Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

"Scales in 17 to 19 :15:15 rows. Ventrals 240-254; subcaudals 84-104;anterior scales entire, others paired."
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Distribution

Northern India, east to southern People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong and Hainan; south throughout the Malay Peninsula, and east to western Indonesia and the Philippines.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

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Range Description

The King Cobra is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia, from Nepal (where it is found throughout the lowlands of the Therai region - Schleich and Kästle 2002) and India (from Uttarakhand in Western Himalayas to Eastern Himalayas, down south along the Eastern Ghats up to northern Andhra Pradesh, and in the Western Ghats south of Maharashtra) across southern China (including Hainan Island), southward to the Philippines (where it is widespread) and Indonesia east as far as Sulawesi and Bali (where there are recent records from Negara [R.P.H. Lilley pers. obs. 2011]; Smith 1943, Zhao and Adler 1993, David and Vogel 1996, Whitaker and Captain 2004), as well as the Malaysian territories of Sarawak and Sabah, and Brunei (where a recent record exists from Kuala Belalong Field Centre - J.M. Dehling unpubl. data), on the island of Borneo. It occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but is absent from Little Andaman and from the Mentawai Islands off Sumatra. It has a maximum recorded elevation of 2,000 m asl. (Smith 1943).
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"Western Ghats , North East India"
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Continent: Asia
Distribution: Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Cambodia, China (Fukien, Kwangtung, Hong Kong, Kwangsi, Hainan, Yunnan, SW Sichuan, SE Xizang = Tibet), India (Karnataka (Dandeli) [J.Kadapatti, pers. comm.]; Arunachal Pradesh (Miao - Changlang district, Itanagar – Papum Pare district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Sikkim, WEst Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andaman Islands), Nepal, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Borneo, Bangka, Bali, Mentawai Islands, Riau Islands), Singapore, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, W Malaysia (Pulau Tioman), Philippines (Balabac, Jolo, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay). Elevation up to 2000 m.  
Type locality: “Sunderbuns” (= Sunderbans, West Bengal, E India) and “jungle not far from Calcutta”.
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Physical Description

Morphology

The King Cobra's average size is 10-12 feet, but can reach 18 feet. The full grown King Cobra is yellow, green, brown, or black. There are usually yellowish or white cross-bars or chevrons on its body. The belly may be uniform in color or ornamented with bars. The throat is light yellow or cream-colored. The juveniles are jet-black, with yellow or white cross-bars on the body and tail and four similar cross-bars on the head. The King Cobra is regarded as a fierce and aggressive snake, and its length and size give it an awesome appearance.

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Ecology

Habitat

Near streams in dense or open forest, bamboo thickets, adjacent agricultural areas, and dense mangrove swamps.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in a variety of habitats, primarily in pristine forests, but it can also be found in degraded forest, mangrove swamps and even agricultural areas with remnants of woodland. It has also been found swimming in rivers in non-forested land and probably occurs in palm oil plantations (R. Inger pers. comm. 2010), however it is not yet clear whether oil palm plantations can support viable populations of this species (M. Auliya pers. comm. 2011). In India, this species has also been recorded from tea estates in the Western Ghats and Assam (Whitaker and Captain 2004). In Nepal this species is poorly-known, but has been reported primarily from undisturbed Sai forest and from dry high-altitude grasslands (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012). Females build nests of dead leaves and stay with the eggs until they hatch, which takes 70 days at 28²C (Whitaker and Captain 2004). Reproductive age in captivity has been estimated at 5-6 years, and this is here conservatively taken to be the generation length in the wild population, although true generation length is probably longer. One individual was reported to have a 6.3 km² home range (Bhaisare et al. 2010), indicating that the species is likely to occur in low population densities, although it is unknown whether this is natural or a result of the depletion of wild populations.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

Evergreen Forests
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Trophic Strategy

Ophiophagus hannah normally restricts its diet to cold-blooded animals, particularly other snakes. Some specimens develop a rigid diet of a single species of snake and will refuse any other type. The snakes eaten by the King Cobra are mostly the larger harmless species, such as Asian rat snakes, dhamans, and pythons up to about 10 feet in length.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Sex: male

Status: captivity:
17.1 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 22.5 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

King Cobras are oviparous and lay 21-40 eggs. The female pushes leaves and branches into a nest pile where the eggs are incubated by the elevated temperatures of decomposition. The female remains on top of the nest to guard the eggs, and the male also remains close by. During the brood care period, the king cobra tends to be very aggressive toward approaching humans. Breeding usually occurs from January through April. The eggs of the king cobra incubate during spring and summer, hatching in the fall.

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Pocket-like structures produce hissing sounds: king cobra
 

Pocket-like structures extending from the trachea of a king cobra help produce the snake's growl-like hisses by serving as low-frequency resonance chambers.

   
  "In 1991, studies conducted by Dr. Bruce Young of Hollins College, Virginia, with king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) suggest that although they have only vestigial ears, they are able to hear their characteristic, unusually deep, growl-like hisses. These are believed to be produced via pocket-like structures called diverticula extending from the trachea that seem to function as low-frequency resonance chambers. Clearly, there is still a lot to learn about the mechanisms and limits of snake vocalization, especially in view of the controversial claims that have been made for the abilities of certain species." (Shuker 2001:155)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ophiophagus hannah

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTCGTTGACTATTTTCAACTAATCACAAAGATATTGGAACACTATACCTTCTATTCGGTGCTTGGTCTGGCCTAGTCGGAGCATGCCTA---AGCATGCTCATGCGTATAGAACTAACCCAGCCCGGATCACTATTTGGCAGC---GACCAAATCTTTAACGTTCTAGTAACTGCCCACGCATTCATCATAATCTTCTTCATGGTTATACCTATTATGATTGGCGGCTTTGGTAACTGACTAATCCCCCTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCTTTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGATTACTACCCCCAGCATTACTCCTCCTTTTATCATCCTCCTATGTAGAAGCTGGTGCAGGCACAGGCTGAACAGTTTACCCGCCCCTATCGGGTAATCTAGTTCACTCAGGCCCATCAGTAGACCTA---GCCATTTTCTCACTGCATCTGGCAGGAGCCTCCTCCATCCTGGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACCACATGCATTAACATAAAACCTAAATCCATACCCATATTCAACATCCCCCTATTCGTATGATCAGTCATAATCACTGCCATCATACTCTTACTAGCCTTGCCAGTCCTAGCAGCT---GCAATTACCATACTCTTAACCGATCGTAATCTCAGCACATCCTTCTTCGACCCCTGCGGAGGAGGAGACCCTGTGCTATTCCAACACCTGTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTATATATCCTCATCCTCCCCGGATTCGGCATCGTATCTAGTATTATCACCTTCTACACCGGAAAAAAA---AACACCTTTGGCTACACAAGCATAATTTGAGCAATAATATCTATTGCAATCCTTGGATTTGTCGTATGAGCCCACCACATATTCACTGTAGGCCTAGACATTGACAGCCGCGCCTACTTTACCGCAGCAACAATAATTATTGCCATCCCAACAGGAATCAAAGTATTCGGCTGACTA---GCCACCCTAGCAGGAGGC---CAAATCAAATGAGAAACTCCAATTTATTGAGCCCTCGGTTTCATCTTCTTATTCACAGTTGGCGGTATAACGGGAATCATTCTAGCCAACTCATCACTAGATATTGTATTACACGACACTTACTATGTAGTAGCACATTTCCACTACGTT---CTATCTATAGGAGCTGTATTCGCCATTATAGGGGGATTAACCCACTGATTCCCACTATTTACAGGATATACACTAAACCAAACTCTGACAAAAACCCAATTCTGAGTAATATTTACCGGAGTAAACATAACATTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTATCGGGTATACCACGC---CGATACTCTGATTTCCCAGATGCCTTTGCC---TTATGAAACACCATTTCATCTATCGGATCAACAATCTCCTTAATCGCAGTACTTATATCTATATTTATTGTATGAGAAGCATTCTCATGTAAGCGAGAACAC---CTGCCCCCGCTAGGAAAAAAAACACAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ophiophagus hannah

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

King Cobras, as well as all snakes, are threatened from the destruction of their habitats, and by persecution by humans afraid of them

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2acd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Stuart, B., Wogan, G., Grismer, L., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R., Chan-Ard, T., Thy, N., Nguyen, T.Q., Srinivasulu, C. & Jelić, D.

Reviewer/s
Bowles, P. & Cox, N.A.

Contributor/s
Achyuthan, N.S., Aengals, A., Das, A., De Silva, R., Deepak, V., Dehling, M., Jose, J., Kulkarni, N.U., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Milligan, HT, Mohapatra, P., Powney, G., Sears, J., Shankar, G., Thakur, S., Wearn, O.R., Wilson, P., Wren, S., Zamin, T. & Zug, G.

Justification
Ophiophagus hannah has been assessed as Vulnerable. This species has a wide distribution range, however, it is not common in any area in which it occurs (with the apparent exception of Thailand, and there only in forested areas), is very rare in much of its range, and has experienced local population declines of over 80% over 10 years in parts of its range. Pressure on this species from both habitat loss and exploitation are high throughout this snake's range, and while no quantitative population data is available, it can be conservatively estimated that the population size has declined globally by at least 30% over an estimated three-generation period of 15-18 years. More detailed population monitoring in the more poorly-known parts of this snake's range may reveal that this is a conservative estimate.

History
  • 2010
    Vulnerable
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Population

Population
The snake remains common in good habitat in Thailand, where it is a protected species, with no evidence of declines (T. Chan-ard pers. comm. 2011). However, this species is not frequently encountered anywhere else within its wide range. A population reduction of 30% over 75 years in India has been inferred from the numerous threats to this species, including habitat destruction and harvesting of mature individuals from the wild. A study in northwestern India showed that even though the species has been recorded in diverse habitat types, analysis of observations revealed that the abundance of king cobras is strongly linked to the availability of undisturbed forests (Das et al. 2008), indicating that the destruction of natural forests is likely to be causing significant declines in this species' population. In Nepal, a "very sharp decline" in larger individuals has been observed, which is likely to affect the population's reproductive fitness as large female reptiles typically produce the majority of offspring that survive to reproductive age (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012). Local reports indicate that very large individuals can no longer be found in the Chitwan area of Nepal (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012). In Viet Nam, the national Red Data Book estimates that this species has declined by more than 80% over 10 years as a result of habitat loss and overharvesting for the leather trade (Dang et al. 2007). The surviving population of this snake in Viet Nam may be very small (Q.T. Nguyen pers comm. 2011), as it is encountered more rarely in forest surveys than in the past. The species is rarely seen in Cambodia; T. Neang (pers. comm. 2011) reports as few as three sightings in this country over ten years of surveys. Similarly, only three or four have been recorded in twelve years of recent surveys in Myanmar (G. Wogan pers. comm. 2011). It is very rare in Indonesia based on data from trade, where it is very much less frequently seen than species of Naja (M. Auliya pers. comm. 2011). The wild population in China was considered to be “very low” in the 1990s (Zhou and Jiang 2004), which very probably reflects the impact of exploitation and trade of this snake in China for medicinal purposes. The snake is considered to have declined by over 50% over ten years in this country as a result of exploitation for both subsistence and regional trade (Wang and Xie 2009). Population sizes in Peninsular Malaysia are reportedly small (L. Grismer pers. comm. 2011). Very little information is available on the status of the king cobra in Bali, where it was first reported by de Haas (1950). Presently, subpopulations appear to be small and fragmented, with the snake only known definitively from Negara in the island's west and from Bali Barat National Park. Due to hunting pressure and, particularly, deforestation for agricultural conversion, the snake is likely to be declining on this island (R.P.H. Lilley pers. comm. 2011).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by destruction of habitat due to logging and agricultural expansion, as Southeast Asia is experiencing one of the highest rates of deforestation in the tropics (Sodhi et al. 2009) and this species appears to be most abundant in forested habitats. Snakes can however survive in a range of degraded habitats and so this is unlikely to be the primary threat to this species globally,. The extent to which degraded areas can maintain viable populations of this snake is unknown; in the Chitwan area of Nepal it has been observed that mostly young animals are encountered in agricultural lands, always close to forest, and these areas may simply be feeding grounds, or may be population sinks (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012). Deforestation is however likely to exert strong pressure at local scales, particularly where snakes are also hunted, and is likely to lead to declines in many of the snakes on which this species feeds (R.P.H. Lilley pers. comm. 2011). In Nepal, the Therai lowlands have undergone a rapid increase in population since the eradication of malaria from this region, and most of this area is now under cultivation or exposed to pollution, with forests remaining only in protected areas (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012). The king cobra is, however, particularly at risk from the harvesting of individuals for skin, food, pets, and especially traditional Chinese medicine. As the world's largest venomous snake, it is also suffers high levels of persecution by humans throughout its range. The possibility of this snake actually representing a complex of species makes all of these threats even more acute, as individual species within the complex will occur over a smaller area and as smaller populations than the currently recognized Ophiophagus hannah.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is listed in CITES Appendix II. This species has been regionally assessed in India, China and Vietnam. The Regional India preliminary assessment of Near Threatened was made by the BCPP CAMP, while in China it was assessed as Critically Endangered in the national Red Data Book, and as Endangered in the China Species Red List (Wang and Xie 2009). It is listed as Critically Endangered in the national Red Data Book for Viet Nam (Dang et al. 2007), where it is a protected species. There are protected areas within the range of this species which probably provide small safeguards from harvesting pressure. Conservation measures are required to reduce the rate of habitat destruction occurring within its range and to manage the trade levels of this species. Further research into, and monitoring of the population status of, this species is required, as well as research into sustainable harvesting levels. Taxonomic research is also needed to determine if this species actually consists of a complex of species. Educational programmes may help to minimise the persecution of the species. In Royal Chitwan National Park the King Cobra is included in a new project focusing on ecological monitoring of and providing education about large reptiles, run by Nepal's National Trust for Nature Protection, the park authority, and the Zoological Society of London (D. Jelić pers. comm. 2012).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The venom of Ophiophagus hannah is very potent. It is a strong neurotoxin, which affects respiratory centres in the medulla of the brain. Death results from respiratory arrest and cardiac failure. Death may occur in a very short time, but, as with any bite, the location of the bite and the efficacy of first aid and medical treatment may delay or prevent death. The anti-venom, sometimes referred to as anti-venin, reverses the actions of the neurotoxins (proteins and enzymes). Anti-venin, even after five or six decades, is still the most trusted and commonly used method in controlling snake venom poisoning.

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King Cobras are among the most attractive highlights in large display terrariums at zoos.

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Wikipedia

King cobra

This article is about the snake. For other uses, see King Cobra (disambiguation).

The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is an elapid found predominantly in forests from India through Southeast Asia. This species is the world's longest venomous snake, with a length up to 18.5 to 18.8 ft (5.6 to 5.7 m).[2] Despite the word "cobra" in its common name, this snake is not a member of the Naja genus ("true cobras"), which contains most cobra species, but the sole member of its own genus. It preys chiefly on other snakes and occasionally on some other vertebrates, such as lizards and rodents. The king cobra is considered to be a dangerous snake and has a fearsome reputation in its range,[3][4][5] although it typically avoids confrontation with humans if possible.[3] It is also considered culturally significant, with many superstitions and associations with Hindu gods around it in some Indian subcontinent cultures.[6]

Physical appearance[edit]

The king cobra averages at 3 to 4 m (9.8 to 13.1 ft) in length and typically weighs about 6 kg (13 lb). The longest known specimen was kept captive at the London Zoo, and grew to around 18.5 to 18.8 ft (5.6 to 5.7 m) before being euthanised upon the outbreak of World War II. The heaviest wild specimen was caught at Royal Island Club in Singapore in 1951, which weighed 12 kilograms (26 lb) and measured 4.8 m (15.7 ft), though an even heavier captive specimen was kept at New York Zoological Park and was measured as 12.7 kilograms (28 lb) at 4.4 m (14.4 ft) long in 1972.[7] King cobras are sexually dimorphic in size, with males reaching larger sizes than females. The length and mass of the snakes highly depend on their localities and some other factors. Despite their large sizes, typical king cobras are fast and agile.[8] Some viper species, such as the eastern diamondback rattlesnake and the Gaboon viper, often much shorter in length but bulkier in build, rival the king cobra in average weight and reportedly best them in maximum weight.[7]

Scalation of the king cobra.

The skin of this snake is either olive-green, tan, or black, and it has faint, pale yellow cross bands down the length of the body. The belly is cream or pale yellow, and the scales are smooth. Juveniles are shiny black with narrow yellow bands (can be mistaken for a banded krait, but readily identified with its expandable hood). The head of a mature snake can be quite massive and bulky in appearance, though like all snakes, they can expand their jaws to swallow large prey items. It has proteroglyph dentition, meaning it has two short, fixed fangs in the front of the mouth, which channel venom into the prey like hypodermic needles. The average lifespan of a wild king cobra is about 20 years.[9]

The dorsal scales along the centre of the king cobra's body have 15 rows. Males have 235 to 250 ventral scales, while females have 239 to 265. The subcaudal scales are single or paired in each row, numbering 83 to 96 in males and 77 to 98 in females.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

The chevron pattern on the neck

Ophiophagus hannah belongs to the monotypic genus Ophiophagus. It is classified under the family Elapidae.

The king cobra is the sole member of genus Ophiophagus, while most other cobras are members of the genus Naja. They can be distinguished from other cobras by size and hood. King cobras are generally larger than other cobras, and the stripe on the neck is a chevron instead of a double or single eye shape that may be seen in most of the other Asian cobras. Moreover, the hood of the king cobra is narrower and longer.[3] A foolproof method of identification, clearly visible on the head, is the presence of a pair of large scales known as occipitals, located at the back of the top of the head. These are behind the usual "nine-plate" arrangement typical of colubrids and elapids, and are unique to the king cobra.

The species was first described by the Danish naturalist Theodore Edward Cantor in 1836.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The king cobra is distributed across the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and the southern areas of East Asia (where it is not common). King cobras occur in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.[1] It lives in dense highland forests,[2][10] preferring areas dotted with lakes and streams. King cobra populations have dropped in some areas of its range because of the destruction of forests and ongoing collection for the international pet trade. It is listed as an Appendix II Animal within CITES.[11]

Behavior[edit]

Captive king cobras with their hood extended.

A king cobra, like other snakes, receives chemical information via its forked tongue, which picks up scent particles and transfers them to a special sensory receptor (Jacobson's organ) located in the roof of its mouth.[2] This is akin to the human sense of smell. When the scent of a meal is detected, the snake flicks its tongue to gauge the prey's location (the twin forks of the tongue acting in stereo); it also uses its keen eyesight (king cobras are able to detect moving prey almost 100 m [330 feet] away), intelligence,[12] and sensitivity to earth-borne vibration to track its prey.

Following envenomation, the king cobra will begin to swallow its struggling prey while its toxins begin the digestion of its victim. King cobras, like all snakes, have flexible jaws. The jaw bones are connected by pliable ligaments, enabling the lower jaw bones to move independently. This allows the king cobra to swallow its prey whole, as well as letting it swallow prey much larger than its head.[2]

King cobras are able to hunt throughout the day, and it is rarely seen at night, leading most herpetologists to classify it as a diurnal species.[2][13]

A king cobra in the St. Louis Zoo with the hood retracted

Diet[edit]

A king cobra in its defencing posture (mounted specimen at the Royal Ontario Museum).

The king cobra's generic name, Ophiophagus is a Greek-derived word which means "snake-eater", and its diet consists primarily of other snakes, including rat snakes, small pythons and even other venomous snakes such as various members of the true cobras (of the genus Naja), and the krait.[13][14] When food is scarce, they may also feed on other small vertebrates, such as lizards, birds, and rodents. In some cases, the cobra may "constrict" its prey, such as birds and larger rodents, using its muscular body, though this is uncommon.[2][14] After a large meal, the snake may live for many months without another one because of its slow metabolic rate.[2] The king cobra's most common meal is the rat snake; pursuit of this species often brings king cobras close to human settlements.

Defence[edit]

When confronted, this species will quickly attempt to escape and avoid any sort of confrontation.[5][15] However, if continuously provoked, the king cobra can be highly aggressive.[5][9]

When concerned, it rears up the anterior portion (usually one-third) of its body when extending the neck, showing the fangs and hissing loudly.[3][9] It can be easily irritated by closely approaching objects or sudden movements. When raising its body, the king cobra can still move forward to strike with a long distance [9] and people may misjudge the safe zone. This snake may deliver multiple bites in a single attack [4] but adults are known to bite and hold on. It is secretive and tends to inhabit less-populated forested regions and dense jungle,[3][9] and thus many victims bitten by king cobras are actually snake charmers.[3]

Some scientists believe that the temperament of this species has been grossly exaggerated. In most of the local encounters with live, wild king cobras, the snakes appear to be of rather placid disposition, and they usually end up being killed or subdued with hardly any hysterics. These support the view that wild king cobras generally have a mild temperament, and despite their frequent occurrence in disturbed and built-up areas, are adept at avoiding humans. Naturalist Michael Wilmer Forbes Tweedie felt that "this notion is based on the general tendency to dramatise all attributes of snakes with little regard for the truth about them. A moment’s reflection shows that this must be so, for the species is not uncommon, even in populated areas, and consciously or unconsciously, people must encounter king cobras quite frequently. If the snake were really habitually aggressive records of its bite would be frequent; as it is they are extremely rare."[16][17]

If a king cobra encounters a natural predator, such as the mongoose, which has resistance to the neurotoxins,[18] the snake generally tries to flee. If unable to do so, it forms the distinctive cobra hood and emits a hiss, sometimes with feigned closed-mouth strikes. These efforts usually prove to be very effective, especially since it is much more dangerous than other mongoose prey, as well as being much too large for the small mammal to kill with ease.

A good defence against a cobra for anyone who accidentally encounters this snake is to slowly remove a shirt or hat and toss it to the ground while backing away.[19]

The growling hiss[edit]

The hiss of the king cobra is a much lower pitch than many other snakes and many people thus liken its call to a "growl" rather than a hiss. While the hisses of most snakes are of a broad-frequency span ranging from roughly 3,000 to 13,000 Hz with a dominant frequency near 7,500 Hz, king cobra growls consist solely of frequencies below 2,500 Hz, with a dominant frequency near 600 Hz, a much lower sounding frequency closer to that of a human voice. Comparative anatomical morphometric analysis has led to a discovery of tracheal diverticula that function as low-frequency resonating chambers in king cobra and its prey, the mangrove rat snake, both of which can make similar growls.[20]

Reproduction[edit]

A captive juvenile king cobra in its defensive posture.

The king cobra is unusual among snakes in that the female king cobra is a very dedicated parent. She makes a nest for her eggs, scraping up leaves and other debris into a mound in which to deposit them, and remains in the nest until the young hatch. A female usually deposits 20 to 40 eggs into the mound, which acts as an incubator. She stays with the eggs and guards the mound tenaciously, rearing up into a threat display if any large animal gets too close, for roughly 60 to 90 days.[21] Inside the mound, the eggs are incubated at a steady 28 °C (82 °F). When the eggs start to hatch, instinct causes the female to leave the nest and find prey to eat so she does not eat her young. The baby king cobras, with an average length of 45 to 55 cm (18 to 22 in), have venom which is as potent as that of the adults. They may be brightly marked, but these colours often fade as they mature. They are alert and nervous, being highly aggressive if disturbed.[3]

Venom[edit]

King cobra skull, lateral view, showing fangs

The venom of the king cobra consists primarily of neurotoxins, known as the haditoxin,[22] with several other compounds.[13][23] Its murine LD50 toxicity varies from intravenous 1.31 mg/kg[24] and intraperitoneal 1.644 mg/kg[24] to subcutaneous 1.7—1.93 mg/kg.[25][26][27]

This species is capable of delivering a fatal bite and the victim may receive a large quantity of venom with a dose anywhere from 200 to 500 mg [3][28][29] or even up to 7 ml.[9] Engelmann and Obst (1981) list the average venom yield at 420 mg (dry weight).[26] Accordingly, large quantities of antivenom may be needed to reverse the progression of symptoms developed if bitten by a king cobra.[4] The toxins purposely target at the victim's central nervous system, resulting in severe pain, blurred vision, vertigo, drowsiness, and eventually paralysis. If the envenomation is serious, it progresses to cardiovascular collapse, and the victim falls into a coma. Death soon follows due to respiratory failure. Moreover, envenomation from king cobras is clinically known to cause renal failure as observed from some snakebite precedents of this species though it is uncommon.[30] Bites from a king cobra may result in a rapid fatality [3][4] which can be as early as 30 minutes after the envenomation.[4][31] The king cobra's envenomation was even recorded to be capable of killing elephants within hours.[32]

There are two types of antivenom made specifically to treat king cobra envenomations. The Red Cross in Thailand manufactures one, and the Central Research Institute in India manufactures the other; however, both are made in small quantities and, while available to order, are not widely stocked.[33] Ohanin, a protein component of the venom, causes hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mammals.[34] Other components have cardiotoxic,[35] cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects.[36] In Thailand, a concoction of alcohol and the ground root of turmeric is ingested, which has been clinically shown to create a strong resilience against the venom of the king cobra, and other snakes with neurotoxic venom.[37] Proper and immediate treatments are critical to avoid the occurrence of death. Successful precedents include a client who recovered and was discharged in 10 days after being treated by accurate anti-venom and inpatient care.[31]

Snakebites from this species are rare and most victims are actually snake handlers.[3] Not all king cobra bites result in envenomation but are often considered of medical importance.[38] Clinical mortality rates vary among different regions and depend on many factors, such as local medical advancement. A Thai survey reports 10 deaths out of 35 patients received for king cobra bites, whose fatality rate posed (28%) is higher than those of other cobra species.[39] A six-year-reviewing report published by South Indian Hospital reveals that two-thirds of the patients bitten by king cobras were graded "severe", though none died at the end due to proper medical treatments.[30] Department of Clinical Toxinology in University of Adelaide gives this serpent a general untreated fatality rate of 50–60%, implying that the snake has about a half chance to deliver bites involving non-fatal quantities of venom.[25]

Conservation[edit]

In India, King Cobras are placed under Schedule II of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (as amended) and a person guilty of killing the snake can be imprisoned for up to 6 years.[40]

Cultural significance[edit]

In Burma, king cobras are often used by female snake charmers.[14] Members of the Pakkoku clan tattoo themselves with ink mixed with cobra venom on their upper body in a weekly inoculation which potentially might protect them from the snake, though there is no scientific evidence of that.[41] The charmer is usually tattooed with three pictograms.[14] The charmer kisses the snake on the top of its head at the end of the show.[14]

In the Indian Subcontinent, the king cobra is believed to possess exceptional memory. According to a myth, the picture of the killer of a king cobra stays in the eyes of the snake, which is later picked up by the partner and is used to hunt down the killer for revenge. Because of this myth, whenever a cobra is killed, especially in India, the head is either crushed or burned to damage the eyes completely.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stuart, B., Wogan, G., Grismer, L., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R., Chan-Ard, T., Thy, N., Nguyen, T.Q., Srinivasulu, C. & Jelić, D. (2012). Ophiophagus hannah. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Mehrtens, John (1987). Living Snakes of the World. New York: Sterling. ISBN 0-8069-6461-8. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j O'Shea, Mark. Venomou snakes of the world. ISBN 978-0-691-15023-9. Average venom yield is 200–500 mg;an adult king cobra is not only the most impressive of all snakes but also one of the most dangerous. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Davidson, Terence. "IMMEDIATE FIRST AID". University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Young, D. (1999). "Ophiophagus hannah". Animal Diversity Web. the King Cobra is undoubtedly a very dangerous snake ("Behavior" section) 
  6. ^ a b In the nations of the Indian Subcontinent, the cobra in general is also associated with the two principal gods, Shiva and Vishnu. Shiva, the "destroyer" ascetic warrior, wears one around his neck. Vishnu is shielded from the sun by a gigantic five-headed cobra called Kaliya, who was once his enemy. Serpentine inhabitants of the underworld known as nagas also mostly resemble cobras. Taylor, David (1997). "King Cobra". National Geographic Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 August 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2007. 
  7. ^ a b Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc (1983), ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9
  8. ^ a b Venomous Land Snakes, Dr.Willott. Cosmos Books Ltd. ISBN 988-211-326-5. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "National geographic- KING COBRA". They are fiercely aggressive when cornered (line 28–29); average life span in the wild: 20 years (fast facts) 
  10. ^ Miller, Harry (September 1970). "The Cobra, India's 'Good Snake'". National Geographic 20: 393–409. 
  11. ^ "CITES List of animal species used in traditional medicine". Retrieved 1 September 2007. 
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  32. ^ Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS. "Snake Bite in Elephants and Ferrets". Twycross Zoo. Retrieved September 24, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Munich AntiVenom Index: Ophiophagus hannah". Munich Poison Center. MAVIN (Munich AntiVenom Index). 1 February 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007. 
  34. ^ Pung, Y.F., Kumar, S.V., Rajagopalan, N., Fry, B.G., Kumar, P.P., Kini, R.M. (2006). "Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom: Its cDNA and genomic organization". Gene 371 (2): 246–56. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.002. PMID 16472942. 
  35. ^ Rajagopalan, N., Pung, Y.F., Zhu, Y.Z., Wong, P.T.H., Kumar, P.P., Kini, R.M. (2007). "β-Cardiotoxin: A new three-finger toxin from Ophiophagus hannah (King Cobra) venom with beta-blocker activity". The FASEB Journal 21 (13): 3685. doi:10.1096/fj.07-8658com. 
  36. ^ Chang, L.-S., Liou, J.-C., Lin, S.-R., Huang, H.-B. (2002). "Purification and characterization of a neurotoxin from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra)". Biochemical and biophysical research communications 294 (3): 574–8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00518-1. PMID 12056805. 
  37. ^ Ernst, Carl H. and Evelyn M. (2011). Venomous Reptiles of the United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico: Heloderma, Micruroides, Micrurus, Pelamis, Agkistrodon, Sistrurus. JHU Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-8018-9875-4. 
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  41. ^ John C. Murphy (2010). Secrets of the Snake Charmer: Snakes in the 21st Century. iUniverse. 

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