The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Carrière. 1867. In: Traité Gén. Conif., ed. 2, 1: 250.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Traité général des conifères 250. 1867. (Traité Gén. Conif. (ed. 2))
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Agee, James K. 1983. Fuel weights of understory conifers in southern  Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13(4):648-656.
    3. Agee, James K., and Jane Kertis. 1987. Forest types of the North  Cascades National Park Service complex, Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 65(7):1520-1530.
    5. Agee, James K., and Larry Smith. 1984. Subalpine tree reestablishment  after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecology 65(3):810-819. 
    7. Arnott, J. T., and D. E. Macey. 1985. Effect of supplemental light  intensity on white spruce, Engelmann spruce, and mountain hemlock  seedlings grown under an extended photoperiod. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 15(2):295-300.
    9. Ballard, T. M., and M. G. Dosskey. 1985. Needle water potential and  soil-to-foliage flow resistance during soil drying: a comparison of  Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and mountain hemlock. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 15(l):185-188.
    11. Bell, J. F., D. D. Marshall, and G. P. Johnson. 1981. Tarif tables  for mountain hemlock. Oregon State University School of Forestry,  Research Bulletin 35. Corvallis. 46 p.
    13. Boone, Richard D., Phillip Sollins, and Kermit Cromack, Jr. 1988.  Stand and soil changes along a mountain hemlock death and regrowth  sequence. Ecology 69(3):714-722.
    15. Brockway, Dale G., Christopher Topik, Miles A. Hemstrom, and William  H. Emmingham. 1983. Plant association and management guide for the  Pacific silver fir zone: Gifford Pinchot National Forest. USDA Forest  Service, R6-Ecol-130a-1983. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 122  p.
    17. Brooke, Robert C., E. G. Peterson, and V. J. Krajina. 1970. The  subalpine mountain hemlock zone. In Ecology of western North America.  vol. 2. p. 147-349. V. J. Krajina, ed. University of British Columbia  Department of Botany, Vancouver.
    19. Clausen, Jens. 1965. Population studies of alpine and subalpine races  of conifers and willows in the California high Sierra Nevada. Evolution  19(l):56-68.
    21. Dahms, Walter G., and Jerry F. Franklin. 1965. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga  mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.). In Silvics of forest trees of  the United States. p. 712-716. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    23. Daubenmire, R., and Jean B. Daubenmire. 1968. Forest vegetation of  eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Technical Bulletin 60. Washington  Agricultural Experiment Station, Washington State University, Pullman.  104 p.
    25. Duffield, John W. 1950. Book review, Sur Quatre Hybrides de Genres  Chez les Abietinees (On four intergenus hybrids in the Abietineae), by  Mine. Van Campo-Duplan and H. Gaussen. Journal of Forestry 48(6):440. 
    27. Ebell, L. F., and R. L. Schmidt. 1964. Meteorological factors  affecting conifer pollen dispersal on Vancouver Island. Publication  1036. Department of Forestry, Ottawa, ON. 29 p.
    29. Eis, S., and D. Craigdallie. 1983. Mountain hemlock. In Reproduction  of conifers. A handbook for cone crop assessment. Forestry Technical  Report 31. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service. 38 p. [Place  of publication not given]
    31. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    33. Farjon, Aljos. 1988. Taxonomic notes on Pinaceae I. Proceedings of  the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C:  Biological and Medical Sciences 91(l):31- 42.
    35. Filip, Gregory M., and Craig L. Schmidt. 1979. Susceptibility of  native conifers to laminated root rot east of the Cascade Range in  Oregon and Washington. Forest Science 25(2):261-265.
    37. Franklin, Jerry F. 1962. Mountain hemlock: a bibliography with  abstracts. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper 51. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 50 p.
    39. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
    41. Franklin, Jerry F., and Clark E. Smith. 1974. Seeding habits of upper  slope tree species. II. Dispersal of a mountain hemlock seed crop on a  clearcut. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PNW-214. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 9 p.
    43. Franklin, Jerry F., Richard Carkin, and Jack Booth. 1974. Seeding  habits of upper-slope tree species. 1. A 12-year record of cone  production. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PNW-213. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 12 p.
    45. Franklin, Jerry F., William H. Moir, George W. Douglas, and Curt  Wiberg. 1971. Invasion of subalpine meadows by trees in the Cascade  Range, Washington and Oregon. Arctic and Alpine Research 3(3):215-224. 
    47. Franklin, Jerry F., Frederick J. Swanson, Mark E. Harmon, David A.  Perry, and others. In press. Effects of global climatic change on  forests in northwestern North America. In The consequences of  the greenhouse effect for biological diversity. Yale University Press,  New Haven, CT.
    49. Gholz, Henry L. 1982. Environmental limits on above-ground net  primary production, leaf area, and biomass in vegetation zones of the  Pacific Northwest. Ecology 63(2):469-481.
    51. Gholz, H. L., C. C. Grier, A. G. Campbell, and A. T. Brown. 1979.  Equations for estimating biomass and leaf area of plants in the Pacific  Northwest. Oregon State University, Forestry Research Laboratory,  Research Paper 41. Corvallis. 39 p.
    53. Graumlich, L. J., and L. B. Brubaker. 1986. Reconstruction of annual  temperature (1950-1979) for Longmire, Washington, derived from tree  rings. Quaternary Research 25(2):223-234.
    55. Graumlich, Lisa J., Linda B. Brubaker, and Charles C. Grier. 1989.  Long-term trends in forest net primary productivity: Cascade Mountains,  Washington. Ecology 70(2):405-410.
    57. Grier, Charles C. 1988. Foliage loss due to snow, wind, and winter  drying damage: its effects on leaf biomass of some western  conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18(9):1097-1102. 
    59. Grier, C. C., Kristiina A. Vogt, Katherine M. Lee, and R. 0. Teskey.  1985. Factors affecting root production in subalpine forests of the  northwestern United States. In Establishment and tending of  subalpine forest: research and management. H. Turner and W.  Tranquillini, eds. Berichte, Eidgenossische Anstalt für das  Forstliche Versuchswesen, Switzerland 270:143-149.
    61. Griffin, James R., and William B. Critchfield. 1972. The distribution  of forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  PSW-82. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley,  CA. 114 p.
    63. Haack, Paul M. 1963. Volume tables for hemlock and Sitka spruce on  the Chugach National Forest, Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  NOR-4. Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Juneau, AK. 4 p.
    65. Habeck, James R. 1967. Mountain hemlock communities in western  Montana. Northwest Science 41(4):169-177.
    67. Harestad, Alton Sidney. 1980. Seasonal movement of black-tailed deer  on northern Vancouver Island. Dissertation Abstracts International B.  40(11):5088-5089.
    69. Harris, Arland S., and Wilbur A. Farr. 1974. The forest ecosystem of  southeast Alaska. 7. Forest ecology and timber management. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report PNW-25. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 109 p.
    71. Hawksworth, Frank G., and Delbert Wiens. 1972. Biology and  classification of the dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 401. Washington, DC. 234  p.
    73. Heikkinen, Olavi. 1985. Relationships between tree growth and climate  in the subalpine Cascade Range of Washington, U.S.A. Annales Botanici  Fennici 22(l):1-14.
    75. Hemstrom, Miles A., Sheila E. Logan, and Warren Pavlat. 1987. Plant  association and management guide, Willamette National Forest. USDA  Forest Service. R6-Ecol 257-B-86. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland,  OR. 312 p.
    77. Herman, Francis R., and Jerry F. Franklin. 1976. Errors from  application of western hemlock site curves to mountain hemlock. USDA  Forest Service, Research Note PNW-276. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 6 p.
    79. Hibbs, David E. 1981. Leader growth and the architecture of three  North American hemlocks. Canadian Journal of Botany 59(4):476-480.
    81. Hinkley, Thomas M., Hiromi Imoto, Katharine Lee, Susan Lacker, and  others. 1984. Impact of tephra deposition on growth in conifers: the  year of the eruption. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14(5):731-739. 
    83. Hopkins, William E. 1979. Plant associations of South Chiloquin and  Klamath Ranger Districts, Winema National Forest. USDA Forest Service,  R6-Ecol-79-005. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 96 p.
    85. Johnson, Gregory P. 1980. Site index equations for mountain hemlock  on three habitat types in the central Oregon Cascades. Thesis (M.S.).  Oregon State University, Corvallis. 56 p.
    87. Kandya, A. K., and K. Ogino. 1986. Reserve dry weight of seed: a  significant factor governing the germination potential of seeds in some  conifers. Journal of Tropical Forestry 2(l):21-26.
    89. Klinka, K., F. C. Nuszdorfer, and L. Skoda. 1979. Biogeoclimatic  units of central and southern Vancouver Island. Province of British  Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Vancouver, BC. 120 p.
    91. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of forest trees in British Columbia.  In Ecology of western North America. vol. 2. p. 1-147. V. J.  Krajina, ed. University of British Columbia, Department of Biology.  Vancouver, BC.
    93. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees  (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375 p.
    95. Lowery, Robert Franklin. 1972. Ecology of subalpine zone tree clumps  in the north Cascade mountains of Washington. Thesis (Ph.D.), University  of Washington, Seattle. 137 p.
    97. McCauley, Kevin J., and S. A. Cook. 1980. Phellinus weirii infestation  of two mountain hemlock forests in the Oregon Cascades. Forest Science  26(l):23-29.
    99. Mathiasen, Robert L., and Frank G. Hawksworth. 1988. Dwarf  mistletoes on western white pine and whitebark pine in northern  California and southern Oregon. Forest Science 34(2):429-440.
    101. Matson, Pamela A., and Richard Boone. 1984. Natural disturbance and  nitrogen mineralization: wave form dieback of mountain hemlock in the  Oregon Cascades. Ecology 65(5):1511-1516.
    103. Matson, Pamela A., and Richard H. Waring. 1984. Effects of nutrient  and light limitation on mountain hemlock: susceptibility to laminated  root rot. Ecology 65(5):1517-1524.
    105. Meagher, Michael D. 1975. Studies of variation in hemlock (Tsuga)  populations and individuals from southern British Columbia. Thesis  (Ph.D.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 381 p.
    107. Means, Joseph E., Mary H. Campbell, and Gregory P. Johnson. 1988.  Preliminary height-growth and site-index curves for mountain hemlock.  FIR Report 10(l):8-9.
    109. Minors, Don. 1979. Comparative autecological characteristics of  northwestern tree species: a literature review. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-87. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 72 p.
    111. Minors, Don, and Michael E. Dubrasich. 1981. Regeneration after  clearcutting of subalpine stands near Windigo Pass, Oregon. Journal of  Forestry 79(9):619-621.
    113. Munz, Philip A., and David D. Keck. 1959. A California flora with  supplement (1968). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1681  p., Supplement, 224 p.
    115. Owens, John N. 1984. Bud development in mountain hemlock (Tsuga  mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.). II. Cone-bud differentiation and  predormancy development. Canadian Journal of Botany 62(3):484-494.
    117. Owens, John N., and Margaret Diane Blake. 1983. Pollen morphology  and development of the pollination mechanism in Tsuga heterophylla  and T. mertensiana. Canadian Journal of Botany  61(12):3041-3048.
    119. Owens, John N., and Marje Molder. 1984. The reproductive cycles of  western and mountain hemlock. British Columbia Ministry of Forests,  Vancouver. 34 p.
    121. Owens, John N., and Marje Molder. 1975. Sexual reproduction of  mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Canadian Journal of Botany  53(17):1811-1826.
    123. Parsons, David J. 1972. The southern extensions of Tsuga  mertensiana (mountain hemlock) in the Sierra Nevada. Madroño  21(8):536-539.
    125. Pfister, Robert D., Bernard L. Kovalchik, Steven F. Arno, and  Richard C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report INT-34. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 p.
    127. Rundel, Philip W., David J. Parsons, and Donald J. Gordon. 1977.  Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade  Ranges. In Terrestrial vegetation of California. p. 559-599.  Michael G. Barbour and Jack Major, eds. John Wiley, New York.
    129. Ruth, Robert H. 1974. Tsuga (Endl.) Carr. Hemlock. In  Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 819-827. C. S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    131. Schuller, S. Reid. 1978. Vegetation ecology of selected mountain  hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) communities along the eastern High  Cascades, Oregon. Thesis (M.S.), Oregon State University, Corvallis. 79  p.
    133. Seidel, K. W. 1979. Regeneration in mixed conifer clearcuts in the  Cascade Range and Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper PNW-248. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Portland, OR. 24 p.
    135. Seidel, K. W. 1985. Growth response of suppressed true fir and  mountain hemlock after release. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report PNW-344. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 22 p.
    137. Seidel, K. W., and R. Cooley. 1974. Natural reproduction of grand  fir and mountain hemlock after shelterwood cutting in central Oregon.  USDA Forest Service, Research Note PNW-229. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 10 p.
    139. Shovel, Ketrina S., and K. L. Alvin. 1987. Patterns of cuticular  organization in the hybrid Tsuga x jeffreyi (Henry) Henry and  its putative parents. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society  94(3):373-383.
    141. Standish, J. T., G. H. Manning, and J. P. Demaerschalk. 1985.  Development of biomass equations for British Columbia tree species.  Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Information  Report BC-X-264. Victoria, BC. 48 p.
    143. Swedberg, Kenneth C. 1973. A transition coniferous forest in the  Cascade mountains of northern Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist  89(l):1-25.
    145. Taylor, Dean W. 1981. Personal communication. Soquel, California. 
    147. Taylor, Ronald J. 1972. The relationship and origin of Tsuga  heterophylla and Tsuga mertensiana based on phytochemical  and morphological interpretations. American Journal of Botany  59(2):149-157.
    149. Taylor, Ronald J., and David C. Shaw. 1983. Allelopathic effects of  Engelmann spruce bark stilbenes and tannin-stilbene combinations on seed  germination and seedling growth of selected conifers. Canadian Journal  of Botany 61(l):279-289.
    151. Taylor, Roy L., and Sylvia Taylor. 1980. Tsuga mertensiana in  British Columbia. Davidsonia 11(4):78-84.
    153. Topik, Christopher. 1982. Forest floor accumulation and  decomposition in the western Cascades of Oregon. Thesis (Ph.D.),  University of Oregon, Eugene. 172 p.
    155. U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. 1954. Climatic summary  of the United States: Supplement for 1931 through 1952. Climatography of  the United States 11-4, California. Washing-ton, DC.
    157. U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. 1964. Decennial census  of United States climate-climatic summary of the United States:  Supplement for 1951 through 1960-Idaho. Climatography of the United  States 86-8. Washington, DC.
    159. U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. 1965. Decennial census  of United States climate-climatic summary of the United States:  Supplement for 1951 through 1960-Alaska. Climatography of the United  States 86-43. Washington, DC.
    161. van Hees, Willem W. S. 1988. Timber productivity of seven forest  ecosystems in Southeastern Alaska. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report PNW-391. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland,  OR. 10 p.
    163. Viereck, Leslie A., and C. T. Dyrness. 1980. A preliminary  classification system for vegetation of Alaska. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-106. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 38 p.
    165. Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and  shrubs. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 410.  Washington, DC. 265 p.
    167. Vogt, Kristiina A., Charles C. Grier, Calvin E. Meier, and Robert L.  Edmonds. 1982. Mycorrhizal role in net primary production and nutrient  cycling in Abies amabilis ecosystems in western Washington.  Ecology 63(2):370-380.
    169. Vogt, K. A., R. Dahlgren, F. Ugolini, D. Zabowski, E. E. Moore, and  R. Zasoski. 1987. Aluminum, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Cu, Zn and P in above-  and below-ground biomass. I. Abies amabilis and Tsuga  mertensiana. Biogeochemistry 4:277-294.
    171. Walsh, Stephen J. 1980. Coniferous tree species mapping using  Landsat data. Remote Sensing of Environment 9(l): 1126.
    173. Waring, R. H., P. E. Schroeder, and R. Owen. 1982. Application of  the pipe model theory to predict canopy leaf area. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 12(3):556-560.
    175. Waring, R. H., W. H. Emmingham, H. L. Gholz, and C. C. Grier. 1978.  Variation in maximum leaf areas of coniferous forests in Oregon and its  ecological significance. Forest Science 24(l):131-140.
    177. Waring, Richard H., Kermit Cromack, Jr., Pamela A. Matson, Richard  D. Boone, and Susan G. Stafford. 1987. Responses to pathogen-induced  disturbance: decomposition, nutrient availability, and tree vigour.  Forestry 60(2):219-227.
    179. Williams, Carroll B., and C. T. Dyrness. 1967. Some characteristics  of forest floors and soils under true fir-hemlock stands in the Cascade  Range. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-37. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 19 p.
    181. Zobel, Donald B., and Joseph A. Antos. 1982. Adventitious rooting of  eight conifers into a volcanic tephra deposit. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 12(3):717-719.


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