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Overview

Brief Summary

Annona squamosa, the sugar-apple, sweetsop, or sugar-pineapple, is a species in the Annonaceae family that is native to the tropical Americas and widely grown for its fragrant, juicy, and flavorful fruit, which contains more vitamin C than an orange. Sugar-apple is the most widely cultivated of tropical fruits in the family, which includes cherimoya (A. cherimola), sugar-apple (A. squamosa), and paw paw (Asimina triloba).

Sugar-apple is grown in lowland tropical climates worldwide, including in southern Mexico, the Antilles, and Central and South America, tropical Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Polynesia, and, in the U.S., in Hawaii and Florida. It was introduced to India and the Philippines by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 16th century, and has been cultivated there ever since. Its native range is not known due to extensive cultivation and naturalization, but is thought to have originated in the West Indies, and was first described from Jamaica (Ecocrop 2011, Flora of North America 2011, Wikipedia 2011). It is naturalized north to southern Florida in the United States and south to Bahia in Brazil, and in many parts of Asia, and is considered invasive in French Polynesia and several Pacific islands (PIER 2011).

Sugar-apple is a cold-intolerant, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree reaching 8 meters (26 ft), one of the smaller members of its genus. Trees may flower and bear fruit starting at 2–3 years of age. Fruit production can be prolific with adequate precipitation (>70 cm or 27 inches per year), but in non-native ranges is often limited by absence of native pollinators, which include various beetle species; flowers are too deep to be readily pollinated by honeybees (Apis mellifera). Hand pollination is used to increase yields (Wikipedia 2011).

The compound fruits are round to oblong, 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) diameter, with a thick, scaly or knobby skin that gives them a pine-cone appearance. Fruits weigh 100–230 g (3.5–8.1 oz). The fruit flesh is fragrant, sweet, white to light yellow, with the texture and flavor of custard; the flavor is considered the best among fruits in the genus. Fruits are divided into 20–38 segments, each generally containing a hard, shiny brownish-black, seed, enmeshed in the flesh, although some trees produce seedless fruit (Morton 1987, Popenoe 1920). The fruits are generally eaten fresh, or used to make juice beverages or sorbet, and are a good source of iron, calcium, and phosphorus (Morton 1987).

The seeds are toxic, and have been used as an insecticide and to treat head lice (although the preparation is an eye-irritant and can cause blindness). Seeds are, however, high in oil, which can be used in soap manufacture or, if treated to remove the toxic alkaloids, as a cooking oil. Leaves, unripe fruits, and extracts of bark and root, all rather astringent, have been used in traditional medicine to treat fevers, rheumatism, diarrhea, dysentery, and other ailments. The aromatic leaves are occasionally used in perfumes, and fibers from the bark are used to make cords and ropes (Morton 1987).

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of W. Indies"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: This species is now disperesed in all tropical countries, especially India, which is erroneosly considered as their homeland.

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Coorg, Mysore, N. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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introduced; Fla.; native to West Indies; naturalized or cultivated circumtropically.
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Distribution: Widely cultivated in Old and New World tropics.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Small tree, 5-6 m high. Young branches sparsely hairy. Leaves elliptic to oblong-obovate, 8-11 x 3-4.3 cm, acute to obtuse with cuneate to subrounded base, glabrous on both sides, young leaves sparsely hairy. Petiole 5-12 mm long, glabrous. Peduncle 2-3 mm long, leaf opposed or terminal on short axillary branches, 1-2-flowered. Bract and bracteole minute, pilose. Pedicel 11-16 mm long, glabrous. Sepals broadly deltoid, 1.5-3 x 3-4 mm, basally connate, pilose outside. Outer petals oblong, 20-27 x 7-9 mm, pale yellow with deep purple spot inside at base, obtuse, triquetrous, basally concave within, sparsely pilose to glabrous outside, puberulous inside; inner petals frequently absent. Receptacle conical. Stamens 1 mm long, narrow cuneate, filament short, locules equal, connective-tip subtruncate. Carpels basally connate, ovary dorsally pilose, 1-ovuled, style short, stigma narrow conical. Fruit 5-10 x 5-7.5 cm, yellowish green, glaucous, tuberculate, monocarps loose and easily separable in ripe fruit, pulp soft, smooth, pure white or yellow tinged. Seeds dark brown to black.
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Description

Shrubs or trees , to ca. 8 m; trunks short, not buttressed at base. Principal leaves late deciduous; petiole 4-22 mm. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to oblong or lanceolate, 5-17 × 2-5.5 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex acute to obtuse; surfaces glaucous, abaxially variably pubescent, adaxially glabrate. Inflorescences solitary flowers or fascicles; peduncle slender, to 2 cm, becoming enlarged in fruit. Flowers: sepals deltate, 1.5-2 mm, apex acute, surfaces abaxially pubescent or glabrous; outer petals pale green above purplish base, oblong or lance-oblong, 1.5-3 cm, base slightly concave, surfaces abaxially furrowed, pubescent, adaxially thickened, keeled; inner petals ovate, keeled, minute, nearly as long as stamens; stamens club-shaped, curved, 1-3 mm; connective dilated, flattened and truncate; pistils conically massed, separable at anthesis, later connate. Syncarp pendulous on thickened peduncle, greenish yellow, glaucous, mostly ±globose, 5-10 cm, muricate. Seed ellipsoid to obovoid, 1-1.4 cm.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Synonym

Annona asiatica Linnaeus
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Ecology

Habitat

Dryish sandy substrates, dry hammocks; 0-50m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-early summer.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: April-August.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Extracts show anticancer activity.

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Barcode data: Annona squamosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Annona squamosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: A native of Central America and the Antilles now found in all tropical countries. It is naturalized on the Florida Keys, and planted in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Conservation status in its native range is unknown.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: Bark and leaves mixed with those of Annona muricata in a sedative infusion. Leaf and Fruit: In an infusion to aid digestion and treat rheumatism. Leaf: Infusion used to aid digestion. Oil distilled from the leaves is applied to the head for sleeplessness. Seed: Powdered seeds used for an excellent vermifuge in French Guiana.

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Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Fruit

Production Methods: Cultivated

Comments: The fruits are small with a juicy pulp, but the excessvie quantity of small black seeds is a disadvantage. Important for future commmercialization are fertile hybrids between A. squamosa and A. cherimola. These hybrids, commercially denominated "Atemoya", combine the outstanding characters of the two species, ie the sweetness of the former, with the aroma of the cherimoya.

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Wikipedia

Annona squamosa

This article is about the plant Annona squamosa. For the fruit, see Sugar-apple.

Annona squamosa is a small, well-branched tree or shrub[6] from the family Annonaceae that bears edible fruits called sugar-apples. It tolerates a tropical lowland climate better than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola[5] (whose fruits often share the same name)[2] helping make it the most widely cultivated of these species.[7]

Description[edit]

Annona squamosa is a small, semi-(or late) deciduous,[8] much branched shrub or small tree 3 metres (9.8 ft)[6] to 8 metres (26 ft) tall[8] very similar to soursop (Annona muricata)[9] with a broad, open crown or irregularly spreading branches[5] and a short trunk short, not buttressed at base.[8] The fruit of A. squamosa (sugar-apple) has delicious whitish pulp, and is popular in tropical markets.[8]

Branches in Hyderabad, India.
Stems and leaves
Branches with light brown bark and visible leaf scars; inner bark light yellow and slightly bitter; twigs become brown with light brown dots (lenticels - small, oval, rounded spots upon the stem or branch of a plant, from which the underlying tissues may protrude or roots may issue).[5]
Thin, simple, alternate leaves[9] occur singly,[5] 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 2 centimetres (0.79 in)[8] to 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide;[5] rounded at the base and pointed at the tip (oblong-lanceolate).[8] Pale green on both surfaces and mostly hairless[5] with slight hairs on the underside when young.[6] The sides sometimes are slightly unequal and the leaf edges are without teeth, inconspicuously hairy when young.[5][9]
Leaf stalks are 0.4 centimetres (0.16 in) to 2.2 centimetres (0.87 in)[8] long, green, sparsely pubescent[5]
flower in Hyderabad, India.
Flowers
Solitary or in short lateral clusters of 2-4 about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) long,[8] greenish-yellow flowers on a hairy, slender[5] 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long stalk.[8] Three green outer petals, purplish at the base, oblong, 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) to 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) long, and 0.6 centimetres (0.24 in) to 0.75 centimetres (0.30 in) wide, three inner petals reduced to minute scales or absent.[6][8] Very numerous stamens; crowded, white, less than 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) long; ovary light green. Styles white, crowded on the raised axis. Each pistil forms a separate tubercle (small rounded wartlike protuberance), mostly 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) to 1.9 centimetres (0.75 in) long and 0.6 centimetres (0.24 in) to 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) wide which matures into the aggregate fruit.[5]
Flowering occurs in spring-early summer[8] and flowers are pollinated by nitidulid beetles.[10]
Fruits and reproduction
Aggregate and soft fruits form from the numerous and loosely united pistils of a flower[5] which become enlarged[8] and mature into fruits which are distinct from fruits of other species of genus[5] (and more like a giant raspberry instead).
The round or heart-shaped[5] greenish yellow, ripened aggregate fruit is pendulous[8] on a thickened stalk; 5 centimetres (2.0 in)[5][6] to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in diameter[9][8] with many round protuberances[5] and covered with a powdery bloom. Fruits are formed of loosely cohering or almost free carpels (the ripened pistels).[6]
The pulp is white tinged yellow,[6] edible and sweetly aromatic. Each carpel containing an oblong, shiny and smooth,[5] dark brown[6] to black, 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) to 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) long seed.[5]

Distribution[edit]

Annona squamosa is native to the tropical Americas and West Indies, but the exact origin is unknown. It is now the most widely cultivated of all the species of Annona, being grown for its fruit throughout the tropics and warmer subtropics, such as Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan; it was introduced to southern Asia before 1590. It is naturalized as far north as southern Florida in the United States and as south as Bahia in Brazil, and is an invasive species in some areas.[5][9][7]

Native
Neotropic
Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands.
Central America: El Salvador Guatemala
Northern South America: Suriname, French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Southern South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay[5]
Current (naturalized and native)
Neotropic
Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Florida, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands.
Pacific: Samoa, Tonga
Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
Northern South America: French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Southern South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay
Afrotropic: Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar
Australasia: Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Indomalaya: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
Palearctic: Cyprus, Greece, Malta[5]

Azores (Pico Island), Portugal

Climate and Cultivation[edit]

Young sugar apple seedling

Like most species of Annona, it requires a tropical or subtropical climate with summer temperatures from 25 °C (77 °F) to 41 °C (106 °F), and mean winter temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F). It is sensitive to cold and frost, being defoliated below 10 °C (50 °F) and killed by temperatures of a couple of degrees below freezing. It is only moderately drought-tolerant, requiring at least 700 mm of annual rainfall, and will not produce fruit well during droughts.

It will grow from sea level to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and does well in hot dry climates, differing in its tolerance of lowland tropics from many of the other fruit bearers in the Annona family.

It is quite a prolific bearer, and it will produce fruit in as little as two to three years. A five-year-old tree can produce as many as 50 sugar apples. Poor fruit production has been reported in Florida because there are few natural pollinators (honeybees have a difficult time penetrating the tightly closed female flowers); however, hand pollination with a natural fiber brush is effective in increasing yield. Natural pollinators include beetles (coleoptera) of the families Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae and Scarabeidae.[7][11]

In the Philippines, the fruit is commonly eaten by the Philippine fruit bat (kabag or kabog), which then spreads the seeds from island to island.

It is a host plant for larvae of the butterfly Graphium agamemnon (tailed jay).

Uses[edit]

Heat-extracted oil from the seeds has been employed against agricultural pests.[citation needed] High concentrations are potent for 2 days and weaken steadily, all activity being lost after 8 days. See also Annonin.

In Mexico, the leaves are rubbed on floors and put in hens' nests to repel lice.[7]

For uses of the fruit, see sugar-apple.

Chemical constituents[edit]

The diterpenoid alkaloid atisine is the most abundant alkaloid in the root. Other constituents of Annona squamosa include oxophoebine,[12] reticuline,[12] atidine, histisine, hetisine, hetidine, heterophyllisine, heterophylline, heterlophylline, isoatisine, dihydroatisine, hetisinone benzoyl heteratisine and citronella oil.

Bayer AG has patented the extraction process and molecular identity of the annonaceous acetogenin annonin, as well as its use as a biopesticide.[13] Other bioactive acetogenins have been isolated from the seeds,[14] bark,[15] and leaves[16] of Annona squamosa.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona squamosa L.". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture,. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  2. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1997-07-11). "Taxon: Annona squamosa L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  3. ^ Dr. Richard Wunderlin, Dr. Bruce Hansen. "synonyms of Annona squamosa". Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of Florida. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  4. ^ Missouri Botanical Garden (1753). "Annona squamosa L.". Tropicos. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Current name: Annona squamosa". AgroForestryTree Database. International Center For Research In Agroforestry. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Aluka. "Annona squamosa L. [family ANNONACEAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. doi:10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME-SPECIES.ANNONA.SQUAMOSA (inactive 2015-01-09). Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  7. ^ a b c d Morton, Julia (1987). "Annona squamosa". Fruits of warm climates. Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. p. 69. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Flora of North America. "2. Annona squamosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 537. 1753". Flora of North America 3. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2008-01-05). "Annona squamosa (PIER Species info)". PIER species lists. United States Geological Survey & United States Forest Service. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17. Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659. 
  10. ^ McGregor, S.E. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants USDA, 1976
  11. ^ "Annona squamosa". AgroForestryTree Database. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Dholvitayakhun A, Trachoo N et al. (2013). "Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease". Natural Product Communications 8 (3): 385–388. PMID 23678817. 
  13. ^ Moeschler HF, Pfluger W et al. (August 1987). "Insecticide US 4689232 A". Retrieved 2014-12-03. 
  14. ^ Chen Y, Xu SS et al. (2012). "Anti-tumor activity of Annona squamosa seeds extract containing annonaceous acetogenin compounds". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 142 (2): 462–466. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.019. PMID 22609808. 
  15. ^ Li XH, Hui YH et al. (1990). "Bullatacin, bullatacinone, and squamone, a new bioactive acetogenin, from the bark of Annona squamosa". Journal of Natural Products 53 (1): 81–86. doi:10.1021/np50067a010. PMID 2348205. 
  16. ^ Gajalakshmi S, Divya R et al. (2011). "Pharmacological activities of Annona squamosa: A review". International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 10 (2): 24–29. 
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Sugar-apple

This article is about the fruit of Annona squamosa. For the plant, see Annona squamosa.
Michał Boym's drawing of, probably, the sugar-apple in his Flora Sinensis (1655)

Sugar-apple is the fruit of Annona squamosa, the most widely grown species of Annona and a native of the tropical Americas and West Indies, and is called the Custard Apple (mainly Annona reticulata) in the Philippines.[1] The fruit is round to conical, 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in diameter and 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) long, and weighing 100–240 g (3.5–8.5 oz), with a thick rind composed of knobby segments. The color is typically pale green to blue-green, with a deep pink blush in certain varieties, and typically has a bloom. It is unique among Annona fruits in being segmented, and the segments tend to separate when ripe, exposing the interior.

The flesh is fragrant and sweet, creamy white to light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard. It is found adhering to 13–16 mm (0.51–0.63 in) long seeds to form individual segments arranged in a single layer around the conical core. It is soft, slightly grainy, and slippery. The hard, shiny seeds may number 20-38 or more per fruit, and have a brown to black coat, although varieties exist that are almost seedless.[1][2]

There are also new varieties being developed in Taiwan. The atemoya or "pineapple sugar-apple", a hybrid between the Sugar Apple and the Cherimoya, is popular in Taiwan, although it was first developed in the USA in 1908. The fruit is similar in sweetness to the sugar apple but has a very different taste. Like the name suggests, it tastes like pineapple. The arrangement of seeds is in spaced rows, with the fruit's flesh filling most of the fruit and making grooves for the seeds, instead of the flesh only occurring around the seeds.

Nomenclature[edit]

Sugar-apple with cross section

As a result of its widespread cultivation, many local names have developed for the fruit.

In English, it is most widely known as a sugar apple or sweetsop as well as a custard apple, especially in India and Australia (custard apple also refers to Annona reticulata, a closely related species).

In Hispanic America, regional names include anón, anón de azucar, anona blanca, fruta do conde, cachiman, saramuyo, grenadilla (little grenade) and many others.

In the Middle East, it is called قشطة (qishta / ishta / ashta), the English translation being "cream".

In Angola, it is called fruta-do-conde or fruta-pinha.

In The Bahamas, it is called "sugar apple".

In Brazil, it is called fruta-do-conde, fruta-de-conde, condessa, fruta-pinha, pinha (lit. cone), ata or anona.

Its name in Burmese is aajaa thee.

In Cambodian, regional names include "plae teib".

In Ethiopia, it is called Gishta (ጊሽጣ) in Amharic.

In Germany, it is called Zimtapfel, because of its taste.[3]

In Ghana, it is called "Sweet Apple".

In Greece, it is called γλυκόμηλο.

In Haiti, it is called kachiman.

In Hong Kong, it is called foreign lychee (番鬼荔枝).

In Iceland, it is called hvaðerþetta.

In India it is known as:
In Bengali: ata (আতা)
In Gujarati: sitaphal (સીતાફળ)
In Hindi: sharifa or sitaphal (शरीफ़ा/सीताफल)
In Kannada: sitaphala (ಸೀತಾಫಲ)
In Marathi: sitaphal (सीताफळ)
In Punjabi: sharifa (ਸ਼ਰੀਫਾ)
In Tamil:
sitappalam (சீதாப்பழம்)
In Telugu:
sita phalamu (సీతా ఫలము) literally meaning Sita's fruit.

In Indonesia, srimatikiya or, as mostly people call it, srikaya.

In Kenya, it is called matomoko.

In Madagascar, it is called conicony in Malagasy.

In Malaysia, it is called buah nona.

In Mali, Africa, it is called hairico.

In Nepal, it is called "saripha" (सरीफा).

In Nicaragua, it is called "annona guatemala".

In Northern Nigeria, it is called fasadabur in Hausa

In Pakistan, it is called Sharifa (شريفا)

In the Philippines, it is called atis.

In Sri Lanka, it is call "Anoda" in Sinhalese.

In Taiwan, it is called sakya (Chinese: 釋迦; pinyin: shìjiā; Taiwanese: sek-khia, sek-kia) because one cultivar resembles the top part of Shakyamuni's (釋迦牟尼) head.

In Tanzania, it is called matopetope.

In Thailand, it is called noi-na (น้อยหน่า) (which is also the common name for a hand grenade) because of its appearance.

In Vietnam, it is called mãng cầu ta or na.

In Yemen, it is called Khirmish (خرمش).

Nutrition and uses[edit]

Sugar-apples, (sweetsop), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy393 kJ (94 kcal)
23.64 g
Dietary fiber4.4 g
0.29 g
2.06 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(10%)
0.11 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(9%)
0.113 mg
Niacin (B3)
(6%)
0.883 mg
(5%)
0.226 mg
Vitamin B6
(15%)
0.2 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Vitamin C
(44%)
36.3 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
24 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.6 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
21 mg
Manganese
(20%)
0.42 mg
Phosphorus
(5%)
32 mg
Potassium
(5%)
247 mg
Sodium
(1%)
9 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Sugar-apple is high in energy, an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, a good source of thiamine and vitamin B6, and provides vitamin B2, B3 B5, B9, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in fair quantities.[citation needed]

A Philippine company produces sugar apple wine.

For uses of other fruit from the Custard-apple family see:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Morton, Julia (1987). "Annona squamosa". Fruits of warm climates. p. 69. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Annona squamosa". AgroForestryTree Database. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Bernd Nowak, Bettina Schulz: Taschenlexikon tropischer Nutzpflanzen und ihrer Früchte. Quelle&Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2009, ISBN 978-3-494-01455-5, p. 57–59.
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Notes

Common Names

FG Creole: pomme cannelle. Surinam: kaneelappel, kaneel appel. Surinam Malayan: srikaja. Surinam Sranan: kaner'apra.

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The Custard apple, Sugar apple or Sweetsop is indigenous to tropical America. In Pakistan, it is widely cultivated in Sind and also in Punjab. The fruit is the best tasting of all the Annona species. The pulp is said to be rich in Vitamin C. Seeds are strong irritant to eyes and may cause blindness. Leaves and unripe fruit are insecticidal. Root is a strong purgative.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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The fruit of Annona squamosa ( Annona sect. Atta C. Martius) has delicious whitish pulp, and it is popular in tropical markets.
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