Overview

Distribution

E and S Gansu, N Ningxia, Qinghai, SW Shaanxi, Sichuan, ?SE Xizang
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark grayish brown, furrowed into irregular, rough, scaly plates; branchlets initially brownish yellow or reddish brown, turning brown or brownish gray in 2nd or 3rd year, pubescent or glabrous; winter buds conical or ovoid-conical, resinous, scales appressed or slightly recurved in apical buds, ± recurved at base of branchlets, keeled. Leaf cushions glaucous, rigid. Leaves directed forward or ascending on upper side of branchlets, parted and spreading laterally on lower side, glaucous or not, linear, slightly curved, ± quadrangular-rhombic in cross section, 1-2 cm × 1-2 mm, stomatal lines 4-8 along each surface, apex acute or slightly pungent. Seed cones green, maturing pale brown or reddish brown, cylindric-oblong or cylindric, 5-16 × 2.5-3.5 cm, apex obtuse. Seed scales at middle of cones obovate, ca. 2 × 1.5 cm, margin entire or denticulate, apex rarely 2-lobed. Seeds obovoid, ca. 4 mm; wing pale brown, obovate-oblong, ca. 1.1 cm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Picea asperata occurs in the high mountains of W central China, at elevations between 1500 m and 3800 m a.s.l., usually above 2400 m in Sichuan. The soils are grey-brown mountain podzols. The climate is continental, subalpine, with cold winters and dry summers (annual precipitation less than 500 mm). It forms mostly pure forests on N-facing slopes, or mixtures with other species of Picea, in the south of Gansu it may be mixed with Abies nephrolepis. Betula albo-sinensis is the most common broad-leaved associate.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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* Mountains, river basins; 2400-3600 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picea asperata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picea asperata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Carter, G. & Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Christian, T.

Contributor/s

Justification

The assessment of the entire species is driven by that of its most common and widespread nominate variety, which meets criterion A for Vulnerable due to past logging. The logging ban, though imposed since more than a decade, should at least have slowed the reduction substantially, but we suspect it has not stopped it entirely. The species as a whole is therefore considered to be Vulnerable.

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Population

Population
The population decreased due to logging. Some decline is suspected to be ongoing.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Logging.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The government of China has imposed a logging ban since 1998 on the conifer forests of western China.
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Wikipedia

Picea asperata

Picea asperata (Dragon Spruce; Chinese: Yun Shan) is a spruce native to western China, from eastern Qinghai, southern Gansu and southwestern Shaanxi south to western Sichuan.

Description[edit]

It is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 25-40 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. The shoots are orange-brown, with scattered pubescence. The leaves are needle-like, 1-2.5 cm long, rhombic in cross-section, greyish-green to bluish-green with conspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are cylindric-conic, 6-15 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, maturing pale brown 5-7 months after pollination, and have stiff, rounded to bluntly pointed scales.

Varieties[edit]

It is a variable species with several varieties listed. These were first described as distinct species (and are still so treated by some authors), although they differ only in minor details, and some may not prove to be distinct at all if a larger population is examined:

Conservation[edit]

The species is currently not listed as threatened, but recently population numbers have been declining due to deforestation caused by the Chinese logging industry.[1]

Uses[edit]

P. asperata is occasionally grown as an ornamental tree in Europe and North America.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Assessors: Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Picea asperata in IUCN 2010". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  2. ^ In: J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 419. 1906 "Plant Name Details for Picea asperata". IPNI. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
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Notes

Comments

The timber is used for construction, aircraft, railway sleepers, furniture, and wood fiber. The trunk is used for producing resin, and the roots, branches, and leaves for producing aromatic oils.
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