The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. 2009. New trees (recent introductions to cultivation). Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. 2: 1001.
  • M. Rejmanek and P. Stary, 1979. Connectance in real biotic communities and critical values for stability of model ecosystems. Nature 280:311-313, from p. 312.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Pinus sylvestris L.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 1000. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
    1. Dickson, Alex, and Fred E. Winch, Jr. 1970. Plantation  production of Christmas trees in New York. Extension  Bulletin 1204. New York State College of Agriculture,  Cornell University, Ithaca. 28 p.
    3. Dorworth, C. E. 1977. Grosbeaks damage to Scots pine.  American Christmas Tree Journal 21(4):17-19.
    5. Genys, John B. 1976. Growth rates of eighty Scotch pine  populations at fourteen years in Maryland. In Proceedings,  Twenty-third Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement  Conference. p. 108-120. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA.
    7. Heit, C. E. 1969. Propagating from seed. Part 19: Testing  and growing Scotch pine seeds from different sources.  American Nurseryman 129(7):10-15.
    9. Laitakarai, E. 1927. The root system of pine (Pinus  sylvestris): a morphological investigation. Acta  Forestales Fennica 33:306-380.
    11. Lemmien, W. A., and W. A. Botti. 1974. Scotch pine for  timber production in northwest lower Michigan. Michigan  Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 230. East  Lansing. 4 p.
    13. Mosher, D. G., and L. F. Wilson. 1977. Scotch pine  deterioration in Michigan caused by pine root weevil  complex. The Great Lakes Entomologist 10:169-172.
    15. Nicholls, T. H., and D. D. Skilling. 1974. Control of  Lophodermium needlecast disease in nurseries and Christmas  tree plantations. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NC-110. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 11 p.
    17. Paul, B. H. 1916. Reforesting methods and results of forest  planting in New York State. p. 645-692. Cornell University  Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 374. Ithaca.
    19. Read, Ralph A. 1971. Scots pine in eastern Nebraska: a  provenance study. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-78.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 13 p.
    21. Ruby, J. L., and J. W. Wright. 1976. A revised  classification of geographic varieties in Scots pine. Silvae  Genetica 25:149-232.
    23. Rudolph, V. J. 1981. Personal communication. Michigan State  University, East Lansing.
    25. Rudolph, V. J., and W. A. Lemmien. 1959. Growth of dominant  and codominant Scotch pine crop trees following thinning.  Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Quarterly Bulletin  41(4):758-761.
    27. Schreiner, E. J., E. W. Littlefield, and E. J. Eliason.  1962. Results of 1938 IUFRO Scotch pine provenance test in  New York. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper NE-166.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 23 p. 
    29. Skilling, D. D. 1981. Scleroderris canker-the situation in  1980. Journal of Forestry 79:95-97.
    31. Skilling, D. D., and T. H. Nicholls. 1974. Brown spot needle  disease-biology and control in Scotch pine plantations. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-109. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 19 p.
    33. Steinbeck, K. 1966. Site, height, and mineral content  relations of Scotch pine provenances. Silvae Genetica  15:42-50.
    35. Steven, H. M., and A. Carlisle. 1959. The native pinewoods  of Scotland. Oliver and Boyd Publications, Edinburgh. 368 p. 
    37. Stromquist, L. H. 1975. Propagation of Scots pine by  cuttings. Sveriges Skogsvardsforbunds Tidskrift  73(5):427-432.
    39. Trocke, J. K. 1966. Marketing Christmas trees. Michigan  State University, Extension Bulletin 535. East  Lansing. 13 p.
    41. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    43. Wallner, W. E., and J. W. Butcher. 1970. Christmas tree  insect management. Farm Sciences Series, Michigan State  University, Extension Bulletin 353. East Lansing. 30 p. 
    45. Wright, J. W., and W. 1. Bull. 1963. Geographic variation in  Scotch pine, results of a 3-year Michigan study. Silvae  Genetica 12:1-25.
    47. Wright, J. W., and L. F. Wilson. 1972. Genetic differences  in Scotch pine resistance to pine root collar weevil.  Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report  159. East Lansing. 5 p.
    49. Wright, J. W., W. A. Lemmien, and J. Bright. 1966. Early  flowering patterns in Scotch pine. Michigan Agricultural  Experiment Station, Quarterly Bulletin 49:189-199.
    51. Wright, J. W., L. F. Wilson, and W. K. Randall. 1967.  Differences among Scotch pine varieties in susceptibility to  European sawfly. Forest Science 13(2):175-181.
    53. Wright, J. W., S. S. Pauley, R. B. Polk, and others. 1966.  Performance of Scotch pine varieties in the north-central  region. Silvae Genetica 15:101-110.
    55. Wright, J. W., W. A. Lemmien, J. N. Bright, M. W. Day, and  R. L. Sajdak. 1976. Scotch pine varieties for Christmas tree  and forest planting in Michigan. Michigan Agricultural  Experiment Station, Research Report 293. East Lansing. 15 p. 
    57. York, Harlan H., and E. W. Littlefield. 1942. The  naturalization of Scotch pine, northeastern Oneida County,  N.Y. Journal of Forestry 40:552-559.


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