Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 2.5 m d.b.h.; bark dull gray or brown-gray, breaking into thick, irregular plates; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially pale yellow or brownish yellow, finally gray or gray-yellow, often sparsely pubescent, rarely with glandular hairs; winter buds brown, conical, ovoid, or globose, resinous, scales not reflexed, or slightly opening at base of branchlets. First-year branchlets usually slender, with nodes of normal length, sparsely pubescent. Leaves directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, linear, straight or slightly curved, ± broadly rhombic in cross section or subflattened, 0.6-1.5 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, stomatal lines 4-7 along each surface adaxially, 2-4 along each surface abaxially, apex acute or obtuse. Seed cones red-brown or black-purple, maturing brown to reddish or blackish, ovoid-oblong or ovoid-cylindric, 7-12 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones rhombic-ovate, 1.5-2.6 × 1-1.7 cm, base cuneate, margin denticulate or undulate, apical part narrowed into a triangular or obtusely triangular point. Seeds gray-brown, subovoid, 0.7-1.4 cm including wing; wing pale brown, lustrous, usually with purplish spots, obovate-oblong.
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Distribution

S Qinghai, S and W Sichuan, E Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan]
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Picea likiangensis is occurring in SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan of China, Bhutan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 2.5 m d.b.h.; bark dull gray or brown-gray, breaking into thick, irregular plates; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially pale yellow or brownish yellow, finally gray or gray-yellow, often sparsely pubescent, rarely with glandular hairs; winter buds brown, conical, ovoid, or globose, resinous, scales not reflexed, or slightly opening at base of branchlets. Leaves directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, linear, straight or slightly curved, ± broadly rhombic in cross section or subflattened, 0.6-1.5 cm × 1-1.5 mm, stomatal lines 4-7 along each surface adaxially, 0-4 along each surface abaxially, apex acute or obtuse. Seed cones reddish brown or purple, maturing brown, reddish brown, purplish brown, or dark purple, ovoid-oblong or ovoid-cylindric, 4-12 × 1.7-3.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones rhombic-ovate, 1.5-2.6 × 1-1.7 cm, base cuneate, margin denticulate or undulate, apical part narrowed into a triangular or obtusely triangular point. Seeds gray-brown, subovoid, 0.7-1.4 cm including wing; wing pale brown, lustrous, usually with purplish spots, obovate-oblong. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Both the type of the species (type locality Lijiang Shan, Yunnan) and the varieties are subalpine spruces (2,900 m to 4,100 m a.s.l.) of the SW Plateau of China. They are usually associated with other conifers, e.g. Abies spp., Picea brachytyla, Larix potaninii, and Tsuga spp. at the lower elevations.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Mountains, ravines, river basins; 2500-4100 m.
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Growing in mountains, river basins; 2500-3800 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Pollination from April to May; Seed maturity from September to October.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The within-species genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Picea likiangensis were investigated using polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in the Qinghai-Tibetan region (Peng et al., 2007). Results suggest that this species has high overall genetic diversity, with 85.42% of loci being polymorphic and an average expected heterozygosity (H E) of 0.239. However, there were relatively low levels of polymorphism at population levels and the differences between populations were not significant, with percentages of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 46.88 to 69.76%, Nei’s gene diversity (H E) from 0.179 to 0.289 and Shannon’s indices (Hpop) from 0.267 to 0.421. In accordance with proposed hypothesis, a high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei’s genetic diversity (G ST = 0.256) and AMOVA analysis (Phi st = 0.236). Gene flow between populations was found to be limited (Nm = 1.4532) and far lower than reported for other conifer species with wide distribution ranges from other regions. No clusters corresponding to three morphological varieties found in the south, north and west, respectively, were detected in either UPGMA or PCO analyses. Results suggest that this species may have had different refugia during the glacial stages in the southern region and that the northern variety may have multiple origins from these different refugia.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Picea likiangensis is 2n = 24 (Shi and Wang, 1994).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picea likiangensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picea likiangensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Zhang, D, Farjon, A. & Christian, T.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The assessment of the species as a whole is determined by that of its most common and widespread variety, var. likiangensis, under the same criteria. There has been more than a 30% population reduction in the past 75 years (three generations) due to the impacts of logging.
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Population

Population
There is some uncertainty about the current population size and any trends. A reduction of at least 30% is inferred from past logging.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Logging has reduced this species by an estimated 30%.
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Picea likiangensis is reported be lower risk/least concern (Conifer Specialist Group, 1998).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The Government of China has recently imposed a logging ban in western China.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

The timber of Picea likiangensis is used for construction, machines, poles, furniture, and wood pulp. The bark is used for producing tannin, the trunk for resin, and the leaves for aromatic oils.
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Wikipedia

Picea likiangensis

Picea likiangensis is a species of spruce found in Bhutan and China.[1] Its population has been reduced by 30% in 75 years by logging, and the species is therefore categorised as vulnerable by the IUCN.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c D. Zhang, A. Farjon & T. Christian (2013). "Picea likiangensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]


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