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The dangerously venomous Microcephalophis gracilis (formerly known as Hydrophis gracilis) is found in coastal waters of Myanmar and from the Persian Gulf east to India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Indonesia (Sumatra and Java), Australia, and Melanesia. These snakes are reported to inhabit deep turbid offshore waters. Leviton et al. (2003) provide a technical description of this species: Head small, body long and slender anteriorly; scales on thickest part of body juxtaposed; 5-6 maxillary teeth behind fangs; 17-21 scale rows around neck, 30-36 around thickest part of body (increase from neck to midbody 18-24); ventrals divided by a longitudinal fissure; prefrontal in contact with third upper labial; ventrals 220-287. Total length: males 950 mm, females 1025 mm; tail length: males 80 mm, females 95 mm. There is geographic variation in scale counts for this species—counts above are for M. gracilis inhabiting coastal waters of Myanmar and along the east coast of India,.
de Silva et al. (2011) reported preliminary observations on the sex, reproductive status and reproduction of six species of hydrophiine sea snakes (including M. gracilis) collected as fishing bycatches in different coastal regions of Sri Lanka