The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hook. 1838. In: Fl. Bor. Amer. 2 (10): 166.
  • Type material: Hooker, W. J. 1838. Fl. Boreali-Amer. (Hooker). 2: 166.
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    1. Adams, R. P. 1987. Investigation of Juniperus species of the  USA for new sources of cedarwood oil. Economic Botany 41(l): 48-54. 
    2.  
    3. Burkhardt, J. W., and E. W. Tisdale. 1969. Nature and successional  status of western juniper vegetation in Idaho. Journal of Range  Management 22(4):264-270.
    4.  
    5. Burkhardt, J. W., and E. W. Tisdale. 1976. Causes of juniper  invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology 57(3):472-484.
    6.  
    7. Cronquist, Arthur, Arthur H. Holmgren, Noel H. Holmgren, and James L.  Reveal. 1972. Intermountain flora: vascular plants of the Intermountain  West, U.S.A. vol. I. Hafner, New York. 270 p.
    8.  
    9. Dealy, J. Edward, J. Michael Geist, and Richard S. Driscoll. 1978.  Communities of western juniper in the Intermountain Northwest. In  Proceedings, Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop. p.  11-29. R. E. Martin, J. E. Dealy, and D. L. Caraher, eds. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report PNW-74. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
    10.  
    11. Dealy, J. Edward, J. Michael Geist, and Richard S. Driscoll. 1978.  Western juniper communities on rangelands of the Pacific Northwest. In  Proceedings, First International Rangeland Congress. p. 201-204.  Donald N. Hyder, ed. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.
    12.  
    13. Doescher, P, S., L. E. Eddleman, and M. R. Vaitkus. 1987. Evaluation  of soil nutrients, pH, and organic matter in rangelands dominated by  western juniper. Northwest Science 61(2):97-102.
    14.  
    15. Driscoll, R. S. 1964. Vegetation-soil units in the central Oregon  juniper zone. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-19. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 60 p.
    16.  
    17. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    18.  
    19. Griffin, James R., and William B. Critchfield. 1972. The  distribution of forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper PSW-82. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 114 p.
    20.  
    21. Hall, Frederick C. 1978. Western juniper in association with other  tree species. In Proceedings, Western Juniper Ecology and Management  Workshop. p. 31-36. R, E. Martin, J. E. Dealy, and D. L. Caraher, eds.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-74. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
    22.  
    23. Herbst, John R. 1978. Physical properties and commercial uses of  western juniper. In Proceedings, Western Juniper Ecology and  Management Workshop. p. 169-177. R. E. Martin, J. E. Dealy, and D. L.  Caraher, eds. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-74.  Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 
    24.  
    25. Horton, Jerome S. 1960. Vegetation types of the San Bernardino  Mountains. USDA Forest Service, Technical Paper 44. Pacific Southwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 29 p.
    26.  
    27. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr., and Robert A. Alexander. 1974. Juniperus  L. Juniper. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States.  p. 460-469. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    28.  
    29. Küchler, A. W. 1964. The potential natural vegetation of the  conterminous United States. American Geographic Society, Special  Publication 36. New York. 160 p.
    30.  
    31. Leckenby, Donavin A. 1978. Western juniper management for mule deer.  In Proceedings, Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop.  p. 137-161. R. E. Martin, J. E. Dealy, and D. L. Caraher, eds. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-74. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
    32.  
    33. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees, vol. L  Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC. 9 p. 313 maps.
    34.  
    35. Martin, Robert E. 1978. Fire manipulation and effects in western  juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.). In Proceedings,  Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop. p. 121-136. R. E.  Martin, J. E. Dealy, and D. L. Caraher, eds. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-74. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR.
    36.  
    37. Maser, Chris, and Jay S. Gashwiler. 1978. Interrelationships of  wildlife and western juniper. In Proceedings, Western Juniper  Ecology and Management Workshop. p. 37-82. R. E. Martin, J. E. Dealy,  and D. L. Caraher, eds. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-74. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR.
    38.  
    39. Munz, Philip A., and David D. Keck. 1959. A California flora.  University of California Press, Berkeley. 1,681 p.
    40.  
    41. Pardo, Richard. 1978. National register of big trees. American  Forests 84(4):18-45.
    42.  
    43. Petrini, Orlando, and George Carroll. 1981. Endophytic fungi in  foliage of some Cupressaceae in Oregon. Canadian Journal of Botany  59:629-636.
    44.  
    45. Piper, Charles V. 1906. Flora of the State of Washington. vol. 11.  Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution,  Washington, DC. 637 p.
    46.  
    47. Sowder, James E., and Edwin L. Mowat. 1965. Western juniper (Juniperus  occidentalis Hook.). In Silvics of forest trees of the  United States. p. 223-225. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    48.  
    49. Varughese, G. K., and C. L. Calvin. 1984. Growth of the endophytic  system of Phoradendron juniperinum (Viscaceae) in shoots of Juniperus  occidentalis. American Journal of Botany 7 1:5 1.
    50.  
    51. Vasek, F. C. 1966. The distribution and taxonomy of three western  junipers. Brittonia 18(4):350-371.
    52.  
     

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