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Overview

Brief Summary

Cupressaceae -- Cypress family

    Edwin R. Lawson

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), also called red juniper  or savin, is a common coniferous species growing on a variety of sites  throughout the eastern half of the United States. Although eastern  redcedar is generally not considered to be an important commercial  species, its wood is highly valued because of its beauty, durability, and  workability. The number of trees and volume of eastern redcedar are  increasing throughout most of its range. It provides cedarwood oil for  fragrance compounds, food and shelter for wildlife, and protective  vegetation for fragile soils.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Juniperus virginiana, American juniper or eastern red-cedar (also called red cedar, Virginia cedar, red juniper, or savin), is a medium-sized evergreen coniferous tree in the Cupressaceae (cypress family), widely distributed throughout the eastern half of North America. Although generally not considered to be an important commercial species, its wood is highly valued for specialty furniture and wood products because of its beauty, durability, and workability. It is often used to make or line chests and drawers (as a moth repellent) and for fence posts (because it is rot resistant). It provides cedarwood oil for fragrance compounds, food and shelter for wildlife, and protective vegetation for fragile soils. The number of trees and volume of American juniper is increasing throughout most of its range, as it readily colonizes disturbed sites, and is sometimes aggressively weedy in taking over abandoned fields and roadsides. Dozens of cultivars have been developed for ornamental and landscaping purposes, with a large array of forms and foliage colors. American juniper typically grows to 23 m (75 ft) high (although many cultivars are smaller), with a pyramidal or conical canopy, and thin bark. The leaves on young growth are needle-like but flattened, and are either opposite or ternate (in whorls of three). Leaves on older branches are scale-like and closely appressed (flattened together). The species is dioecious—male and wind-pollinated female flowers grow on separate plants, and only female flowers develop seed cones, which have fused scales and are round and berry-like, up to 1 cm (0.5 in) in diameter. Seed cones ripen to blue or black with a glaucous (waxy) coating, and typically contain 3 seeds. The seed cones of various Juniperus species make up 2 to 5% of the diet of 66 species of North American mammals. The species is often bird-dispersed, as seed germination rates may be higher following passage through a bird gut. Juniper “berries” are also edible by humans—they add the characteristic flavor to gin, and they are featured in teas and herbal supplements, and sometimes used as a flavoring in meat dishes. Juniperus virginiana, along with several other juniper species, is an alternate host for the fungal pathogen Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae, which causes cedar-apple rust. Cedar-apple rust has a complicated life cycle, but causes colorful orange galls on juniper trees, and rust-colored spots (turning to black) on the leaves of apple trees (Malus species) that grow in close proximity to juniper; the fungus can reduce apple production. (Adams 2008, Bailey et al. 1976, Lawson 1990, Martin et al. 1951, Wikipedia 2012.)

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Comprehensive Description

Comments

Even though it is often referred to as a 'red cedar,' this tree is actually a juniper. Therefore, a more appropriate name for this species would be 'Eastern Red Juniper' or 'Eastern Juniper.' This is the only tree-like species of juniper that is native to Illinois. Two other native species, Juniperus communis (Ground Juniper) and Juniperus horizontalis (Trailing Juniper), are both low-growing shrubs that rarely exceed 3' in height (although some cultivars of Ground Juniper can be taller). In Illinois, they are typically found on sand dunes. Because of its tall erect habit, scale-shaped leaves, and pale blue seed cones, it is relatively easy to distinguish Eastern Red Cedar from other conifers.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This evergreen coniferous tree is 30-80' tall, forming a short trunk and a crown that is ovoid, oblongoid, or conical in shape. The trunk is usually undivided at the base, although it may form 2 or more major branches above that are ascending. Smaller branches are more or less widely spreading, while young twigs are abundantly branched in various directions. Trunk bark is usually reddish brown, thin, and fibrous, tearing off in linear strips; on older slow-growing trees, it may become more gray and thick. Branch bark is brown or reddish brown and slightly flaky or bumpy, while young twigs are green and angular (they are largely hidden by the abundant leaves). Eastern Red Cedar produces two kinds of leaves
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

General: Cypress Family (Cupressaceae). Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a medium-sized dioecious or rarely monoecious tree from 10-20 m (33-66') tall (McGregor et al. 1986, Stephens 1973). The evergreen tree is shaped like a pyramid or column, with reddish-brown to grayish colored bark that is fibrous and shedding. Branches are usually reddish-brown. Leave are opposite, simple, green or blue-green, closely appressed and overlapping the leaf above, scale-like, and 0.2-0.3 cm (1/16-1/8”) long or needlelike and 0.6-1.2 cm (1/4-1/2”) long. Male and female cones are on separate trees. The staminate (male) cones are yellowish-brown, papery, solitary at the tips of branchlets, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 0.2-0.4 cm (1/16-1/8”) long. The ovulate (female) cones are solitary at the tips of branchlets, dark blue or bluish-purple, waxy and berrylike, 0.4-0.7 cm (3/16-1/4”) long. The female cones ripen from September through October. There are 1-3 seeds per cone. Red cedar seeds are yellow-brown and round, 2-4 mm in diameter, ridged near the base, and sometimes shallowly pitted.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Cedar tree, juniper, savin, evergreen, cedar apple, and Virginia red cedar

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Eastern Red Cedar is a common native tree that is found throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map); it probably occurs in every county. Habitats include thin upland woodlands, rocky bluffs, wooded slopes, woodland edges, sandstone and limestone glades, rocky cliffs, stabilized sand dunes, sandy savannas, roadside embankments, gravelly areas along railroads, fence rows, old cemeteries, and abandoned fields. Sometimes Eastern Red Cedar is cultivated as a landscape plant and for windbreaks. This is a pioneer tree that colonizes sunny areas that are relatively dry and sterile. Because of its thin bark and low branches, it has poor resistance to fire.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Eastern redcedar's range extends from Nova Scotia west to Ontario, south through the northern Great Plains to eastern Texas, and east to northern Florida and the Atlantic coast [29,71,79,82]. J.v. var. virginiana occurs throughout eastern redcedar's range, with the exception of northern Florida [68,71]. J.v. var. silicicola is restricted to coastal dunes and river sandbanks of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, North and South Carolina, and northern Florida [3,71].

The Flora of North America provides a distributional map of eastern redcedar and its infrataxa.

  • 3. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. [19792]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 82. Lee, Scott Allen. 1996. Propagation of Juniperus for conservation plantings in the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 91 p. Thesis. [43379]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]
  • 71. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AL AR CO CT DE FL GA IL
IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA
MI MN MS MO NE NH NJ NY
NC ND OH OK PA RI SC SD
TN TX VT VA WV WI DC  

CANADA
MB NS ON PQ

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [16]:

14 Great Plains

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
  • 16. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

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Eastern redcedar is the most widely distributed conifer of tree size in  the Eastern United States and is found in every State east of the 100th  meridian. The species extends northward into southern Ontario and the  southern tip of Quebec (27). The range of eastern redcedar has been  considerably extended, especially in the Great Plains, by natural  regeneration from planted trees (47).

     
- The native range of eastern redcedar.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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The distribution of red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) spans the U.S. east of the Rockies. The species also occurs in Oregon in the west. The southern red cedar (var. silicicola) occurs only in the southeastern US. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: tree

The following description of eastern redcedar provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [114,129]).

Eastern redcedar is a relatively long-lived evergreen that may reach 450+ years [29,36,114,124]. It has 2 distinct growth forms. The most familiar form is narrowly conical with its branches growing up and out at a sharp angle to form a compact tree. The 2nd form is broadly conical with branches that spread widely. Both forms can be found throughout eastern redcedar's range [124]. Some authors describe the 2 forms in terms of age: young trees have the narrowly pyramidal or columnar shape with crowns becoming open and irregular as trees age [68]. Others suggest differences in crown form are attributed to variety, with J.v. var. virginiana displaying the columnar form and J.v. var. silicicola more broadly conical to rounded [29,36,68].

Eastern redcedar has thin, fibrous bark [29,55,129] that is 0.3 to 0.64 inch (0.75-1.6 cm) thick [8,28,29]. Leaves of eastern redcedar are borne in 2 forms. On seedlings and new twigs, leaves are pointed and awl-shaped. On mature branches, closely overlapping scale-like leaves fit tightly against the twig in opposite pairs [46,124,129].

Eastern redcedar generally has a shallow, fibrous root system [8,124], though roots of mature eastern redcedar trees may penetrate 25 feet (7.6 m) and lateral roots may reach 20 feet (6 m) [26,141]. Eastern redcedar seedlings have penetrating taproots and may later develop a lateral taproot system [24,79]. The deep, early taproot is usually replaced by an extensive, shallow root system with age [132]. Even 1st year seedlings begin developing a long fibrous root system, often at the expense of top growth [79]. The root system may be deep where soil permits [68], but on shallow and rocky soils eastern redcedar roots are very fibrous and tend to spread widely [79]. The development of a lateral taproot with age may also enable eastern redcedar to persist on outcrops and shallow soils [24].

Eastern redcedar seeds are borne in small, fleshy, berrylike cones [8,29], with 1 to 4 seeds per cone [44,68,79,124]. Eastern redcedar cones or fruits range from 0.12 to 0.33 inch (3-8 mm) long, with most 0.14 to 0.22 inch (3.5-5.5 mm) long [44,63,68,129]. Within this range, J.v. var. silicicola generally has smaller cone sizes than J.v. var. virginiana [36]. Seeds are 0.08-0.16 inch (2-4 mm) long [63,129].

  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 26. Bunger, Myron T.; Thomson, Hugh J. 1938. Root development as a factor in the success or failure of windbreak trees in the southern high plains. Journal of Forestry. 36: 790-803. [22084]
  • 28. Chang, Ying-Pe. 1954. Bark structure of North American conifers. Technical Bulletin No. 1095. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 86 p. [43074]
  • 36. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 44. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 1. The specific characters. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(4): 410-418. [910]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 55. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 114. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 124. Tuttle, Gary. 2001. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Arbor Age. 21(2): 25. [43431]
  • 129. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 132. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]
  • 141. Yeager, A. F. 1935. Root systems of certain trees and shrubs grown on prairie soils. Journal of Agricultural Research. 51(12): 1085-1092. [3748]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]

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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Dioecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark shaggy or peeling, Young shoots in flat sprays, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Whip leaves present, Leaves of two kinds, Leaves opposite, Leaves whorled, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Whip leaf margins entire under magnification, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones brown, Berry-like cones brown-purple, Berry-like cones pink, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds tan, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Trees to 30 m, dioecious; bark reddish brown; crown columnar-conical or conical; branches erect or spreading; branchlets thin, 4-angled, ca. 0.8 mm in diam. Leaves both scalelike and needlelike; needlelike leaves usually present on young plants, rarely present on adult plants, decussate or in whorls of 3, ascending, glaucous, 5-6 mm, concave adaxially; scalelike leaves decussate, rhombic-ovate, 1.5-3 mm, concave, abaxial gland basal, elliptic or ovate. Pollen cones 2-3 × ca. 1.5 mm; microsporophylls 8-12, each with 3 or 4 pollen sacs. Seed cones bluish green when ripe, glaucous, globose to ovoid, 4-6(-7) × 3-5.5 mm, 1- or 2-seeded. Seeds ovoid, 3-5 × 3-4 mm.
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Description

Trees dioecious, to 30 m, single-stemmed; crown narrowly erect to conical, round, or flattened. Bark brown, exfoliating in thin strips, that of small branchlets (5--10 mm diam.) smooth, that of larger branchlets usually not exfoliating in plates. Branches pendulous to ascending; branchlets generally erect, sometimes lax to flaccid, 3--4-sided in cross section, ca. 2/3 or less as wide as length of scalelike leaves. Leaves green but sometimes turning reddish brown in winter, abaxial gland elliptic or elongate, conspicuous, exudate absent, margins entire (at 20´ and 40´); whip leaves 3--6 mm, not glaucous adaxially; scalelike leaves 1--3 mm, overlapping by more than 1/4 their length, keeled, apex obtuse to acute, spreading. Seed cones maturing in 1 year, of 1 size, generally with straight peduncles, globose to ovoid, 3--6(--7) mm, blue-black to brownish blue when mature, glaucous, soft and resinous, with 1--2(--3) seeds. Seeds 1.5--4 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sabina virginiana (Linnaeus) Antoine.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Eastern Red Cedar is a common native tree that is found throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map); it probably occurs in every county. Habitats include thin upland woodlands, rocky bluffs, wooded slopes, woodland edges, sandstone and limestone glades, rocky cliffs, stabilized sand dunes, sandy savannas, roadside embankments, gravelly areas along railroads, fence rows, old cemeteries, and abandoned fields. Sometimes Eastern Red Cedar is cultivated as a landscape plant and for windbreaks. This is a pioneer tree that colonizes sunny areas that are relatively dry and sterile. Because of its thin bark and low branches, it has poor resistance to fire.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in a wide range of habitats, from old, eroded sandstone or limestone plateaux covered in open pine or pine-oak woodland, or stream banks of clay or sand in the Midwest, to abandoned fields and road verges and stabilized sand dunes on the Atlantic coast. The altitudinal range is 1-1,000 m a.s.l. More details are given under the two varieties.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: competition, hardwood, marsh, presence, shrub

Elevation and aspect: Eastern redcedar occurs from sea level to 5,000 feet (1,524 m) in elevation [29,111]. Although the most desirable elevation is not clearly delineated, eastern redcedar is found most often growing between 100 and 3,500 feet (30-1,070 m). It is notably absent below the 100 foot elevation zone in the southern and eastern parts of its range [79].

Aspect influences the character of eastern redcedar stands. On north and east slopes, there may be fewer eastern redcedar trees because of hardwood competition. However, the eastern redcedar that does occur on north and east slopes may be taller than the trees found on south and west slopes [46]. Eastern redcedar is generally more prevalent on south and south-west facing slopes [111]. In the western part of its range, however, eastern redcedar may more likely be found on north-facing slopes and along streambanks where there is some protection from high temperatures and drought [79]. On exposed areas in the far northern portion of its range, eastern redcedar's growth habit may be reduced to a low shrub [68].

Climate: Widespread distribution of eastern redcedar attests to its ability to grow under a range of climatic conditions. Precipitation averages 15 inches (380 mm) in the northwestern part of its range and 60 inches (1,520 mm) in the southeastern parts of its range [29,79,82,110]. Average annual maximum temperature ranges from 90 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit (32-46 oC) and average minimum temperature ranges from -45 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-43 to -7 oC). The growing season varies from about 120 to 250 days [79,82].

Soils and topography: Throughout its range, eastern redcedar grows under diverse site conditions: in deep and shallow soils, on ridgetops, and in valleys [46,47,64,79,114]. Eastern redcedar grows in such varied habitats as thin, rocky soils and dry outcrops to finer textured, saturated soils of swamps [18,63,64,79,82,110,132], though it is not tolerant of flooding [63]. Eastern redcedar is common on shallow soils (6 to 8 inches (15-20 cm) thick) on limestone or sandstone bedrock [29,31,47,68]. Where soil averages less than 12 inches (30 cm) deep, eastern redcedar seldom grows taller than 20 to 30 feet (6-9 m). Where soil depth is 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cm), it reaches 35 feet (10.7 m) in approximately 50 years [8]. Optimal site conditions for eastern redcedar are deep (>24 inches), moist, well-drained alluvial soils, where it may reach heights of 55 to 60 feet (16.7-18.3 m) after 50 years [46,79,82].

Eastern redcedar grows on alkaline or acidic soils where soil pH ranges from 4.7 to 7.8 [8,46,79,110]. High soil acidity does not deter eastern redcedar establishment [46,124], though it may slow growth [84]. Combinations of low phosphorus, high calcium and pH>7 in particular may favor eastern redcedar [24]. However, Lawson [79] reports that although eastern redcedar will grow on slightly alkaline soils, it is not particularly tolerant of higher pH levels. Eastern redcedar's occurrence on neutral to alkaline soils may be a result (rather than a cause) of the tree's presence [46]. Soils in eastern redcedar stands tend to become neutral or slightly alkaline because the high calcium content of the tree's foliage can change the pH of the surface soil in a relatively short time [29,46,79].

Eastern redcedar (primarily J.v. var. virginiana) is commonly found on rough upland topography, including moderate to steep slopes and eroded limestone slopes and knobs [3,8,11,13,24,111,111,124]. It frequently forms dense stands on exposed bluffs and ridges [18]. Southern redcedar occurs predominantly on coastal dunes, swales, shell mounds, brackish flats, and floodplains [3,36].

Tolerances: Southern redcedar is saline tolerant, growing on brackish marsh sites in southeastern U.S. [49], barrier island swales subject to saltwater flooding [122,136], and on coastal dunes subject to salt spray [64,69].

Eastern redcedar grows where water is near the surface or where soil moisture fluctuates from near saturation in winter to extreme dryness in summer [29]. It has high drought tolerance [29,63,92,132], enhanced by the presence of rapidly produced taproots as well as an extensive fibrous root system [29]. The relative drought tolerance of eastern redcedar compared with some herbaceous species (e.g. big bluestem) may contribute to its successful invasion of tallgrass prairie in the absence of fire [9].

Eastern redcedar is frost hardy [63,79,132], though newly established seedlings are subject to frost heaving and foliage may occasionally be damaged by winter injury [79].

Eastern redcedar is moderately shade intolerant/sun-adapted [18,79,92], though seedlings may survive for several years under a sparse canopy [13,79,119,132].

  • 3. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. [19792]
  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 9. Axmann, Beverly D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1993. Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie watershed. The Southwestern Naturalist. 38(4): 325-330. [38012]
  • 11. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2000. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and midwest regions of the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 87(2): 286-294. [38098]
  • 13. Beilmann, August P.; Brenner, Louis G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 38: 261-281. [24439]
  • 18. Blewett, Thomas J. 1986. Eastern redcedar's (Juniperus virginiana L.) expanded role in the prairie-forest border region. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 122-124. [3546]
  • 24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 36. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 47. Fralish, James S. 1976. Forest site-community relationships in the Shawnee Hills region, southern Illinois. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 65-87. [3813]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 64. Harper, Roland M. 1912. The diverse habitats of the eastern red cedar and their interpretation. Torreya. 12(7): 145-154. [14187]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 69. Johnson, A. Sydney; Hillestad, Hilburn O.; Shanholtzer, Sheryl Fanning; Shanholtzer, G. Frederick. 1974. An ecological survey of the coastal region of Georgia. Scientific Monograph Series No. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 233 p. [16102]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 82. Lee, Scott Allen. 1996. Propagation of Juniperus for conservation plantings in the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 91 p. Thesis. [43379]
  • 84. Limstrom, G. A.; Merz, R. W. 1949. Rehabilitation of lands stripped for coal in Ohio. Tech. Pap. No. 113. Columbus, OH: The Ohio Reclamation Association. 41 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. [4427]
  • 92. Ormsbee, P.; Bazzaz, F. A.; Boggess, W. R. 1976. Physiological ecology of Juniperus virginiana in oldfields. Oecologia. 23: 75-82. [13661]
  • 110. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 111. Small, Christine J.; Wentworth, Thomas R. 1998. Characterization of montane cedar-hardwood woodlands in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina. Castanea. 63(3): 241-261. [39637]
  • 114. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 119. Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Hale, Betsy J.; Hix, David M. 2000. Defining species guilds in the central hardwood forest, USA. Plant Ecology. 147: 1-19. [43742]
  • 122. Tolliver, Kathryn S.; Martin, David W.; Young, Donald R. 1997. Freshwater and saltwater flooding response for woody species common to barrier island swales. Wetlands. 17(1): 10-18. [43406]
  • 124. Tuttle, Gary. 2001. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Arbor Age. 21(2): 25. [43431]
  • 132. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]
  • 136. Williams, Kimberlyn; Meads, Michael V.; Sauerbrey, Denise A. 1998. The roles of seedling salt tolerance and resprouting in forest zonation on the west coast of Florida, USA. American Journal of Botany. 85(12): 1745-1752. [42073]
  • 49. Frost, Cecil C. 1995. Presettlement FIRE REGIMES in southeastern marshes, peatlands, and swamps. In: Cerulean, Susan I.; Engstrom, R. Todd, eds. Fire in wetlands: a management perspective: Proceedings, 19th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1993 November 3-6; Tallahassee, FL. No. 19. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 39-60. [26949]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: hardwood

Eastern redcedar commonly occurs in mixed stands with shortleaf pine
(Pinus echinata), Virginia pine (P. virginiana), northern
red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Q. alba), black oak
(Q. velutina), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), hickories
(Carya spp.), and black walnut (Juglans nigra) [132]. In the
northeastern United States, eastern redcedar frequently occurs on rocky
ridgetops with shagbark hickory (C. ovata), eastern hophornbeam
(Ostrya virginiana), downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea),
little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), bristleleaf sedge
(Carex eburnea), and Parlin's pussytoes (Antennaria parlinii) [104].

Where eastern redcedar dominates, species diversity is commonly low [24]. Pure
stands of eastern redcedar occur throughout its range, primarily on dry uplands or
abandoned farmlands [63,79], though hardwood species may also occur on these sites [104].
In southern Appalachian montane cedar-hardwood woodlands, eastern redcedar occurs
with bluestems (Andropogon spp.), little bluestem, sedges (Carex spp.),
panicgrass (Dichanthelium spp.), yellow honeysuckle (Lonicera flava),
cliff stonecrop (Sedum glaucophyllum), white ash (Fraxinus americana),
eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra),
honey-locust (Gleditsia tricanthos), chinkapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii),
chestnut oak (Q. prinus), pignut hickory (Carya glabra),
and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa) [24,111]. Pure stands are
also common in the northern Great Plains, though the stands may eventually be invaded
by other woody species [93].

In the prairie ecosystem, common associates of eastern redcedar include
little bluestem, big bluestem (A. gerardii var. gerardii), sideoats grama
(Bouteloua curtipendula), blue grama (B. gracilis), western wheatgrass
(Pascopyrum smithii), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass
(Panicum virgatum), prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepsis), gray goldenrod
(Solidago nemoralis), sedges, flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata),
smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), poison-ivy
(Toxicodendron radicans), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus),
silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana),
common juniper (J. communis), gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa), currants
(Ribes spp.), and Rubus species [93,126].

Where stands of eastern redcedar are interspersed with grasslands, "cedar
glades" may develop. Cedar glades are found in the Ozark region, north to
Wisconsin, and east to Illinois and Kentucky. Though eastern redcedar dominates
and may occur in almost pure stands in these glades [11,31,46,58,78], common
associates in midwestern glade communities include little bluestem, big bluestem,
broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus), hairy grama (B. hirsuta),
sideoats grama, switchgrass, prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha),
indiangrass, dropseeds (Sporobolus spp.), blackjack oak,
post oak (Q. stellata), white ash, winged elm (U. alata),
fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica), Carolina buckthorn (Frangula caroliniana),
rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum), Alabama supplejack (Berchemia scandens),
and common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) [11,46,47,58,78]. In Kentucky cedar
glades, eastern redcedar commonly occurs with big bluestem, little bluestem, purple threeawn
(Aristida purpurea), indiangrass, nodding onion (Allium cernuum), Carolina larkspur
(Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens), blue wild indigo
(Baptisia australis), roundhead lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), flowering spurge,
spotted sandmat (Chamaesyce maculata), slenderstalk beeblossom (Gaura filipes),
necklace gladecress (Leavenworthia torulosa), Michaux's gladecress (L. uniflora),
little hogweed (Portulaca oleracea), bearded flatsedge (Cyperus squarrosus), and
widowscross (Sedum pulchellum) [10]. In Wisconsin cedar glades, common associates include
little bluestem, big bluestem, flowering spurge, leadplant, hairy grama, Michaux's stitchwort
(Minuartia michauxii var. michauxii), gray goldenrod, basswood
(Tilia americana), gray birch (Betula populifolia), common juniper, and creeping
juniper [31].

Classifications identifying eastern redcedar as a plant community dominant
include those listed below:

Kansas [78]
Kentucky [10]

New York [104]
North Carolina [111]
Wisconsin [31]
  • 10. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 1978. Plant ecology of cedar glades in the Big Barren region of Kentucky. Rhodora. 80: 545-557. [45322]
  • 11. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2000. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and midwest regions of the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 87(2): 286-294. [38098]
  • 24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 47. Fralish, James S. 1976. Forest site-community relationships in the Shawnee Hills region, southern Illinois. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 65-87. [3813]
  • 58. Guyette, Richard; McGinnes, E. A., Jr. 1982. Fire history of an Ozark glade in Missouri. Transactions, Missouri Academy of Science. 16: 85-93. [5170]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 78. Lauver, Chris L.; Kindscher, Kelly; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Schneider, Rick. 1999. A classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 44(4): 421-443. [38847]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 93. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
  • 104. Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. Latham, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Natural Heritage Program. 96 p. [21441]
  • 111. Small, Christine J.; Wentworth, Thomas R. 1998. Characterization of montane cedar-hardwood woodlands in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina. Castanea. 63(3): 241-261. [39637]
  • 126. Ugarte, Eduardo Aurelio. 1987. The hill prairies of northeast Iowa: Vegetation and dynamics. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 117 p. Dissertation. [40100]
  • 132. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, hardwood

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [109]:

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

605 Sandsage prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

610 Wheatgrass

708 Bluestem-dropseed

709 Bluestem-grama

710 Bluestem prairie

717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass

719 Mesquite-liveoak-seacoast bluestem

730 Sand shinnery oak

731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma

732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)

733 Juniper-oak

801 Savanna

802 Missouri prairie

803 Missouri glades

804 Tall fescue

805 Riparian

809 Mixed hardwood and pine

810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills

812 North Florida flatwoods

813 Cutthroat seeps

815 Upland hardwood hammocks
  • 109. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [43]:

1 Jack pine

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

19 Gray birch-red maple

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

21 Eastern white pine

22 White pine-hemlock

23 Eastern hemlock

24 Hemlock-yellow birch

25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch

26 Sugar maple-basswood

27 Sugar maple

37 Northern white-cedar

39 Black ash-American elm-red maple

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

42 Bur oak

43 Bear oak

44 Chestnut oak

45 Pitch pine

46 Eastern redcedar

50 Black locust

51 White pine-chestnut oak

52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak

53 White oak

55 Northern red oak

57 Yellow-poplar

58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock

59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak

60 Beech-sugar maple

62 Silver maple-American elm

63 Cottonwood

64 Sassafras-persimmon

65 Pin oak-sweetgum

66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper

67 Mohrs (shin) oak

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

72 Southern scrub oak

73 Southern redcedar

74 Cabbage palmetto

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine

81 Loblolly pine

82 Loblolly pine-hardwood

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

84 Slash pine

85 Slash pine-hardwood

87 Sweetgum-yellow-poplar

88 Willow oak-water oak-diamondleaf (laurel) oak

89 Live oak

92 Sweetgum-willow oak

93 Sugarberry-American elm-green ash

94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm

97 Atlantic white-cedar

104 Sweetbay-swamp tupelo-redbay

108 Red maple

109 Hawthorn

110 Black oak
  • 43. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [75] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K071 Shinnery

K073 Northern cordgrass prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K076 Blackland prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K083 Cedar glades

K084 Cross Timbers

K086 Juniper-oak savanna

K087 Mesquite-oak savanna

K089 Black Belt

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K106 Northern hardwoods

K109 Transition between K104 and K106

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest

K113 Southern floodplain forest
  • 75. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [50]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES31 Shinnery

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES37 Mountain meadows

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie
  • 50. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

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Soils and Topography

Eastern redcedar grows on a wide variety of soils, ranging from dry rock  outcrops to wet swampy land (15). The most common soils fall within the  soil orders Mollisols and Ultisols. No attempt will be made here to  describe all of them. Like most species, eastern redcedar grows best on  deep, moist, well-drained alluvial sites, where its height may reach 17 to  18 m (55 to 60 ft) in 50 years. On the better sites, however, hardwood  competition is so severe that the species rarely becomes dominant. Eastern  redcedar also grows well on deep, upland soils, particularly abandoned  farmland. A 0.4-hectare (1-acre) plantation established in Arkansas from  wildlings, with spacing of 1.8 by 1.8 m (6 by 6 ft), yielded a basal area  of 37.4 m²/ha (163 ft²/acre) and an estimated 196 m³/ha  (2,800 ft³/acre) of merchantable volume in 44 years (11).

    The species is frequently associated with areas commonly called glades,  characterized by thin rocky soils and intermittent rock outcrops; soil  depth is difficult to determine because soil rock content and depth of  rock fissures vary (11,16). Soils on the poorest glade sites are less than  30 cm (12 in) deep, medium sites are usually less than 61 cm (24 in) deep  and have large crevices, and good sites have deeper soil. Arend and  Collins (3) developed the site classification system shown in table 1. 

    Table 1- Site classes for natural stands of eastern  redcedar in northern Arkansas            Site Class              Item  I  II  III  IV            Soil character  alluvial  upland  upland  upland      Soil depth, cm  61+  61+  30 to 58  less than 30      Soil depth, in  24+  24+  12 to 23  less than 12      Site index¹              Open stand, m  16.8  13.7  10.7    7.6      Open stand, ft  55     45     35     25         Closed stand, m  18.3  15.2  12.2    9.1      Closed stand, ft  60     50     40     30         ¹Adjusted to  base age 50 years.        Eastern redcedar grows on soils that vary widely in acidity. Soils found  in natural stands range in pH value from 4.7 to 7.8. Although the species  will grow on sites that are slightly alkaline, it is not particularly  tolerant to higher pH levels. Eastern redcedar is, in fact, among the  least alkali-tolerant of drought-hardy trees and shrubs. Soils in eastern  redcedar stands tend to become neutral or slightly alkaline because the  high calcium content of the tree's foliage can change the pH of the  surface soil in a relatively short time. This condition also increases  earthworm activity, with an increase in incorporation of organic matter, a  lower volume weight, and an increase in pore volume and infiltration rate  (11,15).

    Eastern redcedar grows on ridgetops, varying slopes, and flat land and  is frequently found on dry, exposed sites and abandoned fields. This  aspect also influences eastern redcedar development. In the western part  of its range, the species may be found on north-facing slopes and along  streambanks where there is some protection from high temperatures and  drought. Although the most desirable elevation is not clearly delineated,  eastern redcedar is found most often growing between 30 m (100 ft) and  1070 m (3,500 ft). It is notably absent below the 30 m (100 ft) elevation  zone in the southern and eastern parts of the species range (15,27).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Climate

The wide natural distribution of eastern redcedar clearly indicates its  ability to grow under varying and extreme climatic conditions. Average  annual precipitation varies from about 380 mm (15 in) in the northwestern  section to 1520 mm (60 in) in the southern parts of its range (40).  Throughout the eastern redcedar range, average precipitation from April  through September measures from 380 mm (15 in) to 760 mm (30 in). This  suggests that summer precipitation may be more limiting to the species  than average annual precipitation. Average annual snowfall ranges from a  trace to more than 254 cm (100 in).

    Average annual temperatures vary from about 4° C (40° F) in  the north to 20° C (68° F) in the southern part of the botanical  range. Average annual maximum temperature ranges only from about 32°  C (90° F) to 41° C (105° F), but average minimum  temperature ranges from -43° C (-45° F) to -7° C (20°  F). The growing season varies from about 120 to 250 days.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated for ornament and planted for afforestation. Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang [native to E Canada, E United States]
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Dispersal

Establishment

It is especially well adapted to dry areas. Red cedar is generally propagated by cuttings.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Associations

Faunal Associations

An interesting variety of insects feed on Eastern Red Cedar. These species include the caterpillars of the butterfly Callophrys gryneus (Olive Hairstreak), the caterpillars of Patalene olyzonaria (Juniper Geometer) and other moths, the caterpillar-like larvae of Monoctenus fulvus (Juniper Sawfly) and Monoctenus melliceps (Arborvitae Sawfly), Phloeosinus dentatus (Eastern Juniper Bark Beetle) and Phloeosinus canadensis (Northern Cedar Bark Beetle), the larvae of several long-horned beetles, the larvae of the metallic wood-boring beetle Chrysobothris neotexana, both larvae and adults of Phyllobius intrusus (Arborvitae Weevil), the flea beetle Paria sexnotata, Parthenolecanium fletcheri (Fletcher Scale) and Carulaspis juniperi (Juniper Scale), the leafhoppers Empoasca junipera and Scaphoideus opalinus, the seed bug Eremocoris fera, Cinara juniperivora (Juniper Aphid), the stink bug Banasa packardii, several plant bugs, the larvae of Contarinia juniperina (Juniper Midge) and Oligotrophus betheli (Juniper Tip Midge), and several thrips (see the Insect Table for a more complete listing of these species). Because they are relatively high in carbohydrates and fats, the berry-like cones are eaten by many songbirds and some upland gamebirds (see Bird Table). Because of its fondness for the berry-like cones, the Cedar Waxwing was even named after this tree. Bird species that are partial to Eastern Red Cedar as a site for their nests include Cooper's Hawk, Blue Jay, Northern Mockingbird, Robin, Prairie Warbler, Pine Warbler, House Finch, Chipping Sparrow, Song Sparrow, and Field Sparrow. Because of the protective cover of the evergreen leaves, owls, sparrows, and other birds often roost in this tree. The berry-like seed cones are also eaten by the Black Bear, Gray Fox, Opossum, Eastern Chipmunk, and White-Footed Mouse. White-Tailed Deer occasionally browse on the leaves and twigs.
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Foodplant / gall
telium of Gymnosporangium sabinae causes gall of live, swollen branch of Juniperus virginiana
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / feeds on
Trisetacus chamaecypari feeds on foliage of Juniperus virginiana

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Associated Forest Cover

Pure stands of eastern redcedar are scattered throughout the primary  range of the species. Most of these stands are on abandoned farm lands or  drier upland sites. The forest cover type Eastern Redcedar (Society of  American Foresters Type 46) is widespread and therefore has many  associates (10).

    Variants of the type are eastern redcedar-pine, eastern  redcedar-hardwood, and eastern redcedar-pine-hardwood. The eastern  redcedar-pine variant is composed of eastern redcedar and either shortleaf  pine (Pinus echinata) or Virginia pine (P. virginiana) and  is found throughout the southern half of its range. The eastern  redcedar-hardwood variant is found throughout the central part of its  range and includes a mixture of red (Quercus rubra) and white (Q.  alba) oaks, hickories (Carya spp.), black walnut (Juglans  nigra), and other hardwoods. The third variant, eastern  redcedar-pine-hardwood, includes all of the above species associations  (15). Eastern redcedar appears as a minor component of several other  forest cover types.

    Eastern redcedar is among the first to invade abandoned fields and areas  cleared for pasture (25). On deeper soils, persimmon (Diospyros  virginiana) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) are associated  invaders and may crowd it out. In cedar glades, the species is commonly  associated with blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), winged elm  (Ulmus alata), fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica), Carolina  buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana), rusty blackhaw (Viburnum  rufidulum), and Alabama supplejack (Berchemia scandens). Little  bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), big bluestem (A. gerardi),  yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass (Panicum  virgatum), dropseed (Sporobolus spp.), and numerous composites  and legumes are common herbaceous plants.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Plant Associates

Eastern red-cedar is among the first to invade abandoned fields and areas cleared for pasture. On deeper soils, persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) are associated invaders and may crowd it out. In cedar glades, the species is commonly associated with blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), winged elm (Ulmus alata), fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica), Carolina buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana), rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum), and Alabama supplejack (Berchemia scandens). Dry prairie grasses, including little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and dropseed (Sporobolus spp.), along with numerous composites and legumes, are common herbaceous associates.

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

Fire is probably the worst enemy of eastern  redcedar. The thin bark and roots near the ground surface are easily  injured by fires. Some natural protection against fire exists because its  foliage does not bum well and litter accumulation is minimal under stands  on thin soils (11,15).

    Several insects damage eastern redcedar trees but rarely cause serious  permanent damage (5). Roots of seedlings are very susceptible to attack by  nematodes and grubs. The foliage is eaten by bagworms (Thyridopteryx  ephemeraeformis) and spruce spider mites (Oligonychus ununguis),  both of which can completely defoliate trees. The eastern juniper bark  beetle (Phloeosinus dentatus) attacks the species but usually does  not kill trees except when the attack is associated with the root rot  fungus, Heterobasidion annosum. Another bark beetle (Phloeosinus  canadensis) may feed on eastern redcedar. Several boring insects,  including the black-horned juniper borer (Callidium texanum), cedartree  borer (Semanotus ligneus), cypress and cedar borer (Oeme  rigida), and pales weevil (Hylobius pales) will attack eastern  redcedar. The juniper midge (Contarinia juniperina) is a gall  insect pest of redcedar which bores into the twigs at the base of needles  and kills the portion beyond the entrance hole. In addition to pales  weevil, two other weevils, the arborvitae weevil (Phyllobius intrususand the strawberry root weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus), feed on  roots of eastern redcedar. The latter two weevils are also leaf feeders,  along with the juniper webworm (Dichomeris marginella); a wax moth  (Coleotechnites juniperella); a leaf roller (Choristoneura  houstonana), a pest of windbreak and ornamental plantings; and a  sawfly (Monoctenus melliceps). The Fletcher scale (Lecanium  fletcheri) and juniper scale (Carulaspis juniperi) are two  other commonly occurring insects that attack junipers.

    Eastern redcedar, especially when weakened by stress or insects, is very  susceptible to damage by the root rot fungus, Heterobasidion annosumThis disease is thought to cause the greatest damage over much of its  range. Cubical rot fungi (Fomes subroseus and Daedalea  juniperina) and juniper pocket rot fungus (Pyrofomes demidoffiienter eastern redcedars through dead branch stubs and attack the  heartwood. Several other minor heart-rot fungi infect eastern redcedar  (21).

    The major stem and foliage diseases of eastern redcedar are fungi known  as cedar rusts in the genus Gymnosporangium. The most commonly  known and widely spread species is cedar apple rust (G.  juniperi-virginianae), which attacks trees in all stages of  development. Because it is an alternate host to this disease, the presence  of redcedar is a problem to apple growers. Other common species are G.  clavipes, G. globosum, G. effusum, and G. nidus-avis. The  latter fungus is widely distributed and produces witches' brooms (21).  Important foliage diseases include Phomopsis blight (Phomopsis  juniperovora) and Cercospora sequoiae blight, which also  attack seedlings. Phomopsis blight has been difficult to control in  nurseries, but newer developments show promise (12,32). Both blights can  cause major losses to eastern redcedar in the field, but Phomopsis blight  is not a serious problem after seedlings reach age 4.

    Newly established seedlings are subject to frost-heaving, and foliage  may occasionally be damaged by winter injury (23). Mice and rabbits may  damage young eastern redcedar seedlings. Livestock generally avoid biting  seedlings or trees but may trample the plants and their roots while  grazing. During times of scarce food, deer will heavily browse eastern  redcedar and destroy most reproduction (11,20). Redcedar withstands the  weight of snow fairly well, but it has only moderate resistance to ice  damage (8). Although the species is generally very tolerant to drought and  temperature extremes, the author observed considerable mortality in west  central Arkansas associated with the extremely hot, dry summer of 1980.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: backfire, crown fire, density, fire intensity, fire severity, fuel, headfire, litter, prescribed fire, resistance, severity, tree

In the absence of fire, eastern redcedar thrives and may eventually dominate prairie or forest vegetation [1,5,13,17]. Prescribed fire is generally effective at controlling eastern redcedar invasion in grasslands [13,77]. Spring burning is appropriate for eastern redcedar treatment because leaf water content is relatively low in late spring [38]. Spring burns usually kill eastern redcedar up to 3.3 feet (1 m) tall [25,29,73,85], though larger trees up to 20 feet (6 m) are occasionally killed [95]. In an Illinois barren community, eastern redcedar seedlings and saplings were eliminated for at least 20 years following a spring prescribed fire [5]. In a Tennessee study over 20 years, eastern redcedar establishment was prevented using late winter prescribed surface fires annually and at 5-year intervals. On sites without fire treatment, eastern redcedar was recruited [32]. On a Texas site, prescribed burning reduced eastern redcedar from an average preburn density of 19 stems/acre (0-49 stems/ha) to 0 stems/acre (measured 4 months after the burn), with the unburned control averaging 21 stems/acre (54 stems/ha) [123].

Though widely used, broadcast burning disadvantages include incomplete control, a narrow annual treatment window, and integrated prefire (to accumulate fine fuel) and postfire (to allow recovery of grasses) grazing management required to improve results [93]. Degree of control depends on tree height, amount and distribution of herbaceous material that serves as fuel, backfire or headfire, and weather conditions favoring ignition of tree crowns [77].

Eastern redcedar trees <6 feet (1.8 m) tall are easily killed by prescribed burns with adequate grass fuel (~2,000 lbs/acre (2,268 kg/ha)) [17,39,77]. A Missouri study found that eastern redcedar mortality depended chiefly on the ratio of the amount of surface fuel to the amount of eastern redcedar foliage to be consumed (higher ratio = greater mortality). The ratio was affected both by size of the tree and density of the crown. Mortalities for eastern redcedar with very low, low, moderate, and high density crowns were 90%, 82%, 66%, and 35% respectively [85]. Eastern redcedar is somewhat less susceptible to fire as tree size increases, so fire intensity must increase to scorch the crown of taller trees [37,85,94]. Larger trees may escape fire due to thicker bark, higher canopies [93], and a low fuel to foliage ratio [85]. Headfires running with a 5- to 20-mph wind may be necessary to create flames that engulf the lower parts of large trees [77]. Controlling trees >6 feet tall often requires more fuel than the range's potential production [17].

Fire intensity and tree mortality are reduced further in dense stands of large trees because junipers reduce production of fine fuels [37]. The susceptibility of small eastern redcedar trees is enhanced because canopies of smaller trees do not have a large effect on surrounding herbaceous vegetation and stems are in close proximity to fine fuel [93]. In a Missouri burn, large tree mortality depended on amount of herbaceous fuel and density of crowns. Trees having crowns with sparse foliage exhibited 90% mortality. Trees having larger crowns with dense foliage showed 35% mortality. Light crowned trees had more foliage beneath them than did densely crowned trees. Temperatures the day of the burn ranged from 28 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit (-2 to 15 oC), the lowest relative humidity was 26%, and winds averaged 4.7 mph [29,85].

Two prescribed fires conducted 1 week apart on tallgrass prairie in Missouri had varying results. The 1st fire occurred with higher humidity and wetter fuels, resulting in a less severe burn that allowed even eastern redcedar stems 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) in diameter to survive. Drier fuel conditions and lower humidity during the 2nd burn resulted in relatively greater fire severity that killed 93 to 100% of eastern redcedar up to 3.5 inches in diameter [73].

Because eastern redcedar growth rate and resistance to prescribed fire treatments increases at 15 to 20 years, control of invading trees is most effective at less than 10 years of age and 6.6 feet (2 m) tall [4]. Eastern redcedar stands are often a mixture of tree sizes, and fuel loadings vary, so it is difficult to predict the extent of mortality following prescribed fire. In an Oklahoma study, eastern redcedar mortality for small (2 to 5 feet (0.6-1.5 m)), medium (5 to 8 feet (1.5-2.4 m)), and large (8 to 16 feet (2.4-4.9 m)) trees was 82, 54, and 39%, respectively. Fuel loads ranged from 1,300 to 6,100 lbs/acre (1,474-6,917 kg/ha), and tree mortality increased with increasing fuel load [39]. Studies at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve found spring prescribed burning was ineffective at controlling eastern redcedar greater than 1.6 inches (4 cm) in diameter; however, tree girdling in the fall followed by prescribed burning in the spring resulted in >50% immediate reduction of eastern redcedar with most of the remaining trees dying during the 1st growing season after treatment. Subsequent burning virtually removed eastern redcedar from the site [1]. Use of defoliating herbicides prior to prescribed burning increases the leaf litter and may improve the effectiveness of fire treatments by increasing fire intensity [41,42]. Desiccation of eastern redcedar foliage increases crown scorch and mortality due to prescribed fire by promoting crown fire [37]. Individual tree ignition following prescribed burning may be effective for removing any surviving eastern redcedar [40,93]. Picloram and/or cutting treatments may also be effective in removing larger eastern redcedar not killed by prescribed burning [93,94,117].

  • 4. Alemayehu, Dejene; Engle, David M.; Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steve. 1998. Pattern of growth of sapwood, heartwood, and stem volume of open-grown eastern redcedar in grasslands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(3): 169-174. [43384]
  • 5. Anderson, Roger C.; Schwegman, John E. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 100-107. [16256]
  • 13. Beilmann, August P.; Brenner, Louis G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 38: 261-281. [24439]
  • 25. Buehring, Normie; Santelmann, P. W.; Elwell, Harry M. 1971. Responses of eastern red cedar to control procedures. Journal of Range Management. 24: 378-382. [45747]
  • 32. DeSelm, Hal R.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Rennie, John C. 1991. Effects of 27 years of prescribed fire on an oak forest and its soils in middle Tennessee. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compiler. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Vol. 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 409-417. [17488]
  • 37. Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1991. Fire-herbicide systems for manipulating juniper. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 397-401. [16659]
  • 38. Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F.; Claypool, P. L. 1987. Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees. Journal of Range Management. 40(3): 237-239. [38017]
  • 39. Engle, David M.; Kulbeth, James D. 1992. Fuel and weather related to kill of eastern redcedar from fire. Circular E-905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. (905): 14-15. [38020]
  • 40. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1992. Enhancing control of eastern redcedar through individual plant ignition following prescribed burning. Journal of Range Management. 45: 493-495. [19392]
  • 41. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1995. Fire behavior and fire effects on eastern redcedar in hardwood leaf-litter fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 5(3): 135-141. [26525]
  • 42. Engle, David M.; Stritzke, Jimmy F.; Claypool, P. Larry. 1988. Effect of paraquat prescribed burning on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Weed Technology. 2(2): 172-174. [38021]
  • 73. Kucera, C. L.; Ehrenreich, John H.; Brown, Carl. 1963. Some effects of fire on tree species in Missouri prairie. Iowa State Journal of Science. 38(3): 179-185. [3444]
  • 77. Launchbaugh, John L.; Owensby, Clenton E. 1978. Kansas rangelands: Their management based on a half century of research. Bull. 622. Hays, KS: Kansas State University, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [9477]
  • 85. Martin, S. Clark; Crosby, John S. 1955. Burning and grazing on glade range in Missouri. Technical Paper No. 147. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 13 p. [45745]
  • 93. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
  • 95. Owensby, Clenton E.; Blan, Kenneth R.; Eaton, B. J.; Russ, O. G. 1973. Evaluation of eastern redcedar infestations in the northern Kansas Flint Hills. Journal of Range Management. 26(4): 256-260. [45746]
  • 117. Stone, Caleb. 1998. The invasion of eastern red cedar, and its control. Journal of Natural Resource and Life Science Education. Madison,WI: American Society of Agronomy. 27: 90-92. [43428]
  • 123. Turner, Rick L.; Reeves, Hershel C.; Legg, Michael H. 1994. Vegetational changes due to prescribed fire in Mission Texas State Park. Texas Journal of Science. 46(1): 61-71. [23154]
  • 1. Abrell, Brian. 1990. Control of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by girdling and burning at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana. Natural Areas Journal. 10(3): 140. [16959]
  • 17. Bidwell, Terrence G.; Moseley, Mark E. [n.d.]. Eastern redcedar. Circular E-892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 3 p. [19237]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]
  • 94. Ortmann, John; Stubbendieck, James; Masters, Robert A.; [and others]. 1998. Efficacy and costs of controlling eastern redcedar. Journal of Range Management. 51(2): 158-163. [28938]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the terms: prescribed fire, tree

Eastern redcedar seedlings and saplings are very susceptible to fire; they may be eliminated from a site following winter or spring prescribed burning [5,6]. Eastern redcedar mortality decreases as tree size increases, due to relatively thicker bark, sparse fine fuels beneath the canopy, and greater vertical distance of the upper foliage from lethal temperatures [25,37,57,93,94,95]. In a Nebraska prescribed fire study, eastern redcedar height-class mortality means were [94]:

Height-class Mortality
<3.3 feet (1 m) 88%
3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) 60%
6.6 to 9.9 feet (2-3 m) 35%
>9.9 feet (3 m) 10%

In Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana, low-severity spring prescribed burns, exhibiting irregular burn patterns, were only effective in killing small diameter eastern redcedar (1.5 inches (4 cm) basal diameter), while larger trees were unaffected [1]. A study of prescribed fire in a Missouri eastern redcedar glade found that spring burning killed all trees up to 1.5 feet (0.5 m) tall but only 7% of the trees taller than 6.5 feet (2 m) [85].

  • 5. Anderson, Roger C.; Schwegman, John E. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 100-107. [16256]
  • 6. Anderson, Roger C.; Van Valkenburg, Charles. 1977. Response of a southern Illinois grassland community to burning. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Science. 69(4): 399-414. [19481]
  • 25. Buehring, Normie; Santelmann, P. W.; Elwell, Harry M. 1971. Responses of eastern red cedar to control procedures. Journal of Range Management. 24: 378-382. [45747]
  • 37. Engle, D. M.; Stritzke, J. F. 1991. Fire-herbicide systems for manipulating juniper. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 397-401. [16659]
  • 57. Guyette, Richard P.; Cutter, Bruce E. 1991. Tree-ring analysis of fire history of a post oak savanna in the Missouri Ozarks. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 93-99. [38016]
  • 85. Martin, S. Clark; Crosby, John S. 1955. Burning and grazing on glade range in Missouri. Technical Paper No. 147. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 13 p. [45745]
  • 93. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
  • 95. Owensby, Clenton E.; Blan, Kenneth R.; Eaton, B. J.; Russ, O. G. 1973. Evaluation of eastern redcedar infestations in the northern Kansas Flint Hills. Journal of Range Management. 26(4): 256-260. [45746]
  • 1. Abrell, Brian. 1990. Control of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by girdling and burning at Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve, Indiana. Natural Areas Journal. 10(3): 140. [16959]
  • 94. Ortmann, John; Stubbendieck, James; Masters, Robert A.; [and others]. 1998. Efficacy and costs of controlling eastern redcedar. Journal of Range Management. 51(2): 158-163. [28938]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Eastern redcedar is susceptible to fire kill because of its short bole, thin bark, shallow roots, inability to resprout, and highly combustible evergreen foliage, which extends to the ground, particularly in young open-grown trees [8,21,23,31,57,63,77,79,139].
  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 21. Briggs, John M.; Gibson, David J. 1992. Effect of fire on tree spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 199(3): 300-307. [38010]
  • 23. Briggs, John M.; Knapp, Alan K.; Brock, Brent L. 2002. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: a fifteen-year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. American Midland Naturalist. 147(2): 287-294. [41386]
  • 31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 57. Guyette, Richard P.; Cutter, Bruce E. 1991. Tree-ring analysis of fire history of a post oak savanna in the Missouri Ozarks. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 93-99. [38016]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 77. Launchbaugh, John L.; Owensby, Clenton E. 1978. Kansas rangelands: Their management based on a half century of research. Bull. 622. Hays, KS: Kansas State University, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [9477]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 139. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Prairie prescribed burning symposium and workshop: Proceedings; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: V-1 to V-12. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. [3249]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: adventitious, initial off-site colonizer, tree

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [115]:
Tree without adventitious bud/root crown
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
  • 115. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: density, fire frequency, fire suppression, frequency, fuel, litter

Fire adaptations: Eastern redcedar does not survive on sites subject to frequent fire [131].

FIRE REGIMES: Eastern redcedar frequently occurs on sites topographically and edaphically protected from fire, including bluffs, rocky hillsides, shale barrens of Virginia and West Virginia, limestone glades of Tennessee, Virginia, Missouri and Arkansas; serpentine barrens of Pennsylvania and Maryland; sandstone cliffs; granite outcrops; sand dunes; and estuarine swamps [29]. Sites where eastern redcedar occurs as a persistent dominant are unlikely to support frequent fire due to rocky, shallow soils and low fuel loads [24]. On shallow soils where litter accumulation is limited, the lack of fuel protects many eastern redcedar stands even where fire occurrence is high [46]. However, in the absence of fire on adjoining uplands, eastern redcedar has been able to spread from these clifftop areas and invade uplands where it occupies a successional role [24]. On deep soils, competing vegetation produces enough litter to support fire. Sufficient fuels to carry fire are usually available on grasslands and old agricultural fields, and a single fire may remove eastern redcedar from a site [46].

Fire suppression has resulted in the invasion of eastern redcedar into grasslands and savannas [58,131]. In areas that once burned periodically, eastern redcedar was protected from fire on dry or rocky sites lacking sufficient herbaceous fuel to carry fire. As fire frequency decreased, eastern redcedar invaded adjacent and apparently stable plant communities. Subsequently, individual eastern redcedars have increased in size and coverage, and stand density has increased. Large trees and dense stands shade or otherwise inhibit growth of desired herbaceous vegetation [29]. In as little as 30 years after a fire, a treeless pasture can be converted to a closed canopy eastern redcedar forest [67,131].

A study of a cedar glade in southern Missouri found that fires occurred every 3.2 years during the presettlement period (1630-1870). After 1870, fire frequency decreased to 22 years [58]. In a post oak savanna in southern Missouri, a study of fire scars on post oak, shortleaf pine, and eastern redcedar indicated a mean fire free interval of 4.3 years between 1700 and 1810. The period between 1785 and 1810 showed the most extensive evidence of fire, and fire frequency declined after 1860 (coincident with European settlement) [57].

FIRE REGIMES for plant communities and ecosystems where eastern redcedar is a common associate are summarized below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula > 1000
sugar maple Acer saccharum > 1000
sugar maple-basswood Acer saccharum-Tilia americana > 1000 [131]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 74,97]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium 97]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 97,138]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 97,107,138]
sugarberry-America elm-green ash Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica < 35 to 200
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to > 200
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum > 1000 [131]
juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana < 35
Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei < 35
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-22 [58,97]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera 131]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii 97,100,138]
jack pine Pinus banksiana 34]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. < 10
slash pine Pinus elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood Pinus elliottii-variable 131]
longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [89,131]
longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [131]
red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 10-200 (10**) [34,48]
red-white-jack pine* Pinus resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [34,66]
pocosin Pinus serotina 3-8
eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200
eastern white pine-eastern hemlock Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis 35-200
eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple Pinus strobus-Quercus rubra-Acer rubrum 35-200
loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to < 35
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to < 35
sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-Ulmus americana 131]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides 97]
aspen-birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [34,131]
black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-Acer saccharum > 1000
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. < 35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. < 10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra < 35
northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis < 35
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia < 35 >
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa 131]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [97,131]
shinnery Quercus mohriana 97]
chestnut oak Q. prinus 3-8
northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to < 35
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica < 10
black oak Quercus velutina < 35
live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to131]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. 97]
eastern hemlock-yellow birch Tsuga canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis > 200 [131]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. 34,131]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
**mean
  • 138. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
  • 34. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 48. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 57. Guyette, Richard P.; Cutter, Bruce E. 1991. Tree-ring analysis of fire history of a post oak savanna in the Missouri Ozarks. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 93-99. [38016]
  • 58. Guyette, Richard; McGinnes, E. A., Jr. 1982. Fire history of an Ozark glade in Missouri. Transactions, Missouri Academy of Science. 16: 85-93. [5170]
  • 66. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forest. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Proceedings of a symposium; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 67. Hoch, G. A.; Briggs, J. M. 1999. Expansion of eastern red cedar in the northern Flint Hills, Kansas. In: Springer, J. T., ed. The central Nebraska loess hills prairie: Proceedings of the 16th North American prairie conference; 1998 July 26-29; Kearney, NE. No. 16. Kearney, NE: University of Nebraska: 9-15. [46041]
  • 89. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 100. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
  • 107. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
  • 97. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 131. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, cover, succession

Eastern redcedar is both a pioneer and an invader [13,30,134]. It colonizes relatively open patches of eroded bare ground and is most competitive on exposed dry sites; disturbed areas including abandoned pastures and cultivated fields, eroded areas, and open woods thinned by timber harvest [29,36,46,68,91,103,127,134,140]. Eastern redcedar does not establish well in more competitive, denser vegetation cover that occurs with less erosion or later in succession [140]. However, in Texas savannas, eastern redcedar establishment may by facilitated by post oak trees, which are then overtopped and outcompeted by eastern redcedar [27].

Eastern redcedar a well-known invader in the prairie region [13,18,30,93]. Invasion into prairie grasslands is attributed primarily to absence of fire [9,22,93,117], and may be exacerbated by certain grazing practices [22,127]. A readily available seed source resulting from eastern redcedar plantings and ability to capitalize across a wide range of environmental conditions have also encouraged eastern redcedar establishment in grasslands [93]. Eastern redcedar is thus an early to mid-seral component in cedar glades that result from the invasion of grasslands [11,18,58]. These glades eventually succeed to oak (Quercus spp.) -hardwood forests [11]. Eastern redcedar glades may persist as subclimax vegetation where soil development is low and rock outcrops are abundant. The scarcity of soil precludes establishment of other species [99].

Eastern redcedar forms persistent, stable communities in limestone outcrop areas of the Interior Low Plateaus and the Limestone Valleys and Uplands Soils Province. These communities have been regarded as climax, subclimax, and edaphic climax. In particular, eastern redcedar stands may persist as subclimax forest on eroded limestone slopes and knobs [11]. Persistent stands occurring on outcrops are subject to windthrow due to exposure and shallow soil. The result is a periodic opening of the stand favoring continued eastern redcedar establishment [24].

On the Atlantic coast, eastern redcedar may promote recruitment of mid-successional woody seedlings (and impact their distribution) passively through distribution of seeds by perching birds. Recruitment may be actively promoted through increased seedling survival due to eastern redcedar alterations in microclimate and edaphic factors. In a Virginia study, fleshy-fruited seeds of woody species were more abundant in the seed bank beneath eastern redcedar than in exposed sites. Photosynthetically active radiation was reduced under eastern redcedar canopies, and soil temperature fluctuations were moderated during the growing season. Moisture content, organic matter, and chlorides were higher for soils under eastern redcedar than in exposed sites [70].

  • 9. Axmann, Beverly D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1993. Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie watershed. The Southwestern Naturalist. 38(4): 325-330. [38012]
  • 11. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 2000. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and midwest regions of the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 87(2): 286-294. [38098]
  • 13. Beilmann, August P.; Brenner, Louis G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 38: 261-281. [24439]
  • 18. Blewett, Thomas J. 1986. Eastern redcedar's (Juniperus virginiana L.) expanded role in the prairie-forest border region. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 122-124. [3546]
  • 22. Briggs, John M.; Hoch, Greg A.; Johnson, Loretta C. 2002. Assessing the rate, mechanisms, and consequences of the conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems. 5: 578-586. [44579]
  • 24. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 27. Callaway, Ragan M.; Walker, Lawrence R. 1997. Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology. 78(7): 1958-1965. [27660]
  • 30. Coppedge, Bryan R.; Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Masters, Ronald E.; Gregory, Mark S. 2002. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA. Landscape Ecology. 16(8): 677-690. [43382]
  • 36. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 58. Guyette, Richard; McGinnes, E. A., Jr. 1982. Fire history of an Ozark glade in Missouri. Transactions, Missouri Academy of Science. 16: 85-93. [5170]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 70. Joy, Deidre A.; Young, Donald R. 2002. Promotion of mid-successional seedling recruitment and establishment by Juniperus virginiana in a coastal environment. Plant Ecology. 160(2): 125-135. [43401]
  • 91. Ogden, J. Gordon, III. 1962. Forest history of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. I. Modern and pre-colonial forests. The American Midland Naturalist. 66(2): 417-430. [10118]
  • 93. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
  • 99. Quarterman, Elsie. 1950. Major plant communities of Tennessee cedar glades. Ecology. 31: 234-254. [11129]
  • 103. Raup, Hugh M. 1940. Old field forests of southeastern New England. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 21: 266-273. [12135]
  • 117. Stone, Caleb. 1998. The invasion of eastern red cedar, and its control. Journal of Natural Resource and Life Science Education. Madison,WI: American Society of Agronomy. 27: 90-92. [43428]
  • 127. Van Haverbeke, David F.; Read, Ralph A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. [9220]
  • 134. Westveld, Marinus; Ashman, R. I.; Baldwin, H. I.; Holdsworth, R. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Lambert, J. H.; Lutz, H. J.; Swain, Louis; Standish, Myles. 1956. Natural forest vegetation zones of New England. Journal of Forestry. 54(5): 332-338. [21311]
  • 140. Yao, Jin; Holt, Robert D.; Rich, Paul M.; Marshall, Wendy S. 1999. Woody plant colonization in an experimentally fragmented landscape. Ecography. 22(6): 715-728. [43429]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: competition, density, dioecious, hardwood, litter, monoecious, natural, tree, xeric

Eastern redcedar reproduces solely by seed; there is no natural asexual regeneration. Eastern redcedar trees reach sexual maturity at approximately 10 years [29,79]. Reproductive activity may be influenced by tree size and site characteristics. A study in the Tennessee Valley found that in a managed parkland, 86% of eastern redcedar >4 inches (10 cm) dbh were reproductively active and the sex ratio was 1:1. In mature xeric forests on the rocky mountainsides only 41% of eastern redcedar >4 inches dbh were reproductively active, and the male:female sex ratio was 2.2:1. The likelihood of reproductive activity 1) was lower on the mountainside than in the parkland, 2) increased with tree diameter and height, 3) increased with diameter growth rate, and 4) decreased with shading by neighboring trees [80].

Breeding system: Eastern redcedar is dioecious [29,46,55,63,79,110,124,127]. Though rare, monoecious eastern redcedars have been found [55,110,124]. Male trees tend to be taller and have greater diameter growth than female trees, which may contribute to their success as pollen donors [128].

Pollination: Eastern redcedar pollen is wind-dispersed [29].

Seed production: Mature eastern redcedar trees produce some seeds nearly every year, but good crops occur only every 2 or 3 years [46,79,127]. Eastern redcedar produces most seed between the ages of 25 and 75, though seed production can occur in trees as young as 10 years and as old as 100+ years [46].

Seed dispersal: Eastern redcedar seed is dispersed by birds and small mammals [8,13,17,46,79,93,119]. As a result, seedling density is generally greater near trees or along fencelines that provide perching sites [29]. Seeds pass through bird digestive tracts within 30 minutes of ingestion, suggesting many seeds will be deposited near their source trees rather than transported long distances. Seeds mature and are available to birds in winter and early spring when other food is scarce and populations of wintering birds are high [93].

Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.

Germination: Seeds that pass through animal digestive tracts and those that remain on the ground beneath the trees may germinate the 1st or 2nd spring after dispersal. Most germination of eastern redcedar seed occurs in early spring of the 2nd year after dispersal [46,79,129]. Delayed germination is caused by embryo dormancy and possibly by an impermeable seedcoat. Passage through an animal's digestive tract speeds seed germination [46].

Seedling establishment/growth: Most natural regeneration of eastern redcedar takes place on relatively poor hardwood or pine (Pinus spp.) sites, along fence rows, or in pastures that are not burned or mowed. Seedlings are commonly established in rather open hardwood stands, adjacent to older seed-bearing eastern redcedar trees [79]. Eastern redcedar seedlings are shade intolerant, so survival is better under open stand conditions [46]. If competition from an overstory is severe, eastern redcedar seedlings may not survive. Once established, however, eastern redcedar survives for extended periods under severe competition [79]. Eastern redcedar seedling establishment may be improved following the removal of litter [46]. On very dry sites, most seedlings are found in crevices, between layers of limestone, and in other protected places where the microclimate is most favorable [46,79]. Seedling development is relatively slow on these adverse sites, although eastern redcedar seedlings withstand drought well [79]. Established seedlings are drought tolerant due to their taproot and relatively small leaf surface [46,132]. During the 1st year, seedlings do not produce much height growth but develop a long fibrous root system [46,79].

Eastern redcedar growth is relatively slow [46,63], though stem volume, sapwood, and heartwood growth rates of eastern redcedar increase when trees reach 15 to 20 years [4]. Trees 20 to 30 years old are generally 18 to 26 feet (5.5-8 m) tall and 2 to 3 inches (5-7.5 cm) in diameter [46,63,79]. Mature trees typically reach 40-70 feet (12-21 m) tall, with a short bole 12 to 28 inches (30-71 cm) in diameter [46,55,63,79,79,86]. Growth rates of eastern redcedar depend largely on stand density, competition from other species, and site quality. These factors probably reflect competition for available soil moisture on most sites [79]. On "good" sites [46], trees may reach 120 feet (36 m) tall and 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter [46,79,82]. On dry sites in the prairie region, trees 110 years old are often less than 20 feet (6 m) tall [46,82]. On thin soils where growth is particularly slow, eastern redcedar may have diameters <2 inches (5 cm) after 50 years [31]. An example of aboveground biomass and productivity from 3 Kansas eastern redcedar stands is presented below [90]:

Age (years) Density (trees/ha) Total aboveground biomass (kg/ha) Biomass C (kg/ha) Biomass N (kg/ha) Litter fall production (kg/ha/yr) Annual aboveground net primary productivity (kg/ha/yr)
35 1,733 114,120 61,563 487 5,190 9,796
40 1,900 120,739 65,451 517 5,210 10,442
80 860 210,952 106,192 849 4,610 7,247

Increased stand density generally results in taller eastern redcedar trees [46].

Asexual regeneration: There is no natural asexual reproduction in eastern redcedar. It does not resprout after complete cutting or burning [29,79,132].

  • 4. Alemayehu, Dejene; Engle, David M.; Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steve. 1998. Pattern of growth of sapwood, heartwood, and stem volume of open-grown eastern redcedar in grasslands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(3): 169-174. [43384]
  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 13. Beilmann, August P.; Brenner, Louis G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 38: 261-281. [24439]
  • 31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 55. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 80. Lawton, Robert O.; Cothran, Paul. 2000. Factors influencing reproductive activity of Juniperus virginiana in the Tennessee Valley. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 127(4): 271-279. [44558]
  • 82. Lee, Scott Allen. 1996. Propagation of Juniperus for conservation plantings in the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 91 p. Thesis. [43379]
  • 86. May, Dennis M. 1990. Big trees of the midsouth forest survey. Res. Note SO-359. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [10556]
  • 90. Norris, Mark D.; Blair, John M.; Johnson, Loretta C.; McKane, Robert B. 2001. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 31: 1940-1946. [43224]
  • 93. Ortmann, John Allen. 1995. Control and management of eastern redcedar on Nebraska rangeland. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. 195 p. Thesis. [43469]
  • 110. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 119. Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Hale, Betsy J.; Hix, David M. 2000. Defining species guilds in the central hardwood forest, USA. Plant Ecology. 147: 1-19. [43742]
  • 124. Tuttle, Gary. 2001. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Arbor Age. 21(2): 25. [43431]
  • 127. Van Haverbeke, David F.; Read, Ralph A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. [9220]
  • 128. Vasiliauskas, S. A.; Aarssen, L. W. 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology. 73(2): 622-632. [17844]
  • 129. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 132. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]
  • 17. Bidwell, Terrence G.; Moseley, Mark E. [n.d.]. Eastern redcedar. Circular E-892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 3 p. [19237]
  • 29. Converse, Carmen K. 2003. Element stewardship abstract: Juniperus virginiana. In: Weeds on the web: The Nature Conservancy wildland invasive species program, [Online]. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/junivir.html [2003, September 9]. [45748]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [102] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte
  • 102. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Tree-shrub

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Plant Response to Fire

Seedlings may be abundant following fire [139].
  • 139. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Prairie prescribed burning symposium and workshop: Proceedings; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: V-1 to V-12. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. [3249]

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Reaction to Competition

Eastern redcedar has been classified as  intolerant to very intolerant of shade (11,30), but trees that have lived  for decades beneath a full canopy of hardwoods or pines on medium- to  low-quality sites have been observed. Apparently, eastern redcedar has an  inherent low capacity for water loss and the ability to sustain stomatal  opening at low water potentials, which help the species adapt to dry  environments (4). Eastern redcedar can also conduct photosynthesis when   overstory hardwoods are leafless and perhaps even reduces its light  requirements for photosynthesis by adjusting to shaded conditions (17,24).  Eastern redcedar is a pioneer species on surface-mined areas, old fields,  or pastures that are protected from fire; and it is the primary natural  reproduction in many shelterbelts. However, stands formed through invasion  of old fields may deteriorate at around 60 years of age as hardwoods or  other competing species become established. Eastern redcedar grows well  and faster than associated species because it is sun-adapted,  drought-resistant, and has a long growing season. On most sites, eastern  redcedar is temporary and is eventually replaced by more tolerant  hardwoods and pines. However, clusters of eastern redcedar established  beneath hardwoods have survived longer than the competing hardwood trees,  possibly due to an allelopathic effect, or the species may be a better  competitor for water and nutrients (34). The species is more permanent on  poor sites having thin, rocky soils, such as the glades of the Ozarks of  Missouri and Arkansas and the Nashville Basin in central Tennessee.  Eastern redcedar invasion of pastures is a problem on areas converted from  poor hardwood sites in the Ozarks and western areas of its range (9,31),  and the species is likely to persist for a long time if left to grow (7).

    Eastern redcedar should be managed in even-aged stands, judging from  studies conducted in northern Arkansas (11). Good growth rates can be  maintained by controlling competition and stand densities.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Rooting Habit

On shallow and rocky soils, eastern redcedar  roots are very fibrous and tend to spread widely. Even first-year  seedlings begin developing a long fibrous root system, often at the  expense of top growth (15). If soil conditions permit, eastern redcedar  trees develop a deep, penetrating taproot.

    Root development is greatly influenced by the size of soil-filled  fissures. Eastern redcedar roots are known to grow extensively in soils in  which limestone rocks make up more than 52 percent of the total soil  volume (11).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: tree

Eastern redcedar has small, inconspicuous flowers that appear from early to late spring [46,132]. Pollination occurs from February (south and east) to May (north and west), and fertilization occurs about a month later. Cones develop on male and female trees in the fall [79], and seeds mature in 1 season, from late July to mid-November depending on location [44,68,79,114,127,132]. As the ovulate cone develops, greenish fruit-scales form the outer fleshy protective coat of the berrylike cone. Cones change color from green to greenish-white to whitish-blue and finally to bluish as the season progresses. The cones do not open and will remain on the tree until early spring [79].
  • 44. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 1. The specific characters. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(4): 410-418. [910]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 114. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 127. Van Haverbeke, David F.; Read, Ralph A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. [9220]
  • 132. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]

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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Eastern redcedar does not reproduce  naturally by sprouting or suckering, but the species may be propagated by  grafting, by air-layering, or from cuttings (6,15,33,44).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

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Seedling Development

Eastern redcedar seedlings grown in  nurseries may be transplanted from seedling beds after 1 or 2 years.  Spacing in transplant beds ranges from about 15 by 3 cm (6 by 1 in) to 20  by 5 cm (8 by 2 in), depending on locality. The age at which trees are  outplanted varies from area to area. Generally, eastern redcedar is field  planted as 2-0, 3-0, 1-1, 1-2, 2-1, or 2-2 stock (numbers refer  respectively to growing seasons in seedling beds and transplant beds).

    Survival and growth of planted stock can be improved by grading the  seedlings just after lifting from the nursery beds. Seedlings that are  relatively small, topheavy, oversized, damaged, diseased, or  insect-infested are discarded (37). Culling after lifting from transplant  beds is usually 1 to 3 percent, compared to 5 to 20 percent from seedling  beds. Eastern redcedar seedlings should have a stem diameter of at least  4.0 mm (0.16 in), but preferably 5.6 mm (0.22 in), at the ground line. It  is also desirable for seedlings to have top green weights that are no more  than 3 to 4 times heavier than the roots (26,36). Seedlings having higher  top-to-root ratios are more likely to die under environmental stress.

    Survival of eastern redcedar plantations has been variable, with low  survival being attributed to poor seedling quality, low site quality, and  competition. If these factors are considered carefully, however, eastern  redcedar plantations can be successfully established. One early plantation  established from hand-pulled wildlings had 84 percent survival. In a  Nebraska plantation, established with 2-0 seedlings from 204 sources of  eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper, first-year survival averaged  95.1 percent. Four other plantations from these sources averaged more than  85 percent survival, although one in Oklahoma had only 19.7 percent  (11,38).

    Most natural eastern redcedar regeneration takes place on relatively  poor hardwood or pine sites, along fence rows, or in pastures that are not  burned or mowed. Seedlings are commonly established in rather open  hardwood stands, adjacent to older seed-bearing eastern redcedar trees, as  a result of birds eating the fruit and subsequent deposition of seeds  (34). On very dry sites, most seedlings are found in crevices, between  layers of limestone, and in other protected places where the microclimate  is most favorable. Seedling development is relatively slow on these  adverse sites, although eastern redcedar seedlings withstand drought  rather well (4,22). First-year seedlings do not produce much height growth  but develop a long fibrous root system (15). Plantings from 2-0 stock  showed good growth in some areas, however, exceeding 45 cm (17.8 in) in  height after one growing season (38). If competition from an overstory is  rather severe, eastern redcedar seedlings may not survive. Once  established, however, eastern redcedar survives for extended periods under  severe competition (15,28). Eastern redcedar also competes very well in  shelterbelts, where it is the most common natural reproduction (43).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

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Seed Production and Dissemination

Mature eastern redcedar trees  produce some seeds nearly every year, but good crops occur only every 2 or  3 years. The cones do not open and will remain on the tree through the  winter, although many are eaten and dispersed by animals. Most remaining  cones are dispersed in February to March. Mature fruits are usually  collected in the fall by hand-stripping or shaking onto canvas. Seeds may  be stored as dried fruits or cleaned seeds.

    After fanning to remove leaves, twigs, and other debris, the seeds can  be extracted by running the fruit through a macerator and floating the  pulp and empty seeds away. Dried fruits should be soaked in water several  hours before macerating. Since eastern redcedar fruits are resinous, they  should be soaked in a weak lye solution for 1 or 2 days. The soaking helps  separate the oily, resinous pulp from the seeds and aids further washing,  flotation, and stratification. This treatment should be followed by  thorough washing (45). The cleaned seeds are ready for use, or they can be  dried to 10 to 12 percent moisture content for storage at -7° C (20°  F) to 4° C (40° F). The number of cleaned seeds per kilogram  ranges from 81,570 (37,000/lb) to 121,250 (55,000/lb) and averages 96,120  (43,600/lb) (23). If seeds are to be sown in the spring, they should be  soaked in a citric acid solution (10,000 ppm) for 96-hours, placed in  moist-warm stratification at 24° C (75° F) for 6 weeks, and  finally placed in moist-cool stratification at 5° C (41° F) for  10 weeks. Germination is best if fresh seeds are used. If desired, dry,  stored seeds may be sown in mid-July, which accomplishes moist-warm  stratification, and the over-winter period accomplishes moist-cool  stratification for early spring germination (46).

    In nursery practice, eastern redcedar seeds are broadcast or sown in  rows spaced 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) apart in well-prepared seedbeds and  covered with about 6 mm (0.25 in) of firmed soil or sand. Stratified seeds  should be sown in the spring early enough to allow completion of  germination before air temperatures exceed 21° C (70° F).  Germination of stratified seed usually begins in 6 to 10 days after sowing  and is completed in 4 to 5 weeks. Untreated seeds may be sown in the fall  and mulched until germination during the second spring after planting  (23); but when fruits are depulped, dried, and stored at -16° C (4°  F), seeds germinate the first spring after summer sowing (46). Germination  is epigeal.

    Fruits are eaten by birds and other animals, which are important vectors  for seed dissemination (20). Seeds that pass through animal digestive  tracts and those that remain on the ground beneath the trees may germinate  the first or second spring. Most of the natural germination of eastern  redcedar seed takes place in early spring of the second year after  dispersal.

    Eastern redcedar may also be established by hand direct-seeding or  machine-sowing (29). Both hand and furrow seeding are successful when  stratified seeds are used at the rate of 1.35 kg/ha (1.2 lb/acre).  Seedling catch is best where the amount of litter has been reduced and  hardwood competition has been completely removed. The rate of sowing may  be adjusted to allow for variations in germinative capacity of the seeds  and degree of competition control.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Flowering and Fruiting

Eastern redcedar is a dioecious species,  and trees probably reach sexual maturity at about 10 years. Staminate  strobili or conelets begin to develop on male trees at the tips of  axillary branches of new scale-leaves. Pollen grains are formed by late  September in conelets having 10 to 12 entire-margined sporophylls.  Staminate strobili turn a conspicuous yellowish brown when they reach  maturity during winter, and thus male trees are readily distinguished from  ovulate ones.

    Small green conelets begin to develop by early fall or late summer on  ovulate trees but grow very little during the winter. They are borne  terminally on axillary branches of the new scale-leaves but do not become  conspicuous until late February to early spring. At this time the  microsporangial walls of the staminate conelets split longitudinally,  discharging the mature pollen. Pollen grains lodge at the end of the  micropyle of the many ovules in the conelet. Pollination is complete in a  few days when the conelet closes.

    Growth of the pollen tube is slow at first but becomes active by late  May or mid-June. Fertilization occurs in June and the mature embryo is  full grown in about 2 months, anytime from late July to mid-November,  depending on location. As the ovulate cone develops, greenish fruit-scales  form the outer fleshy protective coat of the berrylike cone. Cones change  color from green to greenish white to whitish blue and finally to bluish  as the season progresses.

    Each cone or fruit contains one to four (occasionally more) rounded or  angled brownish seeds, 2 to 4 mm (0.08 to 0.16 in) long, often with  longitudinal pits. The seed coat has a thick and bony outer layer and a  thin, membranous inner layer (23,47).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Growth

Growth and Yield

Growth rates of eastern redcedar depend  largely on site quality, competition from other species, and stand  density. These factors probably reflect competition for available soil  moisture on most sites. Trees 20 to 30 years old are generally 5 to 8 m  (18 to 26 ft) tall and 6 to 8 cm (2.3 to 3.0 in) in d.b.h. Mature trees  are usually 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft) tall and 30 to 61 cm (12 to 24 in) in  d.b.h. On good sites, trees may reach 37 m (120 ft) in height and 122 cm   (48 in) in d.b.h. (25).

    Some of the earliest data on diameter growth in natural eastern redcedar  stands is presented in table 2 (3). Site classes mentioned are those  described in table 1. Analysis of these data provided equations to compute  the height-age relationships in table 3. The relation of height of  dominant and codominant trees to d.b.h. and stand density was also  determined, after pooling of data for age and site classes (11). Height  growth, a reflection of soil depth and fertility, increases with stocking  density (fig 1).

    Table 2- Average annual diameter growth of dominant  eastern redcedar by site 
class and stand density¹            Site Class              Stand character   
I   
II 
  III   
IV              mm      Under-stocked  7.6  8.1  4.6  3.6      Well-stocked  -  8.1  4.3  3.0      Over-stocked  -  3.8  2.5  1.8        in      Under-stocked  0.30  0.32  0.18  0.14      Well-stocked  -  0.32  0.17  0.12      Over-stocked  -  0.15  0.10  0.07      ¹Based on  increment core measurements of 456 trees (3).              Table 3- Total height of eastern recedars by age¹  and site class            Site Class              Growth rings  II  III              m  ft  m  ft      10    4.6  15    3.7  12      15    5.5  18    5.2  17      20    7.6  25    6.1  20      25    8.5  28    7.3  24      30    9.8  32    7.9  26      35  10.7  35    8.8  29      40  11.3  37    9.4  31      45   12.2   40  10.1  33      50  12.8  42  10.7  35      ¹Age was computed using the  total number of growth rings; false rings make accurate determinations  difficult.         
Figure 1- Relation of height to d.b.h. by stocking class.

    Other studies in Arkansas have shown that growth and yield are affected  by stand density and hardwood competition. In a 45-year-old eastern  redcedar stand, highest volume growth was obtained in unthinned stands  from which hardwoods had been removed. Volumes averaged 1.96 m³/ha  (28 ft³/acre) per year during a 14-year period. This was double the  growth of stands where hardwoods were left. A stand containing 432 crop  trees per hectare (175/acre), 7.6 cm (3.0 in) d.b.h. and larger grew  nearly the same volume after 14 years when 80 percent of the competition  was removed as an unreleased stand of 988 trees per hectare (400/acre)  (11).

    Over a 10-year period in northern Arkansas, completely released stands  averaged higher growth in d.b.h., basal area, and volume than stands where  only crown competition was removed. The greatest mean d.b.h. growth, 6.4  cm (2.5 in), occurred with the lightest stocking, 124 crop trees per  hectare (50/acre). As stocking increased, mean d.b.h. growth decreased.  Basal area increase was greatest in stands having 988 crop trees per  hectare (400/acre), and as stocking decreased, basal area and volume  growth decreased. An initial stocking of 988 eastern redcedar crop trees  per hectare (400/acre), averaging about 7.6 cm (3 in) d.b.h., produced  over 28 m³/ha (2,000 fbm/acre) in 10 years. A stocking of 432 trees  per hectare (175/acre), averaging 10.2 cm (4 in) d.b.h., produced slightly  more volume during the same period on similar sites (11).

    On most sites eastern redcedar grows slowly, and long rotations are  required to produce conventional sawlogs. Because the wood is used for  small items, however, and there is wide latitude in acceptable defects,  shortening of rotations and intermediate harvesting of merchantable wood  are possible. About 20 to 30 years are required for posts and 40 to 60  years for sawtimber (11,25).

    Maintaining relatively dense stands can maximize post production.  Thinning one or more times before harvest cut hastens sawlog production  but may not increase total yield. The ideal density for growing sawlogs is  not known, but excessive thinning may promote excessive formation of  sapwood and growth of lower branches.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Population Differences    Eastern redcedar displays great diversity in phenotypic characteristics  such as tree form, foliage color, and crown shape. Van Haverbeke's study  (41) included a total of 43 gross morphological, foliage, cone, and seed  characteristics and biochemical data derived from cone pulp. He points out  that much of the research on morphological characteristics of eastern  redcedar has been in the central and western parts of the species' range.  More recently, however, information on genetic variation in natural stands  in the eastern part of its range has been obtained (13). Natural variation  in the species may have been modified by past commercial exploitation of  natural stands and by the selection, propagation, and distribution of  clones (47).

    Races and Hybrids    Two distinct varieties have been recognized in the United States. Juniperus  virginiana var. crebra (Fernald) is a northern form having a  narrow crown and slightly pitted seeds. The other variety, J.  virginiana var. ambigens, is an intermediate form between  eastern redcedar and creeping juniper, J. horizontalis Moench  (15).

    Although there are no recognized hybrids at this time, evidence is  mounting that hybridization does occur. Population studies, especially in  the western part of eastern redcedar's range, suggest that considerable  introgression and perhaps blending of genetic differences have occurred  whenever species' ranges overlap; and that J. virginiana readily  hybridizes with J. scopulorum, J. horizontalis, and J. asheiresulting in juniper populations that contain the germ plasm of two or  three species (15). Research in the Ozarks, however, showed no evidence of  introgression into J. ashei by J. virginiana where J.  ashei was surrounded by J. virginiana (2).

    The relatively strong influence of J. scopulorum germ plasm in  the western part of the eastern redcedar population suggests that the  entire population in the area studied is of hybrid origin (41). This  west-to-east flow of J. scopulorum germ plasm was further  supported by Flake, Urbatch, and Turner (14), who sampled many of Van  Haverbeke's sample trees for terpenoid analysis. He proposed an  alternative hypothesis that eastern redcedar of eastern and central North  America may have been derived from the western juniper complex.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Juniperus virginiana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Juniperus virginiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Adams, R & Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification

This widespread species is increasing in abundance in many areas. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Population

Population
Locally abundant and expanding due to fire control and abandonment of farm land.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
No specific threats have been identified for this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is increasing and spreading into abandoned farmland, road verges and other open wasteland.
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

JUVI is available through most nurseries. Cultivars include: Baker’s Blue, Blue Mountain, Brodie, Burkii, Canaerti, Cupressifolia, Dundee, Emerald Sentinel, Glauca, Gray Owl, Hillspire, Idyllwild, Manhattan Blue, Mission Spire, Nova, Pendula, Patt River, Princeton Sentry, Royo, Silver Spreader, Stover, and Taylor. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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    The following information on the Traditional Resource Management (TRM) red cedar was provided by Lynn Youngbuck, who is Cherokee, Chiracahua, and Fox. TRM includes the following:

  • Take only what you need, leaving the best to reproduce.

  • Speak to the plant, leave an offering of tobacco or sage before harvesting. The plant will grow back two stems for every one cut.

  • Humans are another strand in life. Plants sustain us and should be treated as another living being.

  • Plants were taken care of by extended family groups of women. They were taken care of and watched each year for generations.

  • Materials harvested were shared and traded with the whole tribe.

  • Cedar bark was harvested in early June or early July as the bark is more easily removed at that season (Densmore 1974). The gathering of cedar bark was attended with a simple ceremony, followed by a feast. The next day the tree was cut. The bark was removed, and the tree was permitted to remain as it fell, and when thoroughly, dry was used for fuel.

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Seed propagation

Juniperus virginiana flowers from March to May. The fruits should be gathered in the fall (September-November) as soon as the berry-like cones become ripe. Red cedar trees come to seed-bearing age in 10 years, and they bear cones every 2-3 years. Seed collection can be done by stripping or picking the berries by hand from the trees, or by flailing the fruits to ground cloths. Be careful to pick only ripe berries. Since the number of filled seeds varies widely from tree to tree, it is important to test the seeds by cutting to determine percent fill. Seeds may be stored as berries or cleaned seeds.

The seeds can be recovered by macerating the fruits and floating the seeds to the top. The addition of detergent to the maceration water helps to separate seeds from the resinous fruits. Red cedar seeds store quite well. They should be dried to 10-20% moisture and stored in a sealed container at cold temperatures.

For best germination, seeds should be removed from the fruits, then the seed coat is softened by treating it with sulfuric acid for 120 minutes. After soaking the seeds in sulfuric acid, follow with 6 weeks of warm stratification at 20 to 30°C (70 to 85°F), or summer planting, then 10 weeks of pre-chilling at 4°C (40°F). Use of fresh seed reduced the warm stratification time. Rather than the acid treatment, two to three months of warm stratification could be used. As an alternative for cold stratification, the seed may be sown in the fall. Germination is delayed at temperatures above 15°C (60° F). Germination is often delayed in red cedar seeds, as seeds are consistently highly dormant.

Red cedar seeds are usually sown in the nursery in the late summer or fall, but may be sown in spring or summer. The seeds of most species should be sown in fall to take advantage of natural pre-chilling. Red cedar seeds are usually drilled in well-prepared seedbeds in rows 15 to 20 cm apart and covered with 0.6 cm of soil. In nurseries with severe climates, such as those in the Great Plains, considerable care must be taken to protect the beds with mulch and snow fences.

Viability of the seed varies considerably from year to year and among lots, but it is never much over 50 percent. Treated seed is usually planted in the spring, either in outdoor beds or in flats in the greenhouse. Two or three years are required to produce plants large enough to graft.

Juniperus virginiana – 14-18 seeds per 110 kg fruit, 96 seeds per gram.

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Propagation from cuttings

Cuttings are made 5 to 15 cm (2 to 65 inches) long from new lateral growth tips stripped of older branches. A small piece of old wood, “a heel,” is thus left attached to the base of the cutting. Some propagators believe this to be advantageous. In other cases, good results are obtained when the cuttings are just clipped without the “heel” from the older wood. Cuttings from the current season’s terminal growth also root well.

Cuttings to be rooted in the greenhouse can be taken at any time during the winter or rooted outdoors on heated beds. Exposing the stock plants to several hard freezes seems to give better rooting. Optimum time for taking cuttings is when stock plants have ceased growth (i.e. the late fall-winter propagation period is more successful than summer). For propagating in an outdoor cold frame, cuttings are taken in late summer or early fall. There may be advantages to using bottom heat. Lightly wounding the base of the cuttings is sometimes helpful, and the use of root-promoting chemicals, especially IBA, is beneficial. Recommendations for root-promoting chemicals include the following: 2500 IBA Quick-dip (Alabama), 3000 – 8000 ppm IBA liquid, and 0.3-4.5 percent IBA talc. Medium-coarse sand or a 10:1 mixture of perlite and peat moss is a satisfactory rooting medium. Maintenance of a humid environment without excessive wetting of the cuttings is desirable, as is a relatively high light intensity. A light, intermittent mist can be used. Bottom heat of 60-65°F (12°C) is critical the first six weeks of propagation to allow the basal wound of cuttings to callus.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, mesic to dry conditions, and nutrient-poor soil containing gravel, sand, clay, or rocky material. Eastern Red Cedar is more tolerant of alkaline soil than most conifers. Under favorable conditions, it can be a relatively long-lived tree (up to 300 years, or more), but some trees die out at a comparatively young age from insects, disease, storm-damage, or competition from other species of trees. Because Eastern Red Cedar is an alternate host of a fungal disease, cedar-apple rust, it may not be desirable to plant this tree near apples and crab apples.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Other uses and values

The aromatic oils found in eastern redcedar heartwood repel clothing moths and are widely used in perfumes [4,14,63,79,79]. Aromatic oils are toxic to some ant species (Argentine ant and odorous house ant), and eastern redcedar mulch is effective in discouraging ant colonization [87]. Eastern redcedar oils are also effective in repelling Formosan subterranean termites [142]. Heartwood extractives may inhibit growth of fungi and bacteria [83]. Eastern redcedar heartwood has approximately 10 times the oil extractives of sapwood [137]. Due to a higher proportion of heartwood to sapwood in closed-canopy stands of eastern redcedar, trees grown under closed stand conditions may contain 4 to 5 times as much oil in the bolewood as open-grown trees of the same diameter [137].

Eastern redcedar is commonly planted in shelterbelts, windbreaks, and snow fences [17,46,52,63,79,81,117]. It also used for Christmas trees [17,46,79] and ornamental plantings [52,63].

Wood Products: Eastern redcedar heartwood is resistant to attack by termites and has greater commercial value than sapwood [4]. The principal product of eastern redcedar is fenceposts [8,110,117], though it is also used for lumber [17], poles, boats, paneling, closets, chests, and pencils [63,117]. The aromatic heartwood is commonly used for chests or closet lining [68,110]. On most sites, eastern redcedar grows slowly, and long rotations are required to produce conventional sawlogs. However, because the wood is used for small items and there is wide latitude in acceptable defects, shortening of rotations and intermediate harvesting of merchantable wood are possible. About 20 to 30 years are required for posts and 40 to 60 years for sawtimber [79].

  • 4. Alemayehu, Dejene; Engle, David M.; Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steve. 1998. Pattern of growth of sapwood, heartwood, and stem volume of open-grown eastern redcedar in grasslands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(3): 169-174. [43384]
  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 110. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 117. Stone, Caleb. 1998. The invasion of eastern red cedar, and its control. Journal of Natural Resource and Life Science Education. Madison,WI: American Society of Agronomy. 27: 90-92. [43428]
  • 14. Belcher, Earl W., Jr.; Hitt, Robert G. 1965. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory: 12th annual report--fiscal year 1965. Macon, GA: Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory. 66 p. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [6522]
  • 52. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
  • 83. Lee, Sung-Suk; Lee, Hak-Ju; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, Don-Ha. 1999. Studies on biological activity of wood extractives. I. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of heartwood extractives. FRI (Forest Research Institute). Journal of Forest Science. 61: 82-89. [43430]
  • 87. Meissner, Heike E.; Silverman, Jules. 2001. Effects of aromatic cedar mulch on the Argentine ant and the odorous house ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomology. 94(6): 1526-1531. [43388]
  • 142. Zhu, Betty C. R.; Henderson, Gregg; Chen, Feng; Fei, Huixin; Laine, Roger A. 2001. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 27(8): 1617-1625. [43402]
  • 17. Bidwell, Terrence G.; Moseley, Mark E. [n.d.]. Eastern redcedar. Circular E-892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 3 p. [19237]
  • 81. Lee, Scott A.; Cregg, Bert M.; Fleege, Clark. 1995. Propagation of Juniperus: challenges to propagation and opportunities for improvement. In: Landis, Thomas D.; Cregg, Bert, tech. coords. National proceedings: forest and conservation nursery associations; 1995 December; [Location unknown]. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-365. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Reserach Station; Pacific Northwest Region: 47-51. [43409]
  • 137. Wittwer, Robert F.; Anderson, Steven; Likens, Russell; [and others]. 1999. Biomass and oil content of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). In: Haywood, James D., ed. Proceedings, 10th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1999 February 16-18; Shreveport, LA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-30. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station: 546-551. [34453]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the terms: peat, tree

Eastern redcedar establishes well on abandoned surface mines, agricultural fields, and logging sites [18,84] and is used to recover highly eroded, nutrient-poor soils [124]. Use of eastern redcedar for rehabilitating strip-mines is most effective in calcareous spoils due to its slow growth on acid banks [84]. Many cultivars of eastern redcedar are available, with variations primarily based on overall tree shape and the color of female cones [124]. Greater planting success is likely with seed sources of geographic proximity [108]. Planting recommendations include storing seed in fruit for 1 year, then cleaning, scarifying and sowing in the fall. Alternatively, seed can be stored in fruit for 1 year then cleaned and stratified in peat for 100 days at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 oC) and sown in the spring or stratified outdoors in the shade from May until sown in the fall [63].

Seeds of junipers (Juniperus spp.) have both seed coat and embryo dormancy [81]. Maximum germination of eastern redcedar in minimum time may be achieved by treatment to increase seedcoat permeability and stratification [46]. Eastern redcedar germination is improved by a combination of warm and cold stratification. Either 45 days of warm stratification followed by 60 days of cold stratification, or 60 days warm followed by 45 days of cold stratification yield best results. In lab tests, germination without stratification did not occur at temperatures above 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 oC) [14]. For storage, cleaned eastern redcedar seeds should be dried to 7% moisture content and stored at 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-7 oC) [46].

Commercial nurseries use propagation by rooted cuttings and grafting for vegetative reproduction of eastern redcedar [79,127].

  • 18. Blewett, Thomas J. 1986. Eastern redcedar's (Juniperus virginiana L.) expanded role in the prairie-forest border region. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 122-124. [3546]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 84. Limstrom, G. A.; Merz, R. W. 1949. Rehabilitation of lands stripped for coal in Ohio. Tech. Pap. No. 113. Columbus, OH: The Ohio Reclamation Association. 41 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. [4427]
  • 124. Tuttle, Gary. 2001. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Arbor Age. 21(2): 25. [43431]
  • 127. Van Haverbeke, David F.; Read, Ralph A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. [9220]
  • 14. Belcher, Earl W., Jr.; Hitt, Robert G. 1965. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory: 12th annual report--fiscal year 1965. Macon, GA: Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory. 66 p. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [6522]
  • 108. Schaefer, Peter R.; Baer, Norman B. 1988. An eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper provenance test for windbreak suitability in eastern South Dakota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 5: 129-132. [3684]
  • 81. Lee, Scott A.; Cregg, Bert M.; Fleege, Clark. 1995. Propagation of Juniperus: challenges to propagation and opportunities for improvement. In: Landis, Thomas D.; Cregg, Bert, tech. coords. National proceedings: forest and conservation nursery associations; 1995 December; [Location unknown]. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-365. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Reserach Station; Pacific Northwest Region: 47-51. [43409]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Many birds and small mammals eat the berrylike cones of eastern redcedar, especially in winter [8,12,17,110]. Wildlife species that eat eastern redcedar fruits include waxwings, bobwhite quail, ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkeys, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and coyotes [46,63,79,98]. Deer may browse the abundant foliage of eastern redcedar when no other food is available [46,63,79,105], and are more likely to browse reproductively-active, mature than juvenile eastern redcedars [121].

Palatability/nutritional value: Eastern redcedar fruits are high in crude fat and crude fiber, moderate in calcium, and high in total carbohydrates [79]. Though considered poor quality forage [79], eastern redcedar foliage has relatively high calcium content, ranging from 1.9 to 2.6% on sites in the Ozarks [8].

Chemical analysis of eastern redcedar browse in the Missouri Ozarks (% dry matter) [88]:

Protein Fat Fiber C P K
7.08 11.02 24.42 1.17 0.12 0.49

Cover value: As an evergreen, eastern redcedar provides good nesting and roosting cover for many birds [17,63,79]. These include nest sites for Cooper's hawks [135] and roosting sites for eastern screech-owls [15,35], short-eared owls [19], and saw-whet owls [120]. Dense thickets of eastern redcedar provide good escape and hiding cover for deer and small mammals [17,63,79].

  • 8. Arend, John L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. [8706]
  • 46. Ferguson, E. R.; Lawson, E. R.; Maple, W. R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [19813]
  • 63. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23521]
  • 79. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]
  • 110. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 12. Beal, F. E. L. 1915. Food of the robins and bluebirds of the United States. Bulletin No. 171. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 31 p. [24990]
  • 15. Belthoff, James R.; Ritchison, Gary. 1990. Roosting behavior of postfledging eastern screech-owls. Auk. 107(3): 567-579. [13296]
  • 19. Borko, Martin. 1977. Short-eared owl food items in winter. Kingbird. 27(2): 80-81. [22502]
  • 35. Duguay, Tara A.; Ritchison, Gary; Duguay, Jeffrey P. 1997. The winter roosting behavior of eastern screech-owls in central Kentucky. Journal of Raptor Research. 31(3): 260-266. [43404]
  • 88. Murphy, Dean A. 1970. Deer range appraisal in the Midwest. In: White-tailed deer in the Midwest: Proceedings of a symposium, 30th Midwest fish and wildlife conference; 1968 December 9; Columbus, OH. Res. Pap. NC-39. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 2-10. [13667]
  • 98. Prose, Bart L. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: plains sharp-tailed grouse. Biological Report 82(10.142). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Ecology Center. 31 p. [23499]
  • 105. Rogers, Mitchell J.; Halls, Lowell K.; Dickson, James G. 1990. Deer habitat in the Ozark forests of Arkansas. Res. Pap. SO-259. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [41730]
  • 120. Swengel, Scott R.; Swengel, Ann B. 1987. Study of a northern saw-whet owl population in Sauk County, Wisconsin. In: Nero, Robert W.; Clark, Richard J.; Knapton, Richard J.; Hamre, R. H., eds. Biology and conservation of northern forest owls: Symposium proceedings; 1987 February 3-7; Winnipeg, MB. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-142. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 199-208. [17940]
  • 121. Swihart, Robert K.; Picone, Peter M. 1998. Selection of mature growth stages of coniferous browse in temperate forests by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The American Midland Naturalist. 139(2): 269-274. [43383]
  • 135. Wiggers, Ernie P.; Kritz, Kevin J. 1991. Comparison of nesting habitat of coexisting sharp-shinned and Cooper's hawks in Missouri. Wilson Bulletin. 103(4): 568-577. [23779]
  • 17. Bidwell, Terrence G.; Moseley, Mark E. [n.d.]. Eastern redcedar. Circular E-892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 3 p. [19237]

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Special Uses

Eastern redcedar is important to wildlife. As an evergreen, it provides  good nesting and roosting cover for many birds (18,39). Dense thickets  provide good escape cover for deer, and the abundant foliage, although low  in quality, provides emergency food for them during times of stress.  Fruits are high in crude fat and crude fiber, moderate in calcium, and  very high in total carbohydrates. Eastern redcedar fruits are eaten by  many wildlife species, including waxwings, bobwhite, quail, ruffed grouse,  pheasant, wild turkeys, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and  coyotes (20).

    Eastern redcedar is among the best trees for protecting soils from wind  erosion and reducing the desiccating effects of wind. It ranks high in the  Great Plains shelterbelt plantings because of its ability to withstand  extremes of drought, heat, and cold (15). In Nebraska, eastern redcedar  was the most suitable species among five combinations tested for  single-row field windbreaks (42). The fibrous root system also helps to  hold soil in place, especially on shallow soils. Many varieties of eastern  redcedar are used as ornamental plantings (19,35). The species is also  ranked among the top five for Christmas trees (25). Eastern redcedar is  also important as a source of cedarwood oil, which is a natural product  for direct use in fragrance compounding or as a source of raw material  producing additional fragrance compounds (1).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Edwin R. Lawson

Source: Silvics of North America

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Uses

Ethnobotanic: The red cedar is used by many tribes for incense in purification and ritual (Kindscher 1992). For numerous tribes, the red cedar tree symbolizes the tree of life and is burned in sweat lodges and in purification rites.

The Blackfeet made a tea from the berries of the red cedar to stop vomiting (Kindscher 1992). A

blackfeet remedy for arthritis and rheumatism was to boil red cedar leaves in water, add one-half teaspoon

of turpentine, and when cooled, rub the mixture on affected parts. The Blackfeet also drank a tea made from red cedar root as a general tonic; mixed with Populus leaves this root tea became a liniment for stiff backs or backache (McClintock 1909, Johnston 1970, Hellson 1974).

The Cheyenne steeped the leaves of the red cedar and drank the resulting tea to relieve persistent coughing or a tickling in the throat. It was also believed to produce sedative effects that were especially useful for calming a hyperactive person. Cheyenne women drank the red cedar tea to speed delivery during childbirth (Grinnell 1962). The Cheyenne, along with the Flathead, Nez Perce, Kutenai, and Sioux, made a tea from red cedar boughs, branches, and fleshy cones, which they drank for colds, fevers, tonsillitis, and pneumonia (Hart 1976).

As a cure for asthma, the Gros Ventres ate whole red cedar berries or pulverized them and boiled them to make a tea. They also made a preparation from the leaves mixed with the root, which they applied topically to control bleeding (Kroeber 1908). The Crows drank this medicinal tea to check diarrhea and to stop lung or nasal hemorrhage. Crow women drank it after childbirth for cleansing and healing (Hart 1976).

The young leafy twigs of the red cedar were officially listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 1820 to 1894 as a diuretic (Kindscher 1992). The distilled oil of the red cedar has been officially listed as a reagent in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia since 1916 (ibid.).

The wood of red cedar is very durable, and was used for lance shafts, bows, and other items. Flutes made from red cedar wood were highly regarded by the Cheyenne. Cedar boughs were used for bedding. The Menomini wove mats of cedar bark. The mats were used for roofing temporary structures, for partitions, floor mats and wrappings, and for various purposes in the canoes.

Ornamental: Seedlings of red cedar are ordinarily used as stock for grafting ornamental juniper clones. Red cedars are often used as ornamentals for their evergreen foliage. Most cemetery plantings include old red cedar trees and many younger dwarf junipers. All of the native junipers are valuable ornamental species, and many horticultural varieties have been developed. Red cedar is widely used in shelterbelts and wildlife plantings. The close-grained, aromatic, and durable wood of junipers is used for furniture, interior paneling, novelties, and fence posts. The fruits and young branches contain aromatic oil that is used in medicines.

Wildlife: Red cedar and other junipers are important to wildlife throughout the country. Their twigs and foliage are eaten extensively by hoofed browsers, but the chief attraction to wildlife is the bluish-black berry-like fruit. The cedar waxwing is one of the principal users of red cedar berries, but numerous other birds and mammals, both large and small, make these fruits an important part of their diet. In addition to their wildlife food value, cedars provide important protective and nesting cover. Chipping sparrows, robins, song sparrows, and mockingbirds use these trees as one of their favorite nesting sites. Juncos, myrtle warblers, sparrows of various kinds, and other birds use the dense foliage as roosting cover. In winter, their dense protective shelter is especially valuable.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, Carlinville (IL) Field Office, & Missouri State Office

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Wikipedia

Juniperus virginiana

Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar,[2] Red Cedar, Eastern Juniper, Red Juniper, Pencil Cedar, Aromatic Cedar) is a species of juniper native to eastern North America from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and east of the Great Plains.[3] Further west it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper) and to the southwest by Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper).[4][5][6]

The Lakota Native American name is Chansha, "redwood" or Hante'. In its native range it is commonly called "cedar" or "red cedar," names rejected by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature [7] as it is a juniper, not a true cedar. However, "Red Cedar" is the most used common name.

Description[edit]

Juniperus virginiana foliage and mature cones

Juniperus virginiana is a dense slow-growing coniferous evergreen tree that may never become more than a bush on poor soil, but is ordinarily from 5–20 m or 16–66 ft (rarely to 27 m or 89 ft) tall, with a short trunk 30–100 cm or 12–39 in (rarely 170 cm or 67 in) diameter. The oldest tree reported, from Missouri, was 795 years old. The bark is reddish-brown, fibrous, and peels off in narrow strips. The leaves are of two types; sharp, spreading needle-like juvenile leaves 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) long, and tightly adpressed scale-like adult leaves 2–4 mm (0.079–0.157 in) long; they are arranged in opposite decussate pairs or occasionally whorls of three. The juvenile leaves are found on young plants up to 3 years old, and as scattered shoots on adult trees, usually in shade. The seed cones are 3–7 mm (0.12–0.28 in) long, berry-like, dark purple-blue with a white wax cover giving an overall sky-blue color (though the wax often rubs off); they contain one to three (rarely up to four) seeds, and are mature in 6–8 months from pollination. The Juniper berry is an important winter food for many birds, which disperse the wingless seeds. The pollen cones are 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long and 1.5 mm (0.059 in) broad, shedding pollen in late winter or early spring. The trees are usually dioecious, with pollen and seed cones on separate trees.[4][5][6]

There are two varieties,[2] which intergrade where they meet:[4][5][6]

  • Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana is called eastern juniper / redcedar. It is found in eastern North America, from Maine, west to southern Ontario and South Dakota, south to northernmost Florida and southwest into the post oak savannah of east-central Texas. Cones are larger, 4–7 mm; scale leaves are acute at apex and bark is red-brown.
  • Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola (Small) E.Murray (syn. Sabina silicicola Small, Juniperus silicicola (Small) L.H.Bailey) is known as southern or sand juniper / redcedar. Habitat is along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina, south to central Florida and west to southeast Texas. Cones are smaller, 3–4 mm; scale leaves are blunt at apex and the bark is orange-brown. It is treated by some authors at the lower rank of variety, while others treat it as a distinct species.

Ecology[edit]

Characteristic shape in old field succession

It is a pioneer invader, which means that it is one of the first trees to repopulate cleared, eroded, or otherwise damaged land. It is unusually long lived among pioneer species, with the potential to live over 850 years.[8] The tree is commonly found in prairies or oak barrens, old pastures, or limestone hills, often along highways and near recent construction sites.[4][5][9] It is an alternate host for cedar-apple rust disease, an economically significant disease of apples, and some management strategies recommend the removal of J. virginiana near apple orchards[10]

In many areas the trees are considered an invasive species, even if native. The fire intolerant J. virginiana was previously controlled by periodic wildfires. Low branches near the ground burn and provide a ladder that allows fire to engulf the whole tree. Grasses recover quickly from low severity fires that are characteristic of prairies that kept the trees at bay. With the urbanization of prairies, the fires have been stopped with roads, plowed fields, and other fire breaks, allowing J. virginiana and other trees to invade.[11] Trees are destructive to grasslands if left unchecked, and are actively being eliminated by cutting and prescribed burning.[12] The trees also burn very readily, and dense populations were blamed for the rapid spread of wildfires in drought stricken Oklahoma and Texas in 2005 and 2006.[13]

Junipers also benefit from the increased CO2 levels, unlike the grasses with which they compete. Many grasses are C4 plants that concentrate CO2 levels in their bundle sheaths to increase the efficiency of RuBisCO, the enzyme responsible for photosynthesis, while Junipers are C3 plants that rely on (and may benefit from) the natural CO2 concentrations of the environment, although they are less efficient at fixing CO2 in general.[14]

Damage done by J. virginiana includes outcompeting forage species in pastureland. The low branches and wide base occupy a significant portion of land area. The thick foliage blocks out most light, so few plants can live under the canopy. The needles that fall raise the pH of the soil, making it alkaline, which holds nutrients such as phosphorus, making it harder for plants to absorb them. Juniperus virginiana has been shown to remove nitrogen from the soil after invading prairies.[15] It has also been found to reduce carbon stores in the soil. This reduction in soil nutrients also reduces the amount and diversity of microbial activity in the soil.[16]

Cedar waxwings are fond of the "berries" of these junipers. It takes about 12 minutes for their seeds to pass through the birds' guts, and seeds that have been consumed by this bird have levels of germination roughly three times higher than those of seeds the birds did not eat. Many other birds (from bluebirds to turkeys) and many mammals also consume them.[9]

Uses[edit]

A log sawn in two and turned on a lathe, exposing the pale sapwood and the reddish heartwood
"Berries" of the 'Corcorcor' cultivar

The fine-grained, soft brittle pinkish- to brownish-red heartwood is fragrant, very light and very durable, even in contact with soil. Because of its rot resistance, the wood is used for fence posts. The aromatic wood is avoided by moths, so it is in demand as lining for clothes chests and closets, often referred to as cedar closets and cedar chests. If correctly prepared, it makes excellent English longbows, flatbows, and Native American sinew-backed bows. The wood is marketed as "eastern redcedar" or "aromatic cedar". The best portions of the heartwood are one of the few woods good for making pencils, but the supply had diminished sufficiently by the 1940s that it was largely replaced by incense-cedar.[9]

Juniper oil is distilled from the wood, twigs and leaves. The essential oil contains cedrol which has toxic and possibly carcinogenic properties.[17] The cones are used to flavor gin and as a kidney medicine.

Native American tribes used juniper wood poles to mark out agreed tribal hunting territories. French traders named Baton Rouge, Louisiana, (meaning "red stick") from the reddish color of these poles.

During the Dust Bowl drought of the 1930s, the Prairie States Forest Project encouraged farmers to plant shelterbelts (wind breaks) made of eastern juniper throughout the Great Plains. They grow well under adverse conditions. Both drought tolerant and cold tolerant, they grow well in rocky, sandy, and clay substrate. Competition between trees is minimal, so they can be planted in tightly spaced rows, and the trees still grow to full height, creating a solid windbreak in a short time.[18]

A number of cultivars have been selected for garden planting, including 'Canaertii' (narrow conical; female) 'Corcorcor' (with a dense, erect crown; female), 'Goldspire' (narrow conical with yellow foliage), and 'Kobold' (dwarf). Some cultivars previously listed under this species, notably 'Skyrocket', are actually cultivars of J. scopulorum.[19]

In the Missouri and Arkansas Ozarks, eastern juniper is commonly used as a Christmas tree.

Allergen[edit]

The pollen is a known allergen, although not as potent as that of the related Juniperus ashei (Ashe juniper), which sheds pollen a month earlier. People allergic to one are usually allergic to both. J. virginiana sheds pollen as early as late winter and through early spring. Consequently, what begins as an allergy to Ashe juniper in the winter may extend into spring, since the pollination of the eastern juniper follows that of the Ashe juniper.

Contact with the leaves or wood can produce a mild skin rash in some individuals.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Juniperus virginiana. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  2. ^ a b Flora of North America: Juniperus virginiana
  3. ^ USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service: Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar
  4. ^ a b c d Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4
  5. ^ a b c d Gymnosperm Database: Juniperus virginiana
  6. ^ a b c Adams, R. P. (2004). Junipers of the World. Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4250-X
  7. ^ Kelsey, H. P., & Dayton, W. A. (1942). Standardized Plant Names, ed.2. American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature. Horace McFarland Company, Harrisburg, Pa.
  8. ^ http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/#spp
  9. ^ a b c Barlow, Virginia (Winter 2004). "Species in the Spotlight: Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana". Northern Woodlands (Center for Northern Woodlands Education) 11 (43): 37. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  10. ^ West Virginia University: Cedar-Apple Rust, Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
  11. ^ Forest Plan
  12. ^ Noble Foundation: News Release
  13. ^ CNN: Wildfires Rip Through Oklahoma
  14. ^ McKinley, Duncan C., and John M. Blair.. "Woody Plant Encroachment by Juniperus virginiana in a Mesic Native Grassland Promotes Rapid Carbon and Nitrogen Accrual." Ecosystems 11.3 (Apr. 2008): 454-468.
  15. ^ Norris, Mark D., John M. Blair, and Loretta C. Johnson. "Altered Ecosystem Nitrogen Dynamics as a Consequence of Land Cover Change in Tallgrass Prairie." American Midland Naturalist 158.2 (Oct. 2007): 432-445.
  16. ^ McKinley, Duncan C., and John M. Blair.. "Woody Plant Encroachment by Juniperus virginiana in a Mesic Native Grassland Promotes Rapid Carbon and Nitrogen Accrual." Ecosystems 11.3 (Apr. 2008): 454-468.
  17. ^ Sabine, J.R. (1975). "Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.". Toxicology 5 (2): 221–235. PMID 174251. 
  18. ^ USDA Fact Sheet
  19. ^ Welch, H., & Haddow, G. (1993). The World Checklist of Conifers. Landsman's. ISBN 0-900513-09-8.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name of eastern redcedar is Juniperus
virginiana L. (Cupressaceae) [33,36,53,54,55,68,71,76,101,110,114,118,129,130]. The two recognized varieties of this species are J. virginiana
var. virginiana [71,129] and southern redcedar (J. virginiana var.
silicicola (Small) J. Silba) [71]. Adams [3] described southern redcedar
as a variety of eastern redcedar based on similarity of morphological
characteristics and volatile leaf oils. However, southern redcedar
has previously been described and is still accepted by some authors as a
distinct species, J. silicicola [101]. This species summary refers
to both varieties of eastern redcedar; information specific to variety is noted.

Hybrid swarms of eastern redcedar and creeping juniper (J. horizontalis)
occur on the coast of Maine and in the Driftless Area according to morphological,
terpene, electrophoretic, and cytological data analysis [44,96,106]. Based on
morphological variation, hybrid swarms of eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper
(J. scopulorum) occur in the Texas panhandle and the northern Great Plains
[45,60,61,65]. Also based on studies of morphological characteristics, hybrid swarms
of eastern redcedar and Ashe juniper (J. ashei) reportedly occur in Oklahoma,
Texas, and Missouri [59,62,65]. However, in a study of terpenoids, Adams and Turner [2]
found no evidence of hybridization between eastern redcedar and Ashe juniper.
  • 3. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. [19792]
  • 36. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 44. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 1. The specific characters. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(4): 410-418. [910]
  • 55. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 68. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 110. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 114. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 129. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 53. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 2. Adams, R. P.; Turner, B. L. 1970. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus ashei Buch. Taxon. 19: 728-751. [21858]
  • 33. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 45. Fassett, Norman C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. 2. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(5): 475-483. [4007]
  • 54. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 59. Hall, Marion T. 1952. A hybrid swarm in Juniperus. Evolution. 6(4): 347-366. [19851]
  • 60. Hall, Marion T. 1961. Notes on cultivated junipers. Butler University Botanical Studies. 14: 73-90. [19796]
  • 61. Hall, Marion T.; Carr, Claudia J. 1968. Variability in Juniperus in the Palo Duro Canyon of western Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 13(1): 75-98. [4538]
  • 62. Hall, Marion Trufant. 1952. Variation and hybridization in Juniperus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 39(1): 1-64. [19850]
  • 65. Hart, Jeffrey A.; Price, Robert A. 1990. The genera of Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 71(3): 275-322. [14597]
  • 76. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 96. Palma-Otal, M.; Moore, W. S.; Adams, R. P.; Joswiak, G. R. 1983. Morphological, chemical, and biogeographical analyses of a hybrid zone involving Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61(10): 2733-2746. [4960]
  • 101. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 106. Ross, James G.; Duncan, Robert E. 1949. Cytological evidences of hybridization between Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 76(6): 414-429. [71]
  • 118. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 130. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]
  • 71. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

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Common Names

eastern redcedar

red cedar

aromatic cedar

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Synonyms

Sabina virginiana (L.) Antoine [133]
  • 133. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]

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