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Overview

Brief Summary

Annona montana, mountain soursop or wild custard apple, is a tropical fruit tree in the Annonaceae family. Related species include cherimoya (A. cherimola) and soursop (A. muricata); paw paw (Asimina triloba) is also in the family. Mountain soursop is native to Central America, the Amazon, and islands in the Caribbean. In its native range, it grows at altitudes from sea level to 650 metres (2,130 ft, Wikipedia 2011). It is occasionally cultivated, and is adaptable to a wide range of soil types and is hardier than many other tropical fruit trees, capable of tolerating temperatures below freezing for brief periods.

The trees, which are evergreen, grow to 10 m (33 feet) tall, with a spreading crown and very glossy leaves. Mountain soursop trees bear fruit more or less continuously starting two to three years after planting. Fruits are about 15 cm (5.9 inches) long, nearly round, with dark green skin covered with dense soft prickles and dark brown hairs (FOC 2011). Fruits have a yellow, fibrous flesh that is aromatic, sour to bitter, and contains many light-brown, plump seeds. Fruits are considered inferior to the soursop (Popenoe 1920), so although it is occasionally cultivated, commercial production is not frequent.

Mountain soursop, which along with soursop is also known as graviola, has numerous traditional medicinal uses in South American and the Caribbean. Fruit, seeds, bark, leaves, and roots have all been used to treat intestinal parasites, coughs (including asthma and bronchitis), inflammation, diabetes, and hypertension, among many uses (Taylor 2005). Research on extracts of graviola have documented antiviral, antiparasitic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic properties; it has also been used as an anti-depressant and at least one study has found it effective against multi-drug resistant cancer cells (Sloan-Kettering 2011, Oberlies et al. 1997). Acetogenins are the alkaloid compounds thought to be responsible for these effects, although other components, including quinolones, annopentocins, and annomuricins may also be involved.

In addition to the health benefits, mountain soursop (along with other members of the Annonaceae family) also contains small amounts of neurotoxic alkaloids, such as annonacin, which appear to be linked to atypical Parkinsonism and other neurological effects if consumed frequently or in large quantities (Sloan-Kettering 2011Champy et al. 2005, Caparros-Lefebvre and Elbaz 1999).

Graviola has become popular as a nutritional medicinal supplement and is sold in health food stores and online. Data on quantities harvested and sold commercially are difficult to find, but least one supplier claims that materials are harvested in the wild in Amazon rainforests (Raintree 2011).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Annona montana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Annona montana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Annona montana

Annona montana or Mountain soursop is an edible fruit and medicinal plant in the Annonaceae family native to Central America, the Amazon, and islands in the Caribbean. It has fibrous fruits.[3] A. montana might find its greatest impact as rootstock for cultivated Annonas.[4]

Common names[edit]

  • English: Mountain soursop, wild soursop
  • Czech: mountain soursop
  • German: Schleimapfel
  • Spanish: guanábana cimarrona, guanábana, guanábana de loma, guanábana de monte, guanábana de perro, taragus, turagua
  • Persian: ساپاديل كوهي
  • French: corossolier bâtard
  • Japanese: ヤマトゲバンレイシ
  • Hindi: पहाड़ी जार साप
  • Hungarian: hegyi annóna
  • Portuguese: araticum, araticum açú, araticum apé
  • Chinese: 山刺果番荔枝
  • Slovak: anona[5][6]

Description[edit]

The tree somewhat resembles that of Annona muricata but has a more spreading crown and very glossy leaves. It is slightly hardier and bears more or less continuously.[7] It tolerates brief temperature drops down to 24F when full grown.[8]

Fruits
Nearly round, dark green skin that is covered with many short fleshy spines and about 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long. Yellow, fiberous pulp which is aromatic, sour to subacid and bitter and contains many light-brown, plump seeds.[7] The fibrous fruits are considered inedible by the Jamaicans.

On the other hand,there are some varieties which has a better quality; are used much like the soursop.[8]

Distribution[edit]

Found growing at altitudes from 0 metres (0 ft) to 650 metres (2,130 ft).[7]

Native
Neotropic:
Caribbean: West Indies
Central America: Costa Rica, Panama
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador[1]
Other
USA
Southern Florida
Israel (unlike Soursop it is cultivated and fruited at Galilee in Israil)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2002-02-05). "Taxon: Annona montana Macfad.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  2. ^ W3tropicos. "Annona montana Macfad.". Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  3. ^ Cassidy, Frederic Gomes (2002) [1967]. "Mountain Witch". A Dictionary of Jamaican English. University of the West Indies Press. ISBN 976-640-127-6. 
  4. ^ Llamas, Kirsten Albrecht (2003). "Annonaceae". Tropical Flowering Plants: A Guide to Identification and Cultivation. University of the West Indies Press. ISBN 0-88192-585-3. 
  5. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2007-11-21). "AGROVOC Thesaurus". AGROVOC. United Nations. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  6. ^ Bioversity International. "Result set for: Annonaceae Annona montana". New World Fruits Database. Retrieved 2008-04-18. [dead link]
  7. ^ a b c Morton, Julia F (1999-04-02). "Wild Custard Apple". New Crops. Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. pp. 86–88. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  8. ^ a b [tradewindsfruit internet site http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/mountain_soursop.htm]
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