The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Picea glauca
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Voss. 1907. In: Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1907 (16): 93.
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Alban, D. H. 1982. Effects of nutrient accumulation by aspen, spruce,  and pine on soil properties. Soil Science of America Journal 46:853-861. 
    3. Alden, J., and C. Loopstra. 1987. Genetic diversity and population  structure of Picea glauca on an altitudinal gradient in interior  Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:1519-1526.
    5. Baker, F. A., and D. W. French. 1980. Spread of Arceuthobium  pusillum and rates of infection and mortality in black spruce  stands. Plant Disease Reporter 64(12):1074-1078.
    7. Bergeron, J., and J. Tardiff. 1988. Winter browsing preferences of  snowshoe hares for coniferous seedlings and its implication in  large-scale reforestation programs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  18:280-282.
    9. Berry, A. B. 1974. Crown thinning a 30-year-old white spruce  plantation at Petawawa-10 year results. Canadian Forestry Service,  Information Report PS-X-49. Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, Chalk  River, ON. 16 p.
    11. Berry, A. B. 1982. Response of suppressed conifer seedlings to  release from an aspen-pine overstory. Forestry Chronicle 58(2):91-93. 
    13. Blake, T. L. 1983. Transplanting shock in white spruce: effect of  cold storage and root pruning on water relations and stomatal  conditioning. Physiologia Plantarum 57:210-216.
    15. Blum, B. M. 1988. Variation in the phenology of bud flushing in white  and red spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18:315-319.
    17. Brand, D. G., and P. S. Janas. 1988. Growth acclimation of planted  white pine and white spruce seedlings in response to environmental  conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18:320-329.
    19. Brand, D. G., P. Kehoe, and M. Connors. 1986. Coniferous  afforestation leads to soil acidification in central Ontario. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 16:1389-1391.
    21. Brix, H. 1972. Growth response of Sitka spruce and white spruce  seedlings to temperature and light intensity. Canadian Forestry Service,  Information Report BC-X-74. Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria,  BC. 17 p.
    23. Bryant, J. P., and P. J. Kuropat. 1980. Selection of winter foliage  by subarctic browsing vertebrates: the role of plant chemistry. Annual  Review of Ecological Systems 11:261-285.
    25. Carlson, L. W. 1979. Guidelines for rearing containerized conifer  seedlings in the Prairie Provinces. Canadian Forestry Service,  Information Report NOR-X-214. Northern Forest Research Centre, Edmonton,  AB. 62 p.
    27. Carmean, W. H., and J. T. Hahn. 1981. Revised site index curves for  balsam fir and white spruce in the Lake States. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NC-269. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 4 p.
    29. Cecich, R. A. 1985. White spruce flowering in response to spray  application of gibberellin A 4/7. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  15(l):170-174.
    31. Cecich, Robert A., and Jerome P. Miksche. 1970. The response of white  spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) shoot apices to exposures of chronic  gamma radiation. Radiation Botany 10:457-467.
    33. Cheliak, W. M., J. A. Pitel, and G. Murray. 1985. Population  structure and mating system of white spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 15:301-308.
    35. Clautice, S. F., J. C. Zasada, and B. J. Neiland. 1979. Autecology of  first year post-fire tree regeneration. In Ecologial effects of the  Wickersham Dome fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. p. 50-53. L. A. Viereck,  and C. T. Dyrness, eds. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-90. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Fairbanks, AK
    37. Coles, J. F., and D. P. Fowler. 1976. Inbreeding in neighboring trees  in two white spruce populations. Silvae Genetics. 25(l):29-34.
    39. Copes, D. L., and R. C. Beckwith. 1977. Isoenzyme identification of  Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, and P. lutzii populations. Botanical  Gazette 138:512-521.
    41. Cram, W. H., and H. A. Worden. 1957. Maturity of white spruce cones  and seed. Forest Science 3(3):263-269.
    43. Crossley, D. 1. 1976. Growth response of spruce and fir to release  from suppression. Forestry Chronicle 52(4):189-193.
    45. Daubenmire, R. 1974. Taxonomic and ecologic relationships between  Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii. Canadian Journal of Botany  52:1545-1560.
    47. Day, R. J. 1963. Spruce seedling mortality caused by adverse summer  microclimate in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian Department of' Forestry,  Research Branch Publication 1003. Ottawa, ON. 36 p.
    49. Day, R. J. 1972. Stand structure, succession and use of southern  Alberta's Rocky Mountain Forest. Ecology 53:472-478.
    51. Densmore, D. 1980. Vegetation and forest dynamics of the Upper  Dietrich River Valley, Alaska. Thesis (M.S.), North Carolina State  University, Department of Botany, Raleigh. 183 p.
    53. Densmore, R. 1979. Aspects of the seed ecology of woody plants of the  Alaskan taiga and tundra. Thesis (Ph.D.), Duke University, Durham, NC.  285 p.
    55. Dhir, N. K 1976. Stand, family, and site effects in Upper Ottawa  Valley white spruce. In Proceedings, Twelfth Lake States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference, August 1975. p. 88-97. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report NC-26. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN.
    57. Dobbs, R. C. 1972. Regeneration of white and Engelmann spruce: a  literature review with special reference to the British Columbia  interior. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report BC-X-69. Pacific  Forest Research Centre, Victoria, BC. 77 p.
    59. Dobbs, R. C. 1976. White spruce seed dispersal in central British  Columbia. Forestry Chronicle 52:225-228.
    61. Dobbs, R. C., and R. G. McMinn. 1973. Hail damage to a new white  spruce and lodgepole pine plantation in central British Columbia.  Forestry Chronicle 49:174-175.
    63. Dyrness, C. T., L. A. Viereck, M. J. Foote, and J. C. Zasada. 1988.  The effect of vegetation and soil temperature of logging flood-plain,  white spruce. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-RP-392. Pacific  Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. 45 p.
    65. Edwards, D. G. W. 1977. Tree seed research, Pacific Forest Research  Centre. In Proceedings, Sixteenth Meeting Canadian Tree Improvement  Association, Part 1. June 27-30, 1977. p. 209-216. Winnipeg, MB.
    67. Eis, S. 1965. Development of white spruce and alpine fir) seedlings  on cutover areas in the central interior of British Columbia. Forestry  Chronicle 41:419-431.
    69. Eis, S. 1967. Cone crops of white and black spruce are predictable.  Forestry Chronicle 43(3):247-252.
    71. Eis, S. 1967. Establishment and early development of white spruce in  the interior of British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle 43:174-177.
    73. Eis, S. 1970. Root-growth relationships of juvenile white spruce,  alpine fir and lodgepole pine on three soils in the interior of British  Columbia. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication 1276. Ottawa, ON. 10 p. 
    75. Eis, S., and J. Inkster. 1972. White spruce cone production and  prediction of cone crops. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 2:460-466. 
    77. Elliott, D. C. 1979. The stability of the northern Canadian tree  limit: - current regenerative capacity. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of  Colorado, Department of Geography, Boulder. 192 p.
    79. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    81. Farr, W. A. 1967. Growth and yield of well-stocked white spruce  stands in Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-53. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fairbanks, AK 30 p.
    83. Fisher, R. F. 1979. Possible allelopathic effects of reindeer moss  (Cladonia) on jack pine and white spruce. Forest Science 25(2):256-260. 
    85. Foote, M. J. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant  communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper 307. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 108 p.
    87. Forestry Sciences Laboratory. Unpublished data. USDA Forest Service,  North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI.
    89. Frank, R. M. 1973. The course of growth response in released white  spruce-10 year results. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-268.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    91. Fraser, D. A. 1962. Apical and radial growth of white spruce (Picea  glauca (Moench) Voss) at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal  of Botany 40:659-668.
    93. Fraser, J. W. 1971. Cardinal temperatures for germination of six  provenances of white spruce seed. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication  1290. Ottawa, ON. 10 p.
    95. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    97. Ganns, R. C. 1977. Germination and survival of artificially seeded  white spruce on prepared seedbeds on an interior Alaskan floodplain  site. Thesis (M.S.), University of Alaska, Fairbanks. 81 p.
    99. Gardner, A. C. 1980. Regeneration problems and options for white  spruce on river floodplains in the Yukon Territory. In Forest  regeneration at high latitudes. p. 19-24. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report PNW-107. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Portland, OR.
    101. Giddings, J. L. 1962. Development of tree ring dating as an  archeological aid. In Tree growth. p. 119-132. T. T. Kozlowski, ed.  Ronald Press, New York.
    103. Gill, D. 1974. Snow damage to boreal Mixedwood stands in northern  Alberta. Forestry Chronicle 50:70-74.
    105. Gill, D. 1975. Influence of white spruce trees on permafrost table  microtopography, Mackenzie River Delta. Canadian Journal of Earth  Sciences 12(2):263-272.
    107. Girouard, R. M. 1974. Propagation of spruce by stem cuttings. New  Zealand Journal of Forest Science. 4(2):140-149.
    109. Girouard, R. M. 1975. Propagating four species of spruce by stem  cuttings. Canadian Forestry Service, Bi-Monthly Research Notes  31(4):29-31.
    111. Gregory, R. A., and B. F. Wilson. 1968. A comparison of cambial  activity of white spruce in Alaska and New England. Canadian Journal of  Botany 46:733-734.
    113. Hard, J. S. 1987. Vulnerability of white spruce with slowly expanding  lower holes on dry cold sites to early seasonal attack by spruce beetles  in south-central Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:  428-435.
    115. Hard, J. S., and E. H. Holsten. 1985. Managing white and Lutz spruce  stands in south--central Alaska for increased resistance to spruce  beetle. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-188. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 21 p.
    117. Hedlin, Alan F., Harry 0. Yates III, David Cibrian Tovar, and others.  1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Canadian  Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON; USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC; and  Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, Mexico. 122 p.
    119. Heger, L. 1971. Site-index/soil relationships for white spruce in  Alberta Mixedwoods. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report  FMR-X-32, Project 31. Forest Management Institute, Ottawa, ON. 15 p. 
    121. Hegyi, F., J. Jelinck, and D. B. Carpenter. 1979. Site index  equations and curves for the major tree species in British Columbia.  British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Forest Inventory Report 1.  Victoria, BC. 51 p.
    123. Hellum, A. K 1972. Germination and early growth of white spruce on  rotted woods and peat moss in the laboratory and nursery. Canadian  Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-39. Northern Forest Research  Centre, Edmonton, AB. 12 p.
    125. Hellum, A. K. 1972. Tolerance to soaking and drying in white spruce  (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seed from Alberta. Canadian Forestry  Service, Information Report NOR-X-36. Northern Forest Research Centre,  Edmonton, AB. 19 p.
    127. Hellum, A. K. 1976. Grading seed by weight in white spruce. Tree  Planters' Notes 27(l):16-17, 23-24.
    129. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    131. Herman, F. R. 1981. Personal communication. USDA Forest Service,  Institute of Northern Forestry, Fairbanks, AK
    133. Hocking, D. 1971. Effect and characteristics of pathogens on foliage  and buds of cold-stored white spruce and lodgepole pine seedlings.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 1:208-215.
    135. Holst, M. J. 1959. Experiments with flower promotion in Picea glauca  (Moench) Voss and Pinus resinosa Ait. (Abstract). In Ninth International  Botanical Congress [Proceedings], 2. P. 169.
    137. Horton, K. W., and B. S. P. Wang. 1969. Experimental seeding of  conifers in scarified strips. Forestry Chronicle 45:22-29.
    139. Institute of Northern Forestry. Unpublished data. USDA Forest  Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Fairbanks, AK
    141. Iyer, J. G. 1977. Effect of micronutrients on the growth of white  spruce nursery stock. University of Wisconsin. Department of Forestry,  Forestry Research Note 203. Madison. 4 p.
    143. Jablanczy, A., and G. L. Baskerville. 1969. Morphology and  development of white spruce and balsam fir seedlings in feather moss.  Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report M-X-19. Forest Research  Laboratory, Fredericton, NB. 10 p.
    145. Jameson, J. S. 1963. Comparison of tree growth on two sites in the  Riding Mountain Forest Experimental Area. Canada Department of Forestry,  Forest Research Branch Publication 10 19. Ottawa, ON. 36 p.
    147. Jeffers, Richard M. 1969. Parent-progeny growth correlations in  white spruce. In Proceedings, Eleventh Meeting, Committee on Forest Tree  Breeding in Canada, MacDonald College, Quebec, August 1968. p. 213-221.  Canada Department of Forestry, Ottawa, ON. 390 p.
    149. Jeffers, Richard M. 1971. Research at the Institute of Forest  Genetics, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NC-67. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 31 p. 
    151. Jeffers, Richard M. 1974. Key to identifying young North American  spruce seedlings. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-172. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 2 p.
    153. Jeffrey, W. W. 1959. White spruce rooting modifications on the  fluvial deposits of the lower Peace River. Forestry Chronicle  35:304-311.
    155. Jeffrey, W. W. 1961. Origin and structure of some white spruce stands  on the lower Peace River. Canada Department of Forestry, Forest Research  Branch Technical Note 103. Ottawa, ON. 20 p.
    157. Jeffrey, W. W. 1964. Forest types along lower Liard River, Northwest  Territories. Canada Department of Forestry, Forest Research Branch  Publication 1035. Ottawa, ON. 103 p.
    159. Johnson, P. L., and T. C. Vogel. 1966. Vegetation of the Yukon Flats  Region, Alaska. U.S. Army Material Command, Research Report 209. Cold  Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH. 53 p.
    161. Johnson, W. T., and H. H. Lyon. 1976. Insects that feed on trees and  shrubs. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 464 p.
    163. Johnstone, W. D. 1977. Interim equations and tables for the yield of  fully-stocked spruce-poplar stands in the Mixedwood forest section of  Alberta. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-175.  Northern Forest Research Centre, Edmonton, AB. 24 p.
    165. Juday, G. P., and J. C. Zasada. 1984. Structure and development of an  old-growth white spruce forest on an interior Alaska floodplain. p.  227-234. In W. R. Meehan, T. R. Merrell, and T. A Hanley, eds. Fish and  wildlife relationships in old-growth forests: Proceedings of a symposium  held in Juneau, Alaska, 12-15 April 1982. American Institute Fisheries  Research Biologists. 425 p.
    167. Kabzems, A. 1971. The growth and yield of well stocked white spruce  stands in the Mixedwood section of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department  of Natural Resources Forestry Branch, Technical Bulletin 5. Prince  Albert, SA. 75 p.
    169. Kabzems, A. 1981. Personal communication.
    171. Kimmins, J. P., and B. C. Hawkes. 1978. Distribution and chemistry of  fine roots in a white spruce-subalpine fir stand in British Columbia:  implications for management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8  (3):265-279.
    173. King, J. P., R. M. Jeffers, and H. Nienstaedt. 1970. Effects of  varying proportions of self-pollen on seed yield, seed quality, and  seedling development in Picea glauca. Paper presented at Meeting of the  Working Group on Sexual Reproduction of Forest Trees. Varparanta,  Finland, May 1970. IUFRO, Section 22. 15 p.
    175. Koski, V., and R. Tallquist. 1978. Results of long-time measurements  of the quality of flowering and seed crop of trees. Folia Forestali  364:1-60.
    177. Krasny, M., C. Vogt, and J. Zasada. 1984. Root and shoot biomass and  mycorrhizal development of white spruce seedlings naturally regenerating  in interior Alaska floodplain communities. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 14:554-558.
    179. Lacate, D. S., K. W. Horton, and A. W. Blyth. 1965. Forest conditions  on the lower Peace River. Canada Department of Forestry, Forest .  Research Branch Publication 1094. Ottawa, ON. 53 p.
    181. La Roi, G. H. 1967. Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir  forests of the North American taiga. I. Analysis of the vascular flora.  Ecological Monographs 37:229-253.
    183. La Roi, G. H., and M. H. Stringer. 1976. Ecological studies in the  boreal spruce-fir forests of the North American taiga. II. Analysis of  the bryophyte flora. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:619-643.
    185. Larsen, J. A. 1965. The vegetation of the Ennadai Lake area N.W.T.  Studies in subarctic and arctic bioclimatology. Ecological Monographs  35:37-59.
    187. Lees, J. C. 1964. Tolerance of white spruce seedlings to flooding.  Forestry Chronicle 40(2):221-224.
    189. Lees, J. C. 1970. Natural regeneration of white spruce under  spruce-aspen shelterwood, B-18a forest section, Alberta. Canadian  Forestry Service, Publication 1274. Ottawa, ON. 14 p.
    191. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native  and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  541. Washington, DC. 375 p.
    193. Little, Elbert L., Jr., and S. S. Pauley. 1958. A natural hybrid  between white and black spruce in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist  60:202-211.
    195. Logan, K. T. 1969. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light  intensity. IV. Black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir, eastern white  cedar. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication 1256. Ottawa, ON. 12 p. 
    197. Logan, K. T. 1977. Photoperiodic induction of free growth in juvenile  white spruce and black spruce. Canadian Forestry Service, Bi-Monthly  Research Notes 33(4):29-30.
    199. Logan, K. T., and D. F. W. Pollard. 1976. Growth acceleration of tree  seedlings in controlled environments at Petawawa. Canadian Forestry  Service, Information PS-X-62. Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, Chalk  River, ON. 11 p.
    201. McBeath, J. H. 1981. Rust disease on white spruce in Alaska.  Agroborealis 13:41-48.
    203. Maini, J. S. 1966. Phytoecological study of sylvo tundra at Small  Tree Lake, N.W.T. Arctic 19(3):220-243.
    205. Mergen, F., J. Burley, and G. M. Furnival. 1965. Embryo and seedling  development in Picea glauca (Moench) Voss after self- cross- and  wind-pollination. Silvae Genetics 14:188-194.
    207. Nanson, G. C., and H. F. Beach. 1977. Forest succession and  sedimentation on a meandering river floodplain, northeast British  Columbia, Canada. Journal of Biogeography 4:229-251.
    209. Nelson, R. K. 1977. Forest resources in the culture and economy of  native Alaskans. In Proceedings, Symposium on North American Forest  Lands at Latitudes North of 60 Degrees, September 19-22, 1977. p.  207-225. University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
    211. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1958. Receptivity of female strobili of white  spruce. Forest Science 4:110-115.
    213. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1965. Grafting northern conifers with special  reference to white spruce. In Proceedings, Region 9 State Nurserymen's  Meeting, August 24-26, 1965, Duluth, MN. p. 41-45. Minnesota Division of  Natural Resources and USDA Forest Service, Milwaukee, WI.
    215. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1965. White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). In  Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 318-327. H. A. Fowells,  comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    217. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1966. Dormancy and dormancy release in white  spruce. Forest Science 12(3):374-384.- -
    219. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1974. Degree day requirements for bud flushing in  white spruce-variation and inheritance. In Proceedings, Eighth Central  States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, October 11-13, 1972,  University of Missouri, Columbia. p. 28-32.
    221. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1981. Super spruce seedlings continue superior  growth for 18 years. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-265. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.
    223. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1981. Top pruning white spruce seed orchard grafts  does not reduce cone production. Tree Planters' Notes 32(2):9-13.
    225. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1982. White spruce in the Lake States. In  Proceedings, Artificial Regeneration of Conifers in the Upper Great  Lakes Region, October 26-28, 1982, Green Bay, WI. p. 142-167. Glenn D.  Mroz, and Jane F. Berner, comps. Michigan Technological University,  Houghton.
    227. Nienstaedt, Hans. 1985. Inheritance and correlations of frost injury,  growth, flowering and cone characteristics in white spruce, Picea glauca  (Moench) Voss. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:498-504.
    229. Nienstaedt, Hans, and Richard M. Jeffers. 1976. Increased yields of  intensively managed plantations of improved jack pine and white spruce.  In Intensive plantation culture: five years research. p. 51-59. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-21. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 117 p.
    231. Nienstaedt, Hans, and James P. King. 1969. Breeding for delayed  budbreak in Picea glauca (Moench) Voss-potential frost avoidance and  growth gains. In Proceedings, Second World Consultation on Forest Tree  Breeding, Washington, DC, August 77-16, 1969. FO-FTB-69-2/5. Food and  Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. 14 p.
    233. Nienstaedt, Hans, and Abraham Teich. 1972. Genetics of white spruce.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper WO-15. Washington, DC. 24 p.
    235. Owens, J. N., and M. Molder. 1977. Bud development in Picea glauca.  II. Cone differentiation and early development. Canadian Journal of  Botany 55:2746-2760.
    237. Owens, J. N., and M. Molder. 1979. Sexual reproduction of white  spruce (Picea glauca). Canadian Journal of Botany 57:152-169.
    239. Owens, J. N., M. Molder, and H. Langer.- 1977. Bud development in  Picea glauca. 1. Annual growth cycle of vegetative buds and shoot  elongation as they relate to date and temperature sums. Canadian Journal  of Botany 55:2728-2745.
    241. Pharis, Richard P. 1979. ' Promotion of flowering in the Pinaceae by  hormones-a reality. In Proceedings, Thirteenth Lake States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference, August 17-18, 1977, University of Minnesota. p.  1-10. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-50. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    243. Pollard, D. F. W., and K T. Logan. 1976. Prescription of the aerial  environment of a plastic greenhouse nursery. In Proceedings, Twelfth  Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, August 1975. p. 181-191.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-26. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    245. Pollard, D. F. W. , and K. T. Logan. 1977. The effect of light  intensity, photoperiod, soil moisture potential, and temperature on bud  morphogenesis in Picea species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  7:415-421.
    247. Putman, W., and J. Zasada. 1986. Direct seeding techniques to  regenerate white spruce in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 16: 660-664.
    249. Radvanyi, A. 1970. New coating treatment for coniferous seed.  Forestry Chronicle 46(5):406-408.
    251. Radvanyi, A. 1974. Seed losses to small mammals and birds. In The  direct seeding symposium, September 12-13, 1973, Timmins, ON. p. 65-75.  J. H. Cayford, ed. Canadian Forestry Service, Publication 1339. Ottawa,  ON.
    253. Radvanyi, A. 1980. Germination of R-55 repellent treated and  non-treated seeds of white spruce following prolonged cold storage.  Forestry Chronicle 56:60-62.
    255. Rauter, R. M., and J. L. Farrar. 1969. Embryology of Picea glauca  (Moench) Voss. In Proceedings, Sixteenth Northeastern Forest Tree  Improvement Conference, August 8-10, 1968. MacDonald College, PQ. p.  13-24. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.
    257. Riemenschneider, Don, and Carl A. Mohn. 1975. Chromatographic  analysis of an open-pollinated Rosendahl spruce progeny. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 5:414-418.
    259. Roche, L. 1969. A genecological. study of the genus Picea in British  Columbia. New Phytology 68:505-554.
    261. Roche, L. 1970. The silvicultural significance of geographic  variation in the white-Engelmann spruce complex in British Columbia.  Forestry Chronicle 46:116-125.
    263. Rose, A. H., and 0. H. Lindquist. 1977. Insects of eastern spruce,  fir, and hemlock. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical Report  23. Ottawa, ON. 159 p.
    265. Rowe, J. S. 1970. Spruce and fire in northwest Canada and Alaska. In  Proceedings, Tenth Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, August  20-21, 1970. Fredericton, NB. p. 245-254.
    267. Rowe, J. S. 1972. Forest regions of Canada. Based on W. E. D.  Halliday's "A Forest Classification for Canada." Canadian  Forestry Service, Publication 1300. Ottawa, ON. 172 p.
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