Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Bungarus fasciatus occurs from India north of 17º latitude across southern China to Vietnam, and southward to Sundaland (Smith 1943; Whitaker and Captain 2004; David and Vogel 1996). It has a wide elevational range, having been recorded from 20 to 2,300 m asl.
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Continent: Asia
Distribution: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam; Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia,  S China (incl. Hong Kong, Hainan), NE India (Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh (Chessa – Papum Pare district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Andhra Pradesh), Bhutan, Nepal,  Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo) Laos, Macau; Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia); Singapore; Thailand, Vietnam  
Type locality: “Bengal, India”; “Mansoor Cottah, Bengal” (fide RUSSELL 1796), at present a seaport ca. 24 km south of Ganjam, Orissa State, SE India.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Bungarus fasciatus is nocturnal and terrestrial, and is known from varied habitats ranging from dry and moist deciduous forest, broadleaf forest and tropical scrub to human habitations and other disturbed or degraded habitats. It prefers open areas close to water. A clutch contains 4-14 eggs, and females stay with the eggs until they hatch.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 13.2 years (captivity)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bungarus fasciatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCGTTGACTATTTTCAACCAATCATAAAGATATTGGAACCTTGTACCTACTGTTTGGGGCCTGGTCAGGTTTAATTGGAGCCTGCCTA---AGTATTCTAATACGAATAGAACTAACCCAACCTGGGTCACTTCTAGGTAGC---GATCAAATCTTTAACGTGTTAGTTACCGCCCATGCATTTATCATAATCTTCTTTATAGTTATACCTATTATAATTGGCGGCTTTGGCAACTGACTTATCCCATTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCCTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTCTGACTACTCCCACCAGCACTTCTTCTTCTCCTATCATCTTCCTATGTAGAAGCTGGAGCCGGCACAGGCTGAACAGTTTATCCGCCCCTATCGGGTAACTTAGTTCATTCAGGCCCATCAGTAGATCTA---GCTATTTTCTCTCTACACCTAGCAGGAGCTTCTTCCATCCTAGGAGCAATCAACTTTATTACAACATGTATTAACATAAAACCTAAATCAATACCAATATTTAATATTCCATTATTTGTATGATCAGTCTTAATCACTGCTATTATACTTTTACTAGCCCTACCAGTCCTAGCCGCT---GCAATCACTATACTTCTAACTGACCGTAATCTAAACACATCCTTCTTTGATCCTTGCGGAGGCGGAGACCCAGTCCTATTTCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGACATCCAGAAGTTTATATCCTAATTTTACCAGGGTTCGGTATTGTATCAAGTATTATTACCTTCTATACAGGAAAAAAA---AACACTTTCGGCTATACAAGTATAATCTGAGCAATAATATCTATTGCAATCTTAGGCTTTGTTGTATGAGCCCATCATATATTCACTGTGGGTTTAGATATTGATAGCCGAGCTTATTTCACCGCAGCAATTATAATTATTGCTATTCCAACCGGAATCAAAGTCTTTGGTTGATTA---GCCACCTTAACTGGAGGC---CAAATTAAATGACAAACCCCTATTTACTGAGCCCTTGGCTTTATCTTTCTATTTACCGTTGGCGGTATAACAGGAATCATTCTAGCAAATTCATCTCTAGACATTGTTCTTCATGACACTTACTATGTCGTAGCACATTTTCACTATGTC---CTTTCAATAGGAGCTGTATTTGCTATTATAGGCGGCTTAACTCATTGATTCCCATTATTCACCGGATATACACTAAACCAAACCTTAACAAAAACTCAATTCTGAGTAATATTTACAGGGGTTAACATAACATTCTTTCCACAACACTTTCTAGGACTCTCTGGTATACCACGT---CGTTATTCTGATTTTCCAGATGCCTTCACA---CTATGAAATACTATTTCATCAATTGGATCAACTATCTCCTTAATCGCAGTACTTATGTCCATGTTCATTGTATGAGAAGCCATGGCCTACAAACGAGAACTA------CAAGTCCCATTAGGAAAAAAAACT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bungarus fasciatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Stuart, B., Nguyen, T.Q., Thy, N., Vogel, G., Wogan, G., Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B., Das, A., Thakur, S. & Mohapatra, P.

Reviewer/s
Bowles, P., Achyuthan, N.S., Deepak, V., Kulkarni, N.U., Vyas, R., Jose, J. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large overall population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
This is a widespread but never abundant species, with no evidence of widespread population declines. In Vietnam, however, it is considered to have declined by more than 50% over 10 years as a result of overharvesting (Dang et al. 2007), although it is still observed regularly (Q.T. Nguyen pers. comm. August 2011).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is persecuted by people, and there is mortality through roadkill. There may be a localized threat from overharvesting, although there is little evidence of decline in most of this snake's range.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In India, the banded krait is listed on Schedule IV of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. It is a protected species in Vietnam, where the national Red Data Book lists it as Endangered (Dang et al. 2007). This widespread snake has been reported from many protected areas. Trade in this species requires investigation, particularly in areas adjacent to and exporting this snake to China, in order to determine whether this activity is significant and requires regulation.
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Wikipedia

Banded krait

The banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus) is a species of elapid snake found on the Indian Subcontinent and in Southeast Asia.[1] It is one of the largest kraits, with a maximum length up to 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in).[2]

Description[edit]

B. fasciatus is easily identified by its alternate black and yellow crossbands, its triangular body cross section, and the marked vertebral ridge consisting of enlarged vertebral shields along its body. The head is broad and depressed. The eyes are black. It has arrowhead-like yellow markings on its otherwise black head and has yellow lips, lores, chin, and throat.[3]

The longest banded krait measured was 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in) long, but normally the length encountered is 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in).[2]

The snake has an entire anal plate and single subcaudals. The tail is small and ends like a fingertip, generally being one-tenth the length of the snake.[4]

Geographic range[edit]

The banded krait occurs in the whole of the Indo-Chinese subregion, the Malaysian peninsula and archipelago, and southern China.[2] The species is common in Assam and Tripura of India and Bangladesh, but becomes progressively uncommon westwards in India.[3]

It has been recorded eastwards from central India through Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and southern China (including Hong Kong), Philippines to Malaysia and the main Indonesian islands of Borneo (Java and Sumatra), as well as Singapore.

In India, it has been recorded from Andhra Pradesh,[5] Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,[6] Northeast India, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.[2] It has recently been recorded from Hassan District in Karnataka, also.[7]

Habitat[edit]

Banded kraits may be seen in a variety of habitats, ranging from forests to agricultural lands. They inhabit termite mounds and rodent holes close to water, and often live near human settlement, especially villages, because of their supply of rodents and water. They prefer the open plains of the countryside.

The banded krait has been found in Myanmar up to an altitude of 5000 feet.[2]

Behaviour[edit]

Banded kraits are shy, not typically seen, and are mainly nocturnal. When harassed, they will usually hide their heads under their coils, and do not generally attempt to bite,[1] though at night they are much more active and widely considered to be more dangerous then.

During the day, they lie up in grass, pits, or drains. The snakes are lethargic and sluggish even under provocation. They are most commonly seen in the rains.[3]

Food[edit]

The banded krait feeds mainly on other snakes, but is also known to eat fish, frogs, skinks, and snake eggs. Among the snakes taken by banded kraits are:[3] -

The prey is swallowed head first, after it has been rendered inactive by the venom.[3]

Breeding habits[edit]

Little is known of its breeding habits. In Myanmar, a female has been dug out while incubating a clutch of eight eggs, four of which hatched in May. Young have been recorded to measure 298 to 311 mm on hatching. The snake is believed to become adult in the third year of its life, at an approximate length of 914 mm.[8]

Venom[edit]

The venom of the banded krait mainly contains neurotoxins (pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins) with LD50 values of 2.4 mg/kg[9]—3.6 mg/kg[10][11] SC, 1.289 mg/kg IV and 1.55 mg/kg IP.[10][11] The quantity of venom delivered averages out at 20–114 mg.[10] Engelmann and Obst (1981) list the venom yield at 114 mg (dry weight).[12] The major clinical effects caused by the venom of this species include vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, etc. Severe envenomation can lead to respiratory failure and death may occur due to suffocation.[13] Few authenticated records of human beings having been bitten are available.

A clinical toxicology study gives an untreated mortality rate of 1—10%, which may be because contact with humans is rare and when bites do occur, the rate of envenomation when biting defensively is thought to be very low.[1] Currently, a polyvalent antivenom developed by Alan Van Dyke is available in India.

Other information[edit]

Common names[edit]

  • Bengali শাখামুটি sankani, shankhamooti shaanp[3]
  • Hindi - ahiraaj saamp[4]
  • Indonesian - welang
  • Malayalam - vellikkattan
  • Marathi - patteri manyar
  • Oriya - rana [3]
  • Tamil - kattu viriyan (கட்டுவிரியன்), yennai viriyan, yettadi viriyan
  • Telugu - Katla Paamu or bangaru paamu meaning the golden snake: The scientific name of the genus is also derived from the Telugu word bangarum meaning "gold", referring to the yellow rings around its body.[3]
  • Thai - ngu sam liam, meaning the triangular snake[2]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Clinical Toxinology-Bungarus fasciatus". 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Smith, Malcolm A. Fauna of British India...Vol III - Serpentes, pages 411 to 413
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Daniels, J.C. (2002), Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians pages 134-135.
  4. ^ a b Boulenger, George A., (1890), The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Reptilia and Batrachia. page 388.
  5. ^ Srinivasulu, C; D. Venkateshwarlu & M. Seetharamaraju (26 June 2009). "Rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801) (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa 1 (6): 353–354. doi:10.11609/jott.o1986.353-4. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  6. ^ Khaire, NeelimKumar (2008) [2006]. Snakes of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. Pune: Indian Herpetological Society. p. 40. 
  7. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/240673/slithering-wonder-black-yellow.html
  8. ^ Evans, G.H. (1906):Breeding of the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus) in Burma. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 16:519-520 as mentioned in Daniels, J.C. (2002), Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians References, ser no 28, pg 219.
  9. ^ Venom and toxin research group. Snake of medical importance: Banded krait. Singapore. ISBN 9971-62-217-3. 
  10. ^ a b c "LD50". 
  11. ^ a b "LD50 menu". 
  12. ^ Engelmann, Wolf-Eberhard (1981). Snakes: Biology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. Leipzig; English version NY, USA: Leipzig Publishing; English version published by Exeter Books (1982). p. 51. ISBN 0-89673-110-3. 
  13. ^ Davidson, Terence. "IMMEDIATE FIRST AID for bites by Kraits". Snakebites First Aid. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 25 December 2011. 
  • Boulenger, George A., (1890), The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor and Francis, London.
  • Daniels, J.C. (2002), Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. BNHS. Oxford University Press. Mumbai.
  • Smith, Malcolm A. (1943), The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma including the whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region, Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol I - Loricata and Testudines, Vol II-Sauria, Vol III-Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London.
  • Whitaker, Romulus. (2002), Common Indian Snakes: A Field Guide. Macmillan India Limited, ISBN 0-333-90198-3.
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