its range [18,31,47,50,123]. Common juniper grows along dunes or on dune heath in coastal areas of the Northeast and inland along the Great Lakes [23,101]. It has spread into abandoned fields and pastures in New England [101] and the upper Midwest during the past century. In the southeast it is found on isolated mountains [2].

This species grows on a variety of soil types including acidic and calcareous sands, loams, or marls [9]. It is tolerant of ultramafic soils [85]. In much of Europe common juniper is restricted to well-aerated soils somewhat deficient in both nitrogen and phosphorus. Growth on different soil types is rated as follows [32]:

gravel: fair to poor organics: fair to poor sand: fair to good acidic: fair sandy-loam: good saline: fair to poor loam: good sodic: poor clay loam: fair to poor sodic-saline: poor clay: fair to poor dense clay: poor The following elevational ranges have been reported for common juniper [54,136]:

6,230 to 11,148 feet (1900-3400 m) in CA
4,500 to 9,000 feet (1373-2745 m) in MT
5,295 to 11,065 feet (1615-3375 m) in UT
6,000 to 11,300 feet (1830-3955 m) in WY

Juniperus communis var. depressa grows in crevices in heath mats in Michigan and on nutrient-poor open habitats such as sand dunes or rocky outcrops in the Canadian subarctic [22,63].

  • 101. Phillips, Frank J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. [Volume unknown]: 60-73. [5848]
  • 123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 18. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. [6262]
  • 2. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola & J. virginiana of the southeastern U.S.: multivariate analyses of morphology & terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. [19792]
  • 22. Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and its development. II. Botanical Gazette. 55(2): 115-140. [11538]
  • 23. Cowles, Henry Chandler. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette. 27(4): 361-391. [11536]
  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]
  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 50. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. [23142]
  • 85. Millar, Constance I.; Marshall, Kimberly A. 1991. Allozyme variation of Port-Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana): implications for genetic conservation. Forest Science. 37(4): 1060-1077. [18336]
  • 9. Barkman, J. J. 1985. Geographical variation in associations of juniper scrub in the central European plain. Vegetatio. 59: 67-71. [3363]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: codominant



Common juniper is an indicator in a number of forest and
shrubland habitat types and community types. It grows as an
understory dominant with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa),
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine
(Pinus contorta), limber pine (P. flexilis),
white fir (Abies concolor), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii),
white spruce (P. glauca), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides),
blue spruce (Picea pungens), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis),
subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), or Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata).



Common associates in northern Utah include common snowberry
(Symphoricarpos albus), gooseberry currant
(Ribes montigenum), Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens),
hairy telegraphplant (Heterotheca villosa), timber
milkvetch (Astragalus miser), silvery
lupine (Lupinus argenteus), Thurber fescue
(Festuca thurberi), elk sedge (Carex geyeri), and
bottlebrush squirreltail
(Elymus elymoides) [84,90]. Common juniper is listed as a
codominant indicator species in the following classifications:



Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national
parks [1]

Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and
Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types [4]

Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern
Wyoming: a habitat type classification [5]

Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of
Arizona and New Mexico [6]

The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland
Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type
classification [49]

Preliminary forest habitat types of the Uinta Mountains, UT [51]

Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest
[52]

Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in
central Colorado: a habitat type classification [53]

Forest vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type
classification [57]

Forest vegetation of the Routt National Forest in northwest
Colorado: a habitat type classification [58]

Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and
Wyoming: a habitat type classification [59]

Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre
National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification
[72]

Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of
northern New Mexico and northern Arizona [74]

Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee
National Forest [76]

Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah [84]

Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region [89]

Aspen community types of Utah [90]

A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its
relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of
Mexico [91]

Forest habitat types of Montana [100]

Forest habitat types of central Idaho [122]

Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah [138]

Aspen community types on the Bridger-Teton National Forest in
western Wyoming [139]

Classification and gradient analysis of forest vegetation of
Cape Enrage, Bic Park, Quebec [140]

  • 1. Achuff, Peter L. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks. Natural Areas Journal. 9(1): 12-26. [7442]
  • 100. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. [1878]
  • 122. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. [2231]
  • 138. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mauk, Ronald L. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 89 p. [2684]
  • 139. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mueggler, Walter F. 1981. Aspen community types on the Bridger-Teton National Forest in western Wyoming. Res. Pap. INT-272. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 34 p. [2685]
  • 140. Zoladeski, C. A. 1988. Classification and gradient analysis of forest vegetation of Cape Enrage, Bic Park, Quebec. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 115(1): 9-18. [13610]
  • 4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. [5903]
  • 49. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R. 1988. The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-157. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. [771]
  • 5. Alexander, Robert R.; Hoffman, George R.; Wirsing, John M. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-271. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. [307]
  • 51. Henderson, Jan A.; Mauk, Ronald L.; Anderson, Donald L.; [and others]. 1977. Preliminary forest habitat types of the Uinta Mountains, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Department of Forestry and Outdoor Recreation. 94 p. [1126]
  • 52. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. [23405]
  • 53. Hess, Karl; Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in central Colorado: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-266. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1141]
  • 57. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1976. Forest vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-170. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 38 p. [1180]
  • 58. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1980. Forest vegetation of the Routt National Forest in northwestern Colorado: a habitat classification. Res. Pap. RM-221. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 41 p. [1179]
  • 59. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-276. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1181]
  • 6. Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [3515]
  • 72. Komarkova, Vera; Alexander, Robert R.; Johnston, Barry C. 1988. Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-163. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 65 p. [5798]
  • 74. Larson, Milo; Moir, W. H. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 2d ed. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. 90 p. [8947]
  • 76. Lillybridge, Terry R.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Williams, Clinton K.; Smith, Bradley G. 1995. Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 335 p. In cooperation with: Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest. [29851]
  • 84. Mauk, Ronald L.; Henderson, Jan A. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-170. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 89 p. [1553]
  • 89. Mueggler, Walter F. 1988. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-250. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [5902]
  • 90. Mueggler, Walter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 1986. Aspen community types of Utah. Res. Pap. INT-362. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 69 p. [1714]
  • 91. Muldavin, Esteban H.; DeVelice, Robert L. 1987. A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Gonzales Vicente, Carlos E.; Moir, William H., technical coordinators. Strategies for classification and management of native vegetation for food production in arid zones: Proceedings; 1987 October 12-16; Tucson, AZ. Gen, Tech. Rep. RM-150. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-31. [2728]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: shrub



109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

110 Ponderosa pine-grassland

216 Montane meadows

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue

401 Basin big sagebrush

410 Alpine rangeland

411 Aspen woodland

902 Alpine herb

904 Black spruce-lichen

907 Dryas

912 Low scrub shrub birch-ericaceous

916 Sedge-shrub tundra

920 White spruce-paper birch

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):


K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest

K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest

K005 Mixed conifer forest

K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest

K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest

K015 Western spruce-fir forest

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K017 Black Hills pine forest

K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest

K019 Arizona pine forest

K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest

K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest

K022 Great Basin pine forest

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K040 Saltbush-greasewood

K052 Alpine meadows and barren

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K063 Foothills prairie

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K065 Grama-buffalograss

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K081 Oak savanna

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):



FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES23 Fir-spruce

FRES26 Lodgepole pine

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES37 Mountain meadows

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES44 Alpine

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):



1 Jack pine

12 Black spruce

13 Black spruce-tamarack

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

16 Aspen

18 Paper birch

19 Gray birch-red maple

35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir

45 Pitch pine

107 White spruce

109 Hawthorn

110 Black oak

111 South Florida slash pine

201 White spruce

202 White spruce-paper birch

204 Black spruce

206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir

208 Whitebark pine

209 Bristlecone pine

210 Interior Douglas-fir

211 White fir

216 Blue spruce

217 Aspen

218 Lodgepole pine

219 Limber pine

220 Rocky Mountain juniper

229 Pacific Douglas-fir

230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock

237 Interior ponderosa pine

239 Pinyon-juniper

243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer

244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir

245 Pacific ponderosa pine

248 Knobcone pine

249 Canyon live oak

251 White spruce-aspen

252 Paper birch

253 Black spruce-white spruce

254 Black spruce-paper birch

256 California mixed subalpine

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Differing from the type variety in the decumbent habit and recurved larger leaves. Forms dense patches near the tree limit and up to 4200 m. Fruit medicinal.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Juniper is found on well-drained rocks and soils and tolerates extremes of climate and pH. In Scotland, it occurs on cold, wet acid sites and grows amongst heather and whinberries. In the south of England it is found on hot, dry chalky hillsides. The largest southern population of juniper in England is inside the Ministry of Defence's Establishment at Porton Down in Wiltshire. Here there are estimated to be over 14,000 bushes. It is thought that many of these date from the introduction of myxomatosis and the reduction of the rabbit population, which led to reduced grazing of the seedlings.
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© Wildscreen

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It is rather rare on open dunes. (Peattie, 1930) Native habitat is the rocky slopes in coniferous forests of mountains and plains. In the western USA, it is a low shrub, often at timberline. (NPIN, 2007)
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
resupinate fruitbody of Amylostereum laevigatum grows on dead, fallen branch of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron rimosum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Juniperus communis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile to subsessile apothecium of Calycellina juniperina is saprobic on leaf of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / sap sucker
Chlorochroa juniperina sucks sap of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
epiphyllous, erumpent, solitary or a few together, short-stalked apothecium of Chloroscypha sabinae is saprobic on dead leaf of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / pathogen
erumpent apothecium of Colpoma juniperi infects and damages live twig of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Cyphostethus tristriatus sucks sap of ripe berry of Juniperus communis
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
epiphyllous, immersed apothecium of Didymascella tetraspora parasitises live leaf of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / gall
emergent telium of Gymnosporangium clavariiforme causes gall of witches broom branch of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 4-5
Other: sole host/prey
minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Gymnosporangium cornutum parasitises live leaf of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 4-6
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
epiphyllous acervulus of Seimatosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Gymnosporangium juniperi is saprobic on dead leaf of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia arguta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Juniperus communis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnella violacea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Juniperus communis
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial pseudothecium of Kriegeriella minuta is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 8-3

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or erumpent through cracks in bark ascocarp of Lophium elegans is saprobic on dead wood of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
hysteroid apothecium of Lophodermium juniperinum is saprobic on dead leaf of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 8-10

Foodplant / saprobe
spongy, pulvinate colony of Capnophialophora anamorph of Metacapnodium juniperi is saprobic on twig of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Monoctenus juniperi grazes on needle of Juniperus communis
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oligotrophus juniperinus causes gall of uppermost leaves of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Peniophora cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Juniperus communis
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
apothecium of Rutstroemia juniperi may be found on recently dead twig (small) of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
subcuticular mycelium of Seynesiella juniperi is saprobic on dead leaf of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial synnema of Sphaeridium anamorph of Sphaeridium candidum sensu Fuckel is saprobic on dead cone of Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Stigmina dematiaceous anamorph of Stigmina glomerulosa is saprobic on leaf of Juniperus communis

Plant / resting place / on
female of Thrips juniperinus may be found on live Juniperus communis
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora kavinioides is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Juniperus communis

Plant / associate
basidiocarp of Tremella karstenii is associated with branch of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / feeds on
Trisetacus juniperinus feeds on Juniperus communis

Foodplant / feeds on
Trisetacus quadrisetus feeds on Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
punctiform sporodochium of Troposporella dematiaceous anamorph of Troposporella monospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis accedens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Juniperus communis

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis subulatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Juniperus communis
Other: minor host/prey

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It is a harmful organism host to crop diseases (rust diseases). (USDA GRIN, 2007)
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Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

It is a harmful organism host to crop diseases (rust diseases). (USDA GRIN, 2007)
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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: duff, fuel, fuel loading, lichen, litter, xeric

In a north-central Colorado study of fire behavior in quaking aspen stands, common juniper patches burned more intensely and released more heat than adjacent herbaceous areas. A caloric analysis of 5 foliage samples yielded an average low heat content of 5064 kcal/kg. Common juniper fuels tended to be deeper and heavier than herbaceous fuels and flames were longer and deeper in common juniper patches. Fire removed almost all litter, standing herbs, and common juniper foliage, leaving only bare branches. The moisture of green common juniper foliage averaged 112% of oven dry weight on 2 burns [117]. Fuel loading for common juniper can be estimated as follows: branch load (kg/m2) = .000191* crown height above duff (cm) ** 2.135 foliage load (kg) = 6.456* crown volume (m3) ** 1.93 In xeric red pine (Pinus resinosa) communities of northern Canada, an understory of low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), lichen, and common juniper creates a low and discontinuous fuel load. Fires in these communities tend to have an irregular pattern of intensity that is largely dependent on the distribution of fine fuels. Intense crown fires are unlikely here [11].

  • 11. Bergeron, Yves; Brisson, Jacques. 1990. Fire regime in red pine stands at the northern limit of the species range. Ecology. 71(4): 1352-1364. [11819]
  • 117. Smith, Jane Kapler; Laven, Richard D.; Omi, Philip N. 1993. Microplot sampling of fire behavior on Populus tremuloides stands in north-central Colorado. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 3(2): 85-94. [21376]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, density, fire use, heath, litter, prescribed fire, restoration, shrub


Following "light" (less than 50% litter reduction) fires
in forested areas of western Montana, burned sites often
exhibit minimal shrub damage and have at least some
surviving common juniper [120]. Common juniper averaged 6.7%
cover 3 years after a
light burn in Montana [120]. Laboratory heating experiments on
common juniper plants from Scottish heath showed that growth could
take place after heating only if some of the basal green branches remain
alive [82]:effect of temperature* on vegetative regrowth after heating
400oC 600oC 800oC
mean # sprouts per plant
3 months after treatment 5 4 0

height of veg. regrowth (cm)
17 months after treatment 8 6 0

oven-dry biomass per plant of
veg. regrowth (grams) 3 0.8 0
17 months after treatment

*"temperature maintained for about 2 minutes"

Most fires kill common juniper [25], leading to the
slow postfire recovery typical of this species. In northern
Canada, common juniper is generally absent from burned areas, but
may grow in small refugia within burned areas [69].



Postfire recovery of common juniper is generally slow. The following
table gives the density and
frequency of occurrence for common juniper in stands of different ages
in 2 Colorado forest types [21]:
--------------------------------------------------
Stand Spruce Freq. Stand Lodgepole Freq.
age -fir age density
after density after
fire fire
--------------------------------------------------
1 --- --- 1 --- ---
2 --- --- 2 --- ---
8 --- --- 8 --- ---
8 0.2 20 8 --- ---
18 0.2 20 18 0.2 20
74 2.7 70 18 0.8 20
200 0.2 8 18 0.4 20
280 0.6 40 45 0.8 40
290 0.4 20 85 2.0 100
85 0.8 60
108 0.6 60
115 0.4 40
190 1.4 60
248 0.8 20
251 1.3 30
257 3.4 85
-------------------------------------------------


For further information on prescribed fire use and common juniper's response to
fire, see Fire Case Studies.

The following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed
fire use and postfire response of plant community species including common
juniper:

  • 120. Stark, N.; Steele, R. 1977. Nutrient content of forest shrubs following burning. American Journal of Botany. 64(10): 1218-1224. [2224]
  • 21. Clagg, Harry B. 1975. Fire ecology in high-elevation forests in Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 137 p. Thesis. [113]
  • 25. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of forest habitat types. In: Lotan, James E., ed. Fire--its field effects: Proceedings of the symposium; 1982 October 19-21; Jackson, WY. Missoula, MT: The Intermountain Fire Council; Pierre, SD: The Rocky Mountain Fire Council: 13-27. [10987]
  • 69. Kelsall, John P. 1957. Continued barren-ground caribou studies. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: No. 12. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, National Parks Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. 148 p. [16597]
  • 82. Mallik, A. U.; Gimingham, C. H. 1983. Regeneration of heathland plants following burning. Vegetatio. 53: 45-58. [6337]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: severity

Common juniper does not sprout after disturbance. Surviving individuals serve as sources of seed for adjacent areas. Postfire regeneration is more frequent in proximity to existing populations of common junipers [31]. Regrowth can generally take place after fire if some of the basal branches remain alive [82], which only occurs in fires of low severity or where spread is patchy.

Common juniper also reestablishes after fire through off-site seed dispersed by birds or mammals. Poor seed dispersal from existing stands along with low germination rates can explain why some favorable sites are not readily occupied by common juniper [31].

It is possible that seed protected by overlying soil can survive at least some fires. After low-severity fires, some seed may germinate. However, Mallik and Gimingham [82] observed that high temperatures did not increase germination in common juniper seed and little seed germinated after fire.

  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]
  • 82. Mallik, A. U.; Gimingham, C. H. 1983. Regeneration of heathland plants following burning. Vegetatio. 53: 45-58. [6337]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the term: heath

In a Scottish study, common juniper was killed by 1,472 oF (800 oC) heat treatment when heath was burned. Plants made only "feeble regrowth" when burned at 1,112 oF (600 oC). However, following treatment at 752 oF (400 oC), new shoots were produced [82].

  • 82. Mallik, A. U.; Gimingham, C. H. 1983. Regeneration of heathland plants following burning. Vegetatio. 53: 45-58. [6337]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: fire regime, fire severity, severity

Common juniper is generally killed or seriously damaged by fire [24,25]. Patchy fires may allow individual plants to survive in protected areas such as on rocky cliffs. More rarely, portions of a lightly-burned plant may survive. The amount of damage this species incurs increases with increasing fire severity [120].

In the boreal forest of Quebec, at least 37% of common junipers survived fire. Although the dominant fire regime here is crown fires or "important surface fires covering large areas," common juniper often survives on sites made up of exposed bedrock or where protected by lakes and island complexes. Survival can occur if fire affects only part of an area or where fires are of low intensity. In some cases, fires of low intensity "can allow sections of the plant to survive and reproduce vegetatively" [31].

  • 120. Stark, N.; Steele, R. 1977. Nutrient content of forest shrubs following burning. American Journal of Botany. 64(10): 1218-1224. [2224]
  • 24. Crane, M. F.; Fischer, William C. 1986. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-218. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 85 p. [5297]
  • 25. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of forest habitat types. In: Lotan, James E., ed. Fire--its field effects: Proceedings of the symposium; 1982 October 19-21; Jackson, WY. Missoula, MT: The Intermountain Fire Council; Pierre, SD: The Rocky Mountain Fire Council: 13-27. [10987]
  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, competition, lichens, succession

Common juniper is intolerant of shade and is usually found in open environments [31]. Common juniper is often regarded as a colonizing plant but reaches maximum abundance on harsh, stressed environments in which competition is lacking [31,107]. Common juniper occurs as an important understory species in a number of climax communities within the southern Rocky Mountains including some Douglas-fir, subalpine fir, limber pine, Engelmann spruce, and blue spruce stands [6,91,122]. Common juniper becomes prominent in many high-elevation spruce-fir forests in Colorado as much as 100 years or more after fire or other disturbance [21]. In the boreal forest of eastern Canada, however, common juniper begins to decline after approximately 70 years after disturbance. On harsh open sites, it can persist for much longer which creates patchy habitats [31].

Common juniper is described as a seral species in common juniper/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) communities of the southwestern Yukon where it is ultimately replaced by spruce (Picea spp.) and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) [34]. In Arizona and Colorado, common juniper is prominent in seral stands with Oregon-grape [36] and in the northern Rocky Mountains, it occurs in late seral stands in Douglas-fir/ninebark (Physocarpos malvaceus) and Douglas-fir/Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum) habitat types [121]. It is prominent in old-field or "early settlement" communities of New England, but it "disappears" from areas maintained in timber [39,40]. In pitch pine (Pinus rigida) communities of New England, common juniper replaces initial colonizers such as lichens, blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and grasses, and is in turn, replaced later in succession by pitch pine [87]. In black spruce communities of northern Saskatchewan, common juniper is most prevalent in secondary successional stages occurring from 11 to 30 years after disturbance [113]. In Michigan, common juniper is a colonizer on dune blowouts [96].

  • 107. Rejmanek, Marcel; Rosen, Ejvind. 1988. The effect of colonizing shrubs Juniperus communis and Potentilla fructicosa on species richness in the grasslands of Stora Alvaret, Oland (Sweden). Acta phytogeographica suecica. 76: 67-72. [9745]
  • 113. Scotter, George Wilby. 1964. Effects of forest fires on the winter range of barren-ground caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildlife Management Bulletin, Series 1, No. 18. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. 111 p. [28989]
  • 121. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1995. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: a summary of succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 23 p. [29363]
  • 122. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. [2231]
  • 21. Clagg, Harry B. 1975. Fire ecology in high-elevation forests in Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 137 p. Thesis. [113]
  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]
  • 34. Douglas, George W. 1974. Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2505-2532. [17283]
  • 36. Dye, A. J.; Moir, W. H. 1977. Spruce-fir forest at its southern distribution in the Rocky Mountains, New Mexico. The American Midland Naturalist. 97(1): 133-146. [7476]
  • 39. Filip, Stanley M.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Trees and shrubs of the Bartlett Experimental Forest, Carroll County, New Hampshire. Res. Pap. NE-211. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 20 p. [13635]
  • 40. Foster, D. R.; Zebryk, T.; Schoonmaker, P.; Lezberg, A. 1992. Post-settlement history of human land-use and vegetation dynamics of a Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) woodlot in central New England. Journal of Ecology. 80: 773-786. [20456]
  • 6. Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [3515]
  • 87. Moore, Barrington. 1917. Some factors influencing the reproduction of red spruce, balsam fir, and white pine. Journal of Forestry. 15(7): 827-853. [14402]
  • 91. Muldavin, Esteban H.; DeVelice, Robert L. 1987. A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Gonzales Vicente, Carlos E.; Moir, William H., technical coordinators. Strategies for classification and management of native vegetation for food production in arid zones: Proceedings; 1987 October 12-16; Tucson, AZ. Gen, Tech. Rep. RM-150. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-31. [2728]
  • 96. Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170. [10557]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: adventitious, cover, dioecious, monoecious, shrubs

Common juniper is typically dioecious but occasionally monoecious [128]. Seed usually matures during the second growing season [56,123,126,136], although there have been some reports of cones maturing within only one season [128].

Common juniper produces large cone crops at irregular intervals [66]. Cones are ovoid to ellipsoid [123] and contain 1 to 3 seeds [56,128]. Germination rates for common juniper seed are relatively poor and defective seed may also be relatively common. Pack [97] reported that up to 60% of common juniper seeds examined were defective. In northwestern Quebec, the majority of seeds produced by "older" plants (94.8%) were non-viable. A majority of seeds produced by "younger" plants (80%) were viable. Approximately 40 to 60% of "older" plants were sterile [31]. Under harsh conditions, female plants may decrease reproductive efforts and less viable seed is produced [83].

Germination and seedling establishment of common juniper is "difficult" [31,60]. Ideal germination conditions are moist, compact soil with sufficient oxygen diffusion [31]. Germination has been reported to range from 7 to 75%, depending on the specific treatment and seed source [66].

Juniper seeds have a semipermeable and thick seedcoat with a dormant embryo [97]. Common juniper seed requires a period of warm temperatures followed by a period of cold temperatures lasting approximately 7 months [31]. Generally the germination rate of seeds that are not afterripened is only around 1% [97]. High temperatures, alternating temperatures, freezing and thawing, removal of the seedcoat, or the application of hydrogen peroxide, dilute acids, carbon dioxide, or light had little influence on the germination of juniper seeds.

Steele and Geier-Hayes [121] report that common juniper seed is dispersed by animals and not stored in the soil. However, Major and Pyott [80] report that common juniper seed persists in cropped soils in California. Seeds of common juniper are dispersed by gravity, water, birds, or mammals. Digestive processes apparently do not harm most juniper seeds and may actually enhance germination [8,37]. Birds are the most important dispersal agents of common juniper [31]. More than 60 to 85% of common junipers present in the sand dune region surrounding Lake Michigan are believed to have originated from bird-disseminated seed. Birds also contribute to the spread of common juniper into old fields of New England [101]. Rosen [109] reports that domestic sheep may also serve as a dispersal agent since junipers are often associated with sheep driveways. Strong winter winds can push seeds across frozen snow cover [109].

Increases observed in seedling numbers during certain periods are the result of favorable conditions for establishment. Establishment is more likely in open spaces between older shrubs and may be favored by grazing [109].

Common juniper does not sprout after foliage is removed. However, adventitious root development can occur when branches come in contact with the ground become buried. In the subarctic, plants are often buried at least partially, and production of adventitious roots may aid in water and nutrient intake. A higher proportion of common juniper cuttings from northern populations rooted as compared with southern cuttings. Cuttings from female shrubs may exhibit better rooting potential than cuttings from male plants [63].

  • 101. Phillips, Frank J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. [Volume unknown]: 60-73. [5848]
  • 109. Rosen, E. 1988. Development and seedling establishment within a Juniperus communis stand on Oland, Sweden. Acta Botanica Nerlandica. 37(2): 193-201. [9354]
  • 121. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1995. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: a summary of succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 23 p. [29363]
  • 123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 126. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. [6508]
  • 128. Tueller, Paul T.; Clark, James E. 1975. Autecology of pinyon-juniper species of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau. In: The pinyon-juniper ecosystem: a symposium; 1975 May; Logan, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station: 27-40. [2368]
  • 136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. [6809]
  • 37. Emerson, Fred W. 1932. The tension zone between the grama grass and pinyon-juniper associations in northeastern New Mexico. Ecology. 13: 247-258. [3362]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]
  • 60. Hofmann, J. V. 1917. Natural reproduction from seed stored in the forest floor. Journal of Agricultural Research. 11(1): 1-26. [12446]
  • 63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. [23142]
  • 66. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr.; Alexander, Robert A. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 460-469. [1268]
  • 8. Balda, Russell P. 1987. Avian impacts on pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 525-533. [4993]
  • 80. Major, J.; Pyott, W. T. 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora. Vegetatio. 13: 254-282. [6343]
  • 83. Marion, Christine; Houle, Gilles. 1996. No differential consequences of reproduction according to sex in Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany. 83(4): 480-488. [27120]
  • 97. Pack, Dean A. 1921. After-ripening and germination of Juniperus seeds. Botanical Gazette. 71: 32-60. [1809]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Shrub, tree

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Ecology

On open dunes it is often associated with the dune cactus, Opuntia Rafinesquii. (Peattie, 1930) Juniper berries are food for wildlife, especially grouse, pheasants, and bobwhites. (NPIN, 2007)
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Common juniper begins leader elongation in the spring. "Flowering" or cone development dates vary somewhat according to geographic location, but cone development generally occurs from April through June [47,56,66]. Generalized cone development dates by state are as follows [32]: State Beginning End of cone cone development development Montana April May North Dakota April May Wyoming April May Strobili form during June or July, and these structures fuse, generally during the 2nd year, to produce a berrylike cone [123]. Cones ripens from August through October of the 2nd or, more rarely, 3rd year. Cones generally remain on the plant for at least 2 years [66], with dispersal occurring in August of the second season [126]. In the Canadian subarctic, cones are initiated in autumn and open the following year when pollination occurs. Male strobili are shed while the female cones are enlarging and fertilization occurs during the 2nd year. Seeds mature during the 3rd year [63].

  • 123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 126. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. [6508]
  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]
  • 63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. [23142]
  • 66. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr.; Alexander, Robert A. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 460-469. [1268]

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Active growth period is Spring and Summer. Growth rate is slow. Leafs are retained year-round. Bloom period is mid Spring. Fruit/Seed period begins in the Summer and ends in the Fall. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Seed cones mature in 2 years. (FNA, 2004)
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Life Expectancy

It is a perennial with a long lifespan. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

In chromosomal count, 2 n = 22. (FNA, 2004)
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Juniperus communis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Juniperus communis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 21
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Adams, R & Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is the most widespread species of conifer in the world. While it is struggling to survive in some areas, e.g. England, it is increasing elsewhere; both phenomena in its population dynamics are related to shifts in agricultural practices and general land use. Its var. saxatilis, mainly an arctic-alpine form, is circum-polar in distribution. Globally, this species or any of its varieties are not threatened with extinction.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Throughout western United States and Canada, usually on rocky or sandy wooded hillsides.

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Common juniper is listed as a species of state concern in South Carolina [119]. Juniperus communis var. depressa is state-ranked as extremely rare in Virginia [133].

  • 119. South Carolina Heritage Trust. (May, 2000) South Carolina species of concern, [Online]. Available: http://ocelot.tnc.org/nhp/us/sc/ [2000, June 23]. [35147]
  • 133. Virginia Natural Heritage Program. (1999, April) Virginia's rare plants and animals, [Online]. Available: www.stae.va.us/ [2000, May 2]. [35148]

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Status

Protected in the UK under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act as amended.
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This plant and the related entities below are listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. In Illinois common juniper is listed as Threatened. In Indiana ground juniper is listed as Rare. In Kentucky Juniperus communis var. depressa (ground juniper) is listed as Threatened. In Maryland juniper is listed as Endangered, Extirpated. In Ohio ground Juniper is listed as Endangered. (USDA PLANTS, 2009)
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Population

Population
Locally very common.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
No range wide threats have been identified for this species.
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Juniper is believed to have declined by up to 60% of its pre-1960 population, although with adult bushes being long-lived, it is possible for moribund populations with no regeneration to affect the true status of the species. The biggest threat to the plant is over-grazing, which prevents the regeneration of young bushes. However, too little grazing also affects the spread of juniper by allowing larger trees to shade out the adult bushes. In the uplands, juniper is also threatened by moorland burning for game shooting, which prevents the plants regenerating or leads to a fragmented cover. However, the threat to the species is greater in England than it is in Scotland.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in many protected areas across its range.
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Management considerations

More info for the terms: cover, density



Common juniper generally appears to increase in response to grazing
[19,102]. Butler [19] observed highest relative common juniper
cover in stands heavily grazed by cattle in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) draws
of the North Dakota badlands as follows:



 


Density Relative Foliar Relative
(stems/m2) density cover (%) cover
lightly grazed* 0.01 0.02 0.59 0
moderately grazed 0.01 0.23 2.15 3
heavily grazed 0.07 0.11 2.40 5

*sites were classified by the number of trails, extensiveness of
lounging areas and distance from water into moderate and heavily
grazed.

  • 102. Potter, Loren D.; Krenetsky, John C. 1967. Plant succession with released grazing on New Mexico range lands. Journal of Range Management. 20: 145-151. [5129]
  • 19. Butler, Jack Lee. 1983. Grazing and topographic influences on selected green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) communities in the North Dakota Badlands. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 130 p. Thesis. [184]

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Conservation

Juniper is listed under the UK Biodiversity Action Plans and included in English Nature's Species Recovery Programme. It is also part of Plantlife's 'Back from the Brink' project. Many juniper populations are within Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), and there are grants available to landowners to encourage proper management of the plant. The Forestry Commission Woodland Grant Scheme is also being used to maintain populations where these occur within a woodland context. Juniper is a component of several important habitats, particularly upland scrub woodland, and the loss of this species within this habitat removes a vital element of its biodiversity. It is also planned to carry out a series of regional surveys to assess the age range and reproductive potential of native juniper populations. This information will enable new populations to be established in areas where trees have been lost in order to restore the associated habitats.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Other uses and values

More info for the term: cover

Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic [88]. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems [130]. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems [129]. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments [130]. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and rheumatism [88,130]. Common juniper contains a volatile oil, terpinen-4-ol, which is known to increase kidney action [130]. Common juniper extract, which can be fatal in even fairly small amounts, was used to make gin and as a meat preservative [88].

Common juniper is highly valued as an ornamental [44]. It is widely cultivated and provides good ground cover even on stony or sandy sites [7,48,101]. This species was first cultivated in 1560 [66].

 

  • 101. Phillips, Frank J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. [Volume unknown]: 60-73. [5848]
  • 129. Turner, Nancy Chapman; Bell, Marcus A. M. 1973. The ethnobotany of the southern Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. Economic Botany. 27: 257-310. [21015]
  • 130. Turner, Nancy J. 1988. Ethnobotany of coniferous trees in Thompson and Lillooet Interior Salish of British Columbia. Economic Botany. 42(2): 177-194. [4542]
  • 44. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
  • 48. Hall, Marion T. 1961. Notes on cultivated junipers. Butler University Botanical Studies. 14: 73-90. [19796]
  • 66. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr.; Alexander, Robert A. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 460-469. [1268]
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 222 p. [4208]
  • 88. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: restoration

Common juniper has low value for short-term rehabilitation projects but moderate to high value for long-term rehabilitation projects. It is useful in preventing soil erosion [32]. Houle and Babeux [63] report that common juniper has potential for restoration in the Canadian arctic and subarctic.

Dietz and others [30] attempted to reestablish common juniper on old burns and on open ponderosa pine sites in the Black Hills. Best results were obtained with bareroot stock planted during late April. Attempts at hand seeding under greenhouse conditions were largely unsuccessful. 

 

  • 30. Dietz, Donald R.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Messner, Harold E.; McEwen, Lowell C. 1980. Establishment, survival, and growth of selected browse species in a ponderosa pine forest. Res. Pap. RM-219. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [3471]
  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. [23142]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The shade and cover value of common juniper tends to be greatest for birds and small mammals. It provides especially good nesting cover for Merriam's wild turkeys in the Black Hills of South Dakota [59,110]. In New Jersey, it provides winter roosts for short-eared owls [17]. In the Northwest Territories, common juniper branches are used in woodrat nests [112].

The cover value of common juniper for wildlife species has been rated as follows [32]:

CO MT ND UT WY Pronghorn ---- ---- ---- poor poor Elk ---- ---- ---- poor fair Mule deer ---- poor good fair fair White-tailed deer ---- poor good ---- fair Small mammals fair ---- ---- good good Small nongame birds fair ---- good good good Upland game birds ---- ---- ---- good good Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- poor poor

  • 110. Rumble, Mark A.; Hodorff, Robert A. 1993. Nesting ecology of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(4): 789-801. [22893]
  • 112. Scotter, George W.; Simmons, Norman M. 1974. Range extensions for the bushy-tailed wood rat in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 88: 489-490. [23858]
  • 17. Bosakowski, Thomas. 1986. Short-eared owl winter roosting strategies. American Birds. 40(2): 237-240. [22249]
  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 59. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-276. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1181]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: lichen

Wild ungulates generally eat only trace amounts of common juniper. Deer and mountain goats browse common juniper to at least a limited extent in some areas including Wyoming and Montana [10,35,41,43,55,93,95,111,134]. Levels of use are typically greatest during the winter or early spring. Common juniper can be important winter mule deer food during some years in parts of the Black Hills [29,43,95,99]. It is also used consistently through the winter months by white-tailed deer in the Swan Valley of Montana [92,93]. Caribou have been observed feeding on common juniper after fire [12]. Moose feed on common juniper "sparingly" in northern Michigan [94]. It also receives some light summer use by mountain goats in Montana [111]. In northern Canada, barren-ground caribou browse "fairly often" on common juniper where lichen growth is poor [69]. Hares browse common juniper in parts of Ontario where use may range from low to high [26].

Domestic livestock rarely utilize common juniper. The foliage may be poisonous to domestic goats, although livestock in parts of Europe have reportedly been fed sprays of common juniper with no ill effects [131].

Cones of most junipers are eaten by many species of birds and mammals. Numerous animals, including the American robin and black-capped chickadee, feed on the cones of common juniper whenever they are available. American robins frequently consume large numbers of cones during the spring and fall [101]. In eastern Ontario, cones provide food for cedar and Bohemian waxwings [20]. Wild turkeys also feed on cones of common juniper [27].

 

  • 10. Beetle, Alan A. 1962. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming: Part 2. Utilization and condition classes. Bull. 400. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p. [418]
  • 101. Phillips, Frank J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. [Volume unknown]: 60-73. [5848]
  • 111. Saunders, Jack K., Jr. 1955. Food habits and range use of the Rocky Mountain goat in the Crazy Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 19(4): 429-437. [484]
  • 12. Bergerud, A. T. 1969. The caribou have returned. Ecology. 50: 940-941. [16766]
  • 131. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387]
  • 134. Wallmo, Olof C.; Regelin, Wayne L.; Reichert, Donald W. 1972. Forage use by mule deer relative to logging in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36: 1025-1033. [4486]
  • 20. Catling, Paul M.; Brownell, Vivian R. 1998. Importance of fire in alvar ecosystems--evidence from the Burnt Lands, eastern Ontario. The Canadian Field Naturalist. 112(4): 661-667. [30338]
  • 26. de Vos, Antoon. 1964. Food utilization of snowshoe hares on Mantioulin Island, Ontario. Journal of Forestry. 62: 238-244. [25071]
  • 27. Decker, Scott R.; Pekins, Peter J.; Mautz, William W. 1991. Nutritional evaluation of winter foods of wild turkeys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 69(8): 2128-2132. [21410]
  • 29. Dietz, Donald R.; Nagy, Julius G. 1976. Mule deer nutrition and plant utilization. In: Workman; Low, eds. Mule deer decline in the West: A symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. [Logan], UT: College of Natural Resources, Utah Agriculture Experiment Station: 71-78. [6909]
  • 35. Dusek, Gary L. 1975. Range relations of mule deer and cattle in prairie habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 39(3): 605-616. [5938]
  • 41. Frischknecht, Neil C. 1975. Ecology of the sagebrush community as influenced by some natural and man-caused perturbations. In: Stutz, Howard C., ed. Wildland shrubs: Proceedings--symposium and workshop; 1975 November 5-7; Provo, UT. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 162. [973]
  • 43. Gastler, George F.; Moxon, Alvin L.; McKean, William T. 1951. Composition of some plants eaten by deer in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 15(4): 352-357. [3996]
  • 55. Hill, Ralph R. 1946. Palatability ratings of Black Hills plants for white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 10(1): 47-54. [3270]
  • 69. Kelsall, John P. 1957. Continued barren-ground caribou studies. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: No. 12. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, National Parks Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. 148 p. [16597]
  • 92. Mundinger, John D. 1978. Population ecology and habitat relationships of white-tailed deer in coniferous forest habitat of northwestern Montana. Montana deer studies: Job progress report 1977-1978. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Fish and Game. 74 p. [21525]
  • 93. Mundinger, John G. 1979. Population ecology and habitat relationships of white-tailed deer in coniferous forest habitat of northwestern Montana. Montana deer studies: Job progress report 1978-1979. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Fish and Game. 65 p. [21526]
  • 94. Murie, Adolph. 1934. The moose of Isle Royale. Miscellaneous Publication No. 25. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 56 p. [21394]
  • 95. Novak, Clyle A. 1959. Browse utilization in the Black Hills during the winter of 1958-1959. Job Completion Report. Project 74-R. Job No. D-7.1-1. Pierre, SD: South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. 4 p. [7192]
  • 99. Pase, Charles P.; Hurd, Richard M. 1958. Understory vegetation as related to basal area, crown cover and litter produced by immature ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills. In: Proceedings, annual meeting of the Society of American Foresters; 1957 November 10-13; Syracuse, NY. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 156-158. [10540]

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Nutritional Value



Common juniper is rated as poor in overall protein and energy
value [32]. Nutritional value of common juniper in South Dakota was
reported as follows [43]:
Oct. 1 Jan. 2 April 1 July 1
------ ------ ------- ------
Moisture (%) 50.27 43.48 43.81 66.13
Carotene (µg/g) 56.63 16.30 52.08 57.88
Ash (%) 1.41 1.65 2.00 1.38
Crude fat (%) 6.07 7.51 7.16 4.12
Crude fiber (%) 11.28 15.50 12.70 9.51
Crude protein (%) 4.22 3.30 2.85 3.53
N-free extract (%) 26.75 28.56 31.49 15.35
Phosphorus (%) 0.087 0.081 0.12 0.07
Calcium (%) 0.36 0.85 0.67 0.25
Iron (ppm)* 94.97 91.02 92.68 40.49
Manganese (ppm)* 43.62 58.82 80.19 45.98
*parts per million



Foliar nutrient levels are as follows [15]:
% oven-dry weight
N 0.91
P 0.12
K 0.42
Ca 1.20
Mg 0.17

ppm
Al 119
B 15
Cu 3.3
Fe 142
Mn 253
Mo 7.2
Zn 17

In Canada, nutrient value of common juniper cones was as follows [27]:Dry Crude Crude Crude
matter (%) protein (%) fat(%) fiber
72.2 3.7 14.3 22.1

  • 15. Blinn, Charles R.; Buckner, Edward R. 1989. Normal foliar nutrient levels in North American forest trees: A summary. Station Bulletin 590-1989. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 27 p. [15282]
  • 27. Decker, Scott R.; Pekins, Peter J.; Mautz, William W. 1991. Nutritional evaluation of winter foods of wild turkeys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 69(8): 2128-2132. [21410]
  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 43. Gastler, George F.; Moxon, Alvin L.; McKean, William T. 1951. Composition of some plants eaten by deer in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 15(4): 352-357. [3996]

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Palatability



The palatability of common juniper to livestock and wildlife
species in several western states has been rated as follows
[32,55]: CO MT ND SD UT WY
Cattle poor poor poor ---- poor poor
Sheep poor poor poor ---- poor poor
Horses poor poor poor ---- poor poor
Pronghorn ---- ---- poor ---- poor poor
Elk ---- poor ---- ---- fair poor
Mule deer poor fair fair ---- fair good
White-tailed deer ---- poor poor low-med ---- fair
Small mammals ---- ---- fair ---- good good
Small nongame birds---- ---- good ---- good poor
Upland game birds ---- ---- good ---- good fair
Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- ---- poor good

  • 32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 55. Hill, Ralph R. 1946. Palatability ratings of Black Hills plants for white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 10(1): 47-54. [3270]

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Wood Products Value

The wood of common juniper is fine grained, durable, and reddish with white sapwood [123]. This wood currently has no commercial value.

  • 123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]

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Uses

Berries are an ingredient in gin, producing the distinctive aroma and tang. Berries are used to flavor gin and for cooked meats and red cabbage. Crushed berries can be used to make a seasoning. Juniper tea can be made by placing a dozen young berry-less twigs in a quart of cold water. (NPIN, 2007) In food additives it is used for flavoring. It may be used in landscaping as an ornamental. It is processed to extract essential oils. It is used in folklore medicines. (USDA GRIN, 2007) The seed cones of Juniperus communis are used to flavor gin. (FNA, 2004) Native peoples have used the leaves and berries to treat cough, kidneys, and female reproductive issues. (UM, 2009)
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Risks

Risk Statement

POISONOUS PARTS: Fleshy cones (resemble berries), leaves. Toxic Principle: Volatile oils including thujone. (NPIN, 2007)
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Wikipedia

Juniperus communis

Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. It has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia.

Description[edit]

Juniperus communis is a shrub or small coniferous evergreen tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. It has needle-like leaves in whorls of three; the leaves are green, with a single white stomatal band on the inner surface. It is dioecious, with male and female cones on separate plants, which are wind pollinated.

The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to purple-black with a blue waxy coating; they are spherical, 4–12 mm diameter, and usually have three (occasionally six) fused scales, each scale with a single seed. The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the cones, digesting the fleshy scales and passing the hard seeds in their droppings. The male cones are yellow, 2–3 mm long, and fall soon after shedding their pollen in March–April.[2][3][4]

Subspecies[edit]

As to be expected from the wide range, J. communis is very variable, with several infraspecific taxa; delimitation between the taxa is still uncertain, with genetic data not matching morphological data well.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

  • subsp. communis – Common juniper. Usually an erect shrub or small tree; leaves long, 8–20(–27) mm; cones small, 5–8 mm, usually shorter than the leaves; found at low to moderate altitude in temperate climates.
    • subsp. communis var. communis – Europe, most of northern Asia
    • subsp. communis var. depressa Pursh – North America, Sierra Nevada in California
    • subsp. communis var. hemisphaerica (J.Presl & C.Presl) Parl. – Mediterranean mountains
    • subsp. communis var. nipponica (Maxim.) E.H.Wilson – Japan (status uncertain, often treated as J. rigida var. nipponica)
  • subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak. – alpine juniper (syn. J. c. subsp. nana, J. c. var. saxatilis Pallas, J. sibirica Burgsd.). Usually a prostrate ground-hugging shrub; leaves short, 3–8 mm; cones often larger, 7–12 mm, usually longer than the leaves; found in subarctic areas and high altitude alpine zones in temperate areas.
    • subsp. alpina var. alpina – Greenland, Europe and Asia
    • subsp. alpina var. megistocarpa Fernald & H.St.John – Eastern Canada (doubtfully distinct from var. alpina)
    • subsp. alpina var. jackii Rehder – Western North America (doubtfully distinct from var. alpina)

Some botanists treat subsp. alpina at the lower rank of variety, in which case the correct name is Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas,[3] though the name Juniperus communis var. montana is also occasionally cited; others, primarily in eastern Europe and Russia, sometimes treat it as a distinct species J. sibirica Burgsd. (syn. J. nana Willd., J. alpina S.F.Gray).[10]

Juniperus communis is one of Ireland's longest established plants.[11]

Uses[edit]

Foliage and berries

Cultivation[edit]

Juniperus communis is cultivated in the horticulture trade and used as an evergreen ornamental shrub in gardens. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Hibernica'[12] (Irish juniper)
  • 'Hornibrookii'[13]
  • 'Repanda'[14] (prostrate form)

Crafts[edit]

Juniperus communis wood pieces, with a U.S. penny for scale, showing the narrow growth rings of the species.

It is too small to have any general lumber usage. In Scandinavia, however, juniper wood is used for making containers for storing small quantities of dairy products such as butter and cheese, and also for making wooden butter knives. It was also frequently used for trenails in wooden shipbuilding by shipwrights for its tough properties.

In Estonia juniper wood is valued for its long lasting and pleasant aroma, very decorative natural structure of wood (growth rings) as well as good physical properties of wood due to slow growth rate of juniper and resulting dense and strong wood. Various decorative items (often eating utensils) are common in most Estonian handicraft shops and households.

According to the old tradition, on Easter Monday Kashubian (Northern Poland) boys chase girls whipping their legs gently with juniper twigs. This is to bring good fortune in love to the chased girls.

Culinary[edit]

Its astringent blue-black seed cones, commonly known as "juniper berries", are too bitter to eat raw and are usually sold dried and used to flavour meats, sauces, and stuffings. They are generally crushed before use to release their flavour. Since juniper berries have a strong taste, they should be used sparingly. They are generally used to enhance meat with a strong flavour, such as game, including game birds, or tongue.

The cones are used to flavour certain beers and gin (the word "gin" derives from an Old French word meaning "juniper").[15] In Finland, juniper is used as a key ingredient in making sahti, a traditional Finnish ale. Also the Slovak alcoholic beverage Borovička and Dutch Genever are flavoured with juniper berry or its extract.

Dioscorides' De materia medica also lists juniper berries, when crushed and put on the penis or vagina before intercourse, as a contraceptive.[16]

Traditional medicine[edit]

Juniper berries have long been used as medicine by many cultures. Juniper berries act as a strong urinary tract disinfectant if consumed,[citation needed] and were used by Navajo people as an herbal remedy for diabetes.[17] Western American tribes combined the berries of Juniperus communis with Berberis root bark in a herbal tea. Native Americans also used juniper berries as a female contraceptive.[18]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group 1998. Juniperus communis. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 3 March 2010.
  2. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X.
  3. ^ a b c Adams, R. P. (2004). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus. Victoria: Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4250-X.
  4. ^ a b Arboretum de Villardebelle: Juniperus
  5. ^ Flora Europaea: Juniperus communis
  6. ^ Adams, R. P., Pandey, R. N., Leverenz, J. W., Dignard, N., Hoegh, K., & Thorfinnsson, T. (2003). Pan-Arctic variation in Juniperus communis: Historical Biogeography based on DNA fingerprinting. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 31: 181-192 pdf file.
  7. ^ Adams, R. P., & Pandey, R. N. (2003). Analysis of Juniperus communis and its varieties based on DNA fingerprinting. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 31: 1271-1278. pdf file
  8. ^ Adams, R. P., & Nguyen, S. (2007). Post-Pleistocene geographic variation in Juniperus communis in North America. Phytologia 89 (1): 43-57. pdf file
  9. ^ Den Virtuella Floran: Juniperus communis distribution
  10. ^ Association Ecosystem (Russia): Juniperus sibirica
  11. ^ Preston, S. J.; Wilson, C.; Jennings, S.; Provan, J.; McDonald, R. A. (2007). "The status of Juniperus communis L. in Northern Ireland in 2005". Ir. Nat. J. 28: 372–378. 
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Juniperus communis 'Hibernica'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Juniperus communis 'Hornibrookii'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Juniperus communis 'Repanda'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  15. ^ Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872. 
  16. ^ John M. Riddle (1992). Contraception and abortion from the ancient world to the Renaissance, p. 31. Harvard University Press.
  17. ^ McCabe, Melvina; Gohdes, Dorothy; Morgan, Frank; Eakin, Joanne; Sanders, Margaret; Schmitt, Cheryl (2005). "Herbal Therapies and Diabetes Among Navajo Indians". Diabetes Care 28 (6): 1534–1535. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.6.1534-a. 
  18. ^ Tilford, Gregory L. (1997). Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87842-359-1. 

Further reading[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Juniperus communis is the most widespread juniper species, and many subspecies and varieties have been described. A major study, including chemical characters, is needed to clarify the taxonomy. J. D. A. Franco (1962) recognized four subspecies (here considered varieties); two of these---var. communis and var. hemisphaerica (J. Presl & C. Presl) Parlatore---do not occur in the flora and a fifth, recognized here, was not treated by Franco. 

 The seed cones of Juniperus communis are used to flavor gin.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: fern



The currently accepted scientific name of common juniper is
Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) [45,47,54,67,135,136,]. A number of varieties
have been described. At least 150 common names, based primarily on the
naming of clones as varieties, have been given to common
juniper [48]. Commonly recognized North American
varieties include:



Juniperus communis var. depressa Pursh [33,47,67,103,136,137]

Juniperus communis var. megistocarpa Fern & St. John [67,108]

Juniperus communis var. montana Ait. [67]

  • 103. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 108. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 135. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Nowot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 137. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 33. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
  • 45. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 48. Hall, Marion T. 1961. Notes on cultivated junipers. Butler University Botanical Studies. 14: 73-90. [19796]
  • 54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 67. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877]

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Common Names

common juniper

dwarf juniper

prostrate juniper

mountain common juniper

old field common juniper

ground juniper

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Synonyms

Juniperus communis spp. alpina (Smith) Celakovsky [135]

Juniperus communis ssp. nana (Willd.) Syme [64]
  • 135. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Nowot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 64. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]

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