Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species has been widely recorded from the Andaman Islands (India) in the west, through Myanmar, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, to Singapore in the east (Murphy 2007). It is probably also found in coastal Borneo and Sumatra (Indonesia) (J. Murphy pers. comm. 2009).
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Continent: Asia
Distribution: Burma (Myanmar), S Thailand,  Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra, Timor);  India (Andaman Islands);  W Malaysia (Malaya); Singapore  
Type locality: Singapore
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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Cantoria violacea
Catalog Number: USNM 5523
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: No Further Locality Data, Singapore
  • Holotype: Girard, C. 1857. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 9: 182.
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Ecology

Habitat

coastal
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in mangrove forests and on mudflats and may also be found in nearby freshwater environments (Rao et al. 1994). It is active at night. It is typically found in an intertidal burrow system such as crab holes and mud lobster mounds. This species appears to feed exclusively upon Alpheus shrimp (Murphy 2007).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Murphy, J. & Ghodke, S.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S.R., Elfes, C.T., Polidoro, B.A. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this spcies is considered fairly uncommon, it does have a wide distribution range and there are no major threats known. Therefore this species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is considered uncommon. This was only collected three times out of the 270 (1.1%) snakes collected from Pasar Ris Mangrove Park in Singapore (Karns et al. 2002). It is considered fairly common in the Andaman Islands (Ghodke and Andrews 2002). Murphy (2007) comments that the different reports on abundance are likely due to the species' association with the intertidal burrow system, a microhabitat that is "seldom explored by herpetologists".

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats to this species. Minor threats include dredging of habitat and possibly pollution.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place for this species, but it may occur in protected areas (e.g. Pasar Ris Mangrove Park, Singapore). Further research is needed on the distribution and population numbers of this species.
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Wikipedia

Cantoria violacea

Cantoria violacea, commonly known as Cantor's Water Snake, is a species of snake found in tropical Asia.

Contents

Description

Rostral broader than deep. Frontal a little longer than broad, shorter than its distance from the end of the snout, and shorter than the parietals. Eye between four shields: a preocular, a supraocular, a postocular, and a subocular. Loreal longer than deep. One elongate anterior temporal, in contact with the postocular and the subocular. 5 upper labials. 3 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin shields, which are not longer than the posterior chin shields.

Dorsal scales smooth, without apical pits, in 19 rows. Ventrals 266-278; anal divided; subcaudals 56-64.

Blackish above, with white transverse bands, which widen towards the abdomen. These bands are very narrow in the typical form, wider in the var. dayana, but constantly much narrower than the black interspaces. Some white spots on the head. Lower parts white, with greyish spots, which are continuations of the dorsal crossbands. These bands may form complete rings on the tail.[1]

Total length 3 feet: tail 4 inches.

Distribution

Myanmar, southern Thailand, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra, Timor), India (Andaman Islands), western Malaysia (Malaya), and Singapore.

Notes

  1. ^ Boulenger, G. A. 1890. Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Batrachia.

References

  • Boulenger, George A. 1890 The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp.
  • Frith,C.B. & Boswell,J. 1978 Cantor's Water Snake, Cantoria violaecea Girard, a vertebrate new to the fauna of Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. (Bangkok) 27: 187-189
  • Ghodke, Sameer and Harry V. Andrews 2002 Recent record of Cantoria violacea (Girard, 1857) from North and Middle Andaman Islands, India with a note on its bite. Hamadryad. 26 (2):371-373 [2001]
  • Girard,C. 1858 Descriptions of some new Reptiles, collected by the US. Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Third Part. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 9: 181-182 [1857]
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