The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • 22. Jones, E. W. 1945. The structure and reproduction of the virgin forest of the north temperate zone. New Phytologist. 44: 130-148. [10229]
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  • 26. Komarek, E. V. 1983. Fire as an anthropogenic factor in vegetation ecology. In: Holzner, W.; Werger, M. J. A.; Ikusima, I., eds. Man's impact on vegetation. Boston, MA: Dr W. Junk Publishers: 77-82. [15273]
  • 27. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380]
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  • 3. Braathe, Peder. 1974. Prescribed burning in Norway--effects on soil and regeneration. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1973 March 22-23; Tallahassee, FL. No. 13. Tallahassee, FL: 211-222. [18976]
  • 30. Kurtz, W. B.; Thurman, S. E.; Monson, M. J.; Garrett, H. E. 1991. The use of agroforestry to control erosion--financial aspects. Forestry Chronicle. 67(3): 254-257. [21865]
  • 32. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 33. Marrs, R. H.; Hicks, M. J. 1986. Study of vegetation change at Lakenheath Warren: a re-examination of A. S. Watt's theories of bracken dynamics in relation to succession and vegetation management. Journal of Applied Ecology. 23: 1029-1046. [9969]
  • 34. Niemela, P.; Danell, K. 1988. Comparison of moose browsing on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (P. contorta). Journal of Applied Ecology. 25: 761-775. [7915]
  • 35. Nieppola, Jari. 1992. Long-term vegetation changes in stands of Pinus sylvestris in southern Finland. Journal of Vegetation Science. 3: 475-484. [21845]
  • 36. Pryor, L. D. 1940. The effect of fire on exotic conifers: Some notes on the effect of fire on exotic conifers in the Australian capital territory. Australian Forestry. 5: 37-38. [11391]
  • 38. Read, Ralph A. 1964. Tree windbreaks for the Central Great Plains. Agric. Handb. 250. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [2897]
  • 39. Ruby, J. L.; Wright, J. W. 1976. A revised classification of geographic varieties in Scots pine. Silvae Genetica. 25: 5-6. [21872]
  • 4. Bradshaw, Richard H. W.: Zackrisson, Olle. 1990. A two thousand year history of a northern Swedish boreal forest stand. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1(4): 519-528. [12762]
  • 40. Russo, Vincent M. 1978. Development of Pinus seedlings grown from seed subjected to drying and wetting cycles. Forest Science. 24(4): 537-541. [21868]
  • 42. Skilling, Darroll D. 1990. Pinus sylvestris L. Scots pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 489-496. [13409]
  • 43. Skilling, Darroll D.; Nicholls, Thomas H. 1974. Brown spot needle disease-biology and control in Scots pine plantations. Research Paper NC-109. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 19 p. [10512]
  • 44. Steijlen, Ingeborg; Zackrisson, Olle. 1987. Long-term regeneration dynamics and successional trends in a northern Swedish coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 839-848. [16463]
  • 46. Sykes, J. M. 1987. Further observations on the recovery of vegetation in the Caledonian pinewood of Coille Creag-loch after fire. Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 45(2): 161-162. [6687]
  • 47. Tarasiuk, S.; Zwieniecki, M. 1990. Social-structure dynamics in uneven-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) regen. under canopy at the Kaliszki Preserve, Kampinoski Natl. Park. Forest Ecology and Management. 35: 277-289. [21874]
  • 48. Tolonen, Kimmo. 1983. The post-glacial fire record. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. Scope 18. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 21-44. [18503]
  • 49. Townsend, A. M. 1989. The search for salt tolerant trees. Arboricultural Journal. 13(1): 67-73. [13061]
  • 5. Brothers, Timothy S. 1988. Indiana surface-mine forests: historical development and composition of a human-created vegetation complex. Southeastern Geographer. 28(1): 19-33. [8787]
  • 50. Uemura, Shigeru; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Sakae. 1990. Effects of fire on the vegetation of Siberian taiga predominated by Larix dahurica. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 547-553. [11808]
  • 52. Uggla, Evald. 1959. Ecological effects of fire on north Swedish forests. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 54. Viro, P. J. 1969. Prescribed burning in forestry. Metsan tutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja. 67: 1-49. [22493]
  • 55. Viro, P. J. 1974. Effects of forest fire on soil. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 7-45. [18305]
  • 56. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 57. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 59. Zackrisson, Olle. 1980. Forest fire history: ecological significance and dating problems in the north Swedish boreal forest. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 120-125. [16052]
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  • 8. Carter, M. R. 1987. Seedling growth and mineral nutrition of Scots pine under acidic to calcareous soil conditions. Soil Science. 144(3): 175-180. [21875]
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  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. 2009. New trees (recent introductions to cultivation). Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
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  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
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    1. Dickson, Alex, and Fred E. Winch, Jr. 1970. Plantation  production of Christmas trees in New York. Extension  Bulletin 1204. New York State College of Agriculture,  Cornell University, Ithaca. 28 p.
    3. Dorworth, C. E. 1977. Grosbeaks damage to Scots pine.  American Christmas Tree Journal 21(4):17-19.
    5. Genys, John B. 1976. Growth rates of eighty Scotch pine  populations at fourteen years in Maryland. In Proceedings,  Twenty-third Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement  Conference. p. 108-120. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA.
    7. Heit, C. E. 1969. Propagating from seed. Part 19: Testing  and growing Scotch pine seeds from different sources.  American Nurseryman 129(7):10-15.
    9. Laitakarai, E. 1927. The root system of pine (Pinus  sylvestris): a morphological investigation. Acta  Forestales Fennica 33:306-380.
    11. Lemmien, W. A., and W. A. Botti. 1974. Scotch pine for  timber production in northwest lower Michigan. Michigan  Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 230. East  Lansing. 4 p.
    13. Mosher, D. G., and L. F. Wilson. 1977. Scotch pine  deterioration in Michigan caused by pine root weevil  complex. The Great Lakes Entomologist 10:169-172.
    15. Nicholls, T. H., and D. D. Skilling. 1974. Control of  Lophodermium needlecast disease in nurseries and Christmas  tree plantations. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NC-110. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 11 p.
    17. Paul, B. H. 1916. Reforesting methods and results of forest  planting in New York State. p. 645-692. Cornell University  Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 374. Ithaca.
    19. Read, Ralph A. 1971. Scots pine in eastern Nebraska: a  provenance study. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-78.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 13 p.
    21. Ruby, J. L., and J. W. Wright. 1976. A revised  classification of geographic varieties in Scots pine. Silvae  Genetica 25:149-232.
    23. Rudolph, V. J. 1981. Personal communication. Michigan State  University, East Lansing.
    25. Rudolph, V. J., and W. A. Lemmien. 1959. Growth of dominant  and codominant Scotch pine crop trees following thinning.  Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Quarterly Bulletin  41(4):758-761.
    27. Schreiner, E. J., E. W. Littlefield, and E. J. Eliason.  1962. Results of 1938 IUFRO Scotch pine provenance test in  New York. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper NE-166.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 23 p. 
    29. Skilling, D. D. 1981. Scleroderris canker-the situation in  1980. Journal of Forestry 79:95-97.
    31. Skilling, D. D., and T. H. Nicholls. 1974. Brown spot needle  disease-biology and control in Scotch pine plantations. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-109. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 19 p.
    33. Steinbeck, K. 1966. Site, height, and mineral content  relations of Scotch pine provenances. Silvae Genetica  15:42-50.
    35. Steven, H. M., and A. Carlisle. 1959. The native pinewoods  of Scotland. Oliver and Boyd Publications, Edinburgh. 368 p. 
    37. Stromquist, L. H. 1975. Propagation of Scots pine by  cuttings. Sveriges Skogsvardsforbunds Tidskrift  73(5):427-432.
    39. Trocke, J. K. 1966. Marketing Christmas trees. Michigan  State University, Extension Bulletin 535. East  Lansing. 13 p.
    41. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    43. Wallner, W. E., and J. W. Butcher. 1970. Christmas tree  insect management. Farm Sciences Series, Michigan State  University, Extension Bulletin 353. East Lansing. 30 p. 
    45. Wright, J. W., and W. 1. Bull. 1963. Geographic variation in  Scotch pine, results of a 3-year Michigan study. Silvae  Genetica 12:1-25.
    47. Wright, J. W., and L. F. Wilson. 1972. Genetic differences  in Scotch pine resistance to pine root collar weevil.  Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report  159. East Lansing. 5 p.
    49. Wright, J. W., W. A. Lemmien, and J. Bright. 1966. Early  flowering patterns in Scotch pine. Michigan Agricultural  Experiment Station, Quarterly Bulletin 49:189-199.
    51. Wright, J. W., L. F. Wilson, and W. K. Randall. 1967.  Differences among Scotch pine varieties in susceptibility to  European sawfly. Forest Science 13(2):175-181.
    53. Wright, J. W., S. S. Pauley, R. B. Polk, and others. 1966.  Performance of Scotch pine varieties in the north-central  region. Silvae Genetica 15:101-110.
    55. Wright, J. W., W. A. Lemmien, J. N. Bright, M. W. Day, and  R. L. Sajdak. 1976. Scotch pine varieties for Christmas tree  and forest planting in Michigan. Michigan Agricultural  Experiment Station, Research Report 293. East Lansing. 15 p. 
    57. York, Harlan H., and E. W. Littlefield. 1942. The  naturalization of Scotch pine, northeastern Oneida County,  N.Y. Journal of Forestry 40:552-559.


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