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Hydrophis fasciatus is found in coastal waters of Myanmar to the Straits of Malacca; it is common along the east coast of India (said to be rare along the west coast but reported as far west as Karachi). This nocturnal species reportedly inhabits shallow coastal waters. Leviton et al. (2003) provide a technical description of this species: Head small, body long and slender anteriorly; scales on thickest part of body subquadrangular or hexagonal in shape, juxtaposed or slightly imbricate; 5-6 maxillary teeth behind fangs; 2 anterior temporals; body scales in 28-33 rows around the neck, 47-58 around midbody (increase in number of rows from neck to midbody 20-27); ventral scales 414-514 (average 460); anterior part of body including head and neck dark olive to black with pale oval yellowish spots on sides, sometimes connected as crossbars; posterior, grayish; below, whitish; dark rhomboidal spots may extend down the sides of the body and form complete annuli in young. Total length: males 1100 mm, females 990 mm; tail length males 100 mm, females 75 mm. Hydrophis fasciatus is so similar to H. atriceps that the two have been treated as subspecies of a single species.
de Silva et al. (2011) reported preliminary observations on the sex, reproductive status, and reproduction of six species of hydrophiine sea snakes (including Hydrophis fasciatus) collected as fishing bycatches in different coastal regions of Sri Lanka.