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Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Taxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc.:
Japan (Asia)
Russian Federation (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Heilongjiang, E Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi [Japan, Korea, E Russia (Kurile Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin)].
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 20 m tall; trunk to 1-1.5 m d.b.h.; bark reddish brown, with shallow fissures; winter bud scales persistent at base of branchlets, overlapping, ridged dorsally, tapered apically. Leafy branchlets "V"-shaped in cross section in living state. Leaves borne at 75-95° to branchlet axis, subsessile; blade dark green and glossy adaxially, linear, almost equally wide throughout length, slightly falcate, 1-2.5(-4) cm × 2.5-3 mm, midvein not papillate abaxially, stomatal bands tawny yellow, 0.6-0.7 mm wide, at least 2 × as wide as marginal bands, marginal bands ca. 0.2 mm wide, base cuneate, ± asymmetric, margin revolute, apex usually shortly mucronate, mucro 0.1-0.3 mm. Pollen cones ovoid or subglobose, ca. 3.5 mm; peduncle 0.5-1 mm; microsporophylls 9-14, each with 5-8 pollen sacs. Aril purplish red when ripe, lustrous. Seed ovoid or trigonous-ovoid, ca. 6 × 4-4.5 mm, distally with 3 or 4 or more obtuse ridges, apex with small, obtuse mucro; hilum usually triangular or quadrangular. Pollination spring, seed maturity autumn.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Taxus baccata Linnaeus subsp. cuspidata (Siebold & Zuccarini) Pilger; T. baccata subsp. cuspidata var. latifolia Pilger; T. baccata var. microcarpa Trautvetter; T. caespitosa Nakai; T. cuspidata var. latifolia (Pilger) Nakai; T. cuspidata var. microcarpa (Trautvetter) Kolesnikov.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Taxus cuspidata occurs sparsely in mixed conifer and conifer-deciduous broad-leaved forests in lowland to lower montane altitudes from 100 m to 1,600 m a.s.l. In NE China it occurs in conifer forest with Abies nephrolepis, Picea jezoensis, Pinus koraiensis, and Larix gmelinii var. olgensis, in Sakhalin Island and northern Japan with Abies sachalinensis, Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis, Larix kaempferi, and various angiosperm trees e.g. Acer spp., Betula spp., Populus maximowiczii, Juglans mandshurica, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus spp., and Kalopanax ricinifolium. Further south in Japan it is common in the understorey of woods with Acer spp., Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Tilia japonica, Juglans ailanthifolia, Quercus mongolica var. grossesserata, and many other species of trees. It grows on a variety of soils derived from granitic, schistose or serpentine base rocks. The variety nana is mostly found growing on rocky sea coasts but may also occur on exposed rock outcrops in the interior.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Acid soils in cold, humid places; 500-1000 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Taxus cuspidata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Taxus cuspidata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Katsuki, T. & Luscombe, D

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Exploitation of this species has only affected subpopulations in certain parts of its extensive range, hence it is assumed that population reduction has been limited and has not had sufficient impact to warrant any assessment other than Least Concern.
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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Population

Population
The overall population trend is likely to be stable although there may have been some decline in areas where clear-felling of forests has occurred..

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species has been listed on CITES Appendix II in connection with the exploitation of its foliage for the extraction of chemicals active as an anti-cancer drug. This exploitation was localized and has not resulted in significant decline throughout the wide range of this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has been listed on CITES Appendix II and is also recorded from various protected areas in most parts of its range.
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Wikipedia

Taxus cuspidata

Taxus cuspidata (Japanese Yew or Spreading Yew) is a member of the genus Taxus, native to Japan, Korea, northeast China and the extreme southeast of Russia.

It is an evergreen tree or large shrub growing to 10–18 m tall, with a trunk up to 60 cm diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, flat, dark green, 1–3 cm long and 2–3 mm broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flattish rows either side of the stem except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious.

The seed cones are highly modified, each cone containing a single seed 4–8 mm long partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril, 8–12 mm long and wide and open at the end. The arils are mature 6–9 months after pollination. Individual trees from Sikhote-Alin are known to have been 1,000 years old.[1]

Uses[edit source | edit]

It is widely grown in eastern Asia and eastern North America as an ornamental plant.

The entire yew bush is toxic enough to kill a horse, except for the fleshy berry surrounding the seed.[1] For dogs, 2/5ths of an oz per 10 pounds of body weight is lethal. It is therefore advisable to keep domestic animals away from the plant.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Yew

Further reading[edit source | edit]

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Notes

Comments

Only var. cuspidata, described here, occurs in China; var. nana Rehder occurs in Japan. 

 The wood used in building construction, furniture manufacture, and as a carving material. The heartwood yields a red dye, oil is extracted from the seeds, and a compound used to treat diabetes is extracted from the wood, bark, leaves, and roots.

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