Overview

Distribution

Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan]
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h.; bark dull brown, thickly flaking; crown cylindric or narrowly pyramidal; branchlets pendulous, yellowish gray or yellow in 1st and 2nd years, finally dark gray, glabrous or pubescent; winter buds brownish yellow, conical-ovoid, slightly resinous, scales slightly opening at base of branchlets. Leaves spreading radially, directed forward, quadrangular-linear, straight or somewhat curved, broadly rhombic in cross section, 2-3.5 cm × ca. 1.5 mm, stomatal lines 5-8 along each surface adaxially, 4-6 along each surface abaxially, apex acute. Seed cones purple or green, maturing purplish or dull brown, ellipsoid-cylindric or cylindric, 6-11.3 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales triangular-obovate, 1.2-2 × (1-)1.3-1.8 cm, apex rounded. Seeds obliquely ovoid, 3-4 mm; wing obovate, 1.2-1.3 cm. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Picea morinda Link subsp. tianschanica (Ruprecht) Berezin; P. obovata Ledebour var. schrenkiana (Fischer & C. A. Meyer) Carriere; P. schrenkiana subsp. tianschanica (Ruprecht) Bykov; P. schrenkiana var. tianschanica (Ruprecht) W. C. Cheng & S. H. Fu; P. tianschanica Ruprecht.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A high montane to subalpine species of Central Asia, occurring between 1,300 m and 3,000(-3,600) m a.s.l., especially on north-facing slopes and in cool ravines. It grows on various mountain soils, usually in rocky places with seepage water from snowmelt (perpetual snow at higher elevations). The climate is cold continental. It forms usually pure forests, but it is sometimes mixed with Abies sibirica (A. sibirica subsp. semenovii with Picea schrenkiana subsp. tianschanica), at lower elevations with Ulmus and Populus along streams. Juniperus pseudosabina occurs usually on south-facing slopes outside the spruce forest, but may also form a shrub cover in it.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Mountains, N-facing slopes, cool ravines; 1200-3500 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picea schrenkiana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picea schrenkiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Rushforth, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species in its entirety is considered Least Concern, despite anecdotal evidence of exploitation. There are still large untouched forests left, at least in Kyrgyzstan.
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Population

Population
This species commonly forms pure stands covering mountain slopes in suitable locations. The overall population trend is thought to be decreasing.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Logging, if it results in depletion of habitat with lack of regeneration, poses the main threat to this species. Pastoralism has been on the increase in these mountains since the demise of the Soviet Union, which has caused chronic unemployment in the now independent states of Central Asia. [In fact, many of the indigenous people are returning to what they were living off before the Soviet era.] This may have negative effects on chances of regeneration for this slow growing species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Only a small portion of the area of occupancy of this species falls within a protected area. Further analysis of the situation is required, including the effectiveness of protected areas where they exist.
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Wikipedia

Picea schrenkiana


Picea schrenkiana, Schrenk's spruce,[1] or Asian spruce,[1] is a spruce native to the Tian Shan mountains of central Asia in western China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.[1] It grows at altitudes of 1,200-3,500 metres,[2] usually in pure forests, sometimes mixed with the Tien Shan variety of Siberian Fir (Abies sibirica var. semenovii). Its name was given in honour of Alexander von Schrenk (1816-1876).

Description[edit source | edit]

Picea schrenkiana tree in Rogów Arboretum, Poland

Picea schrenkiana is a large evergreen tree growing to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft) tall (rarely to 60 metres (200 ft)), with a trunk diameter of up to 1–2 metres (3.3–6.6 ft). It has a narrow conical crown with level branches and sometimes pendulous branchlets. The shoots are pale buff-brown, and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 1.5-3.5 cm long, rhombic in cross-section, dark green with inconspicuous stomatal lines.

The cones are cylindric-conic, 6-12 cm long and 2 cm broad, purple when young, maturing dark brown and opening to 2.5-3.5 cm broad 5–7 months after pollination; the scales are moderately stiff and smoothly rounded.

Subspecies[edit source | edit]

There are two subspecies:

  • Picea schrenkiana subsp. schrenkiana. Eastern Tian Shan, in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang. Leaves longer, 2-3.5 cm long.
  • Picea schrenkiana subsp. tianshanica (Rupr.) Bykov. Western Tian Shan, in Kyrgyzstan. Leaves shorter, 1.5-2.5 cm long.

It is closely related to, and in many respects intermediate between Morinda spruce (Picea smithiana) from further south in the Himalaya, and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) further north in Siberia.

Uses[edit source | edit]

Schrenk's spruce is an important tree in central Asia for timber and paper production, where few other large trees exist. Its slower growth compared to Norway Spruce reduces its importance outside of its native range.

Cultivation[edit source | edit]

Picea schrenkiana is grown as an ornamental tree in large gardens and public parks in Europe.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Picea schrenkia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Picea schrenkiana". Flora of China. efloras.org. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit source | edit]

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Notes

Comments

The timber is used for construction, aircraft, machines, poles, and wood pulp, and tannin is extracted from the bark. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.
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