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General DescriptionTrees to 50 m tall; trunk to 2.5 m d.b.h.; bark dull gray or brown-gray, breaking into thick, irregular plates; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially pale yellow or brownish yellow, finally gray or gray-yellow, often sparsely pubescent, rarely with glandular hairs; winter buds brown, conical, ovoid, or globose, resinous, scales not reflexed, or slightly opening at base of branchlets. First-year branchlets usually slender, with nodes of normal length, sparsely pubescent. Leaves directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, linear, straight or slightly curved, ± broadly rhombic in cross section or subflattened, 0.6-1.5 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, stomatal lines 4-7 along each surface adaxially, 2-4 along each surface abaxially, apex acute or obtuse. Seed cones red-brown or black-purple, maturing brown to reddish or blackish, ovoid-oblong or ovoid-cylindric, 7-12 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones rhombic-ovate, 1.5-2.6 × 1-1.7 cm, base cuneate, margin denticulate or undulate, apical part narrowed into a triangular or obtusely triangular point. Seeds gray-brown, subovoid, 0.7-1.4 cm including wing; wing pale brown, lustrous, usually with purplish spots, obovate-oblong.