The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2007. website, AOU Check-List (07-2007)
  • 2007. website, Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2007.09.20
  • 2007. website, Gill & Wright (2006) corrigenda/updates - 21-Sep-2007
  • American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • BirdLife International 2012. Zonotrichia leucophrys
  • Chilton, G., M. Baker, C. Barrentine, M. Cunningham. 1995. White-Crowned Sparrow. The Birds of North America, 183.
  • Dunn, J.L. and J. Alderfer. 2011. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Holmes and Ottinger (2003) Birds as long-lived animal models for the study of aging. Exp Gerontol, 38:1365-1375.
  • John Terres (1980) The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Knopf: New York.
  • Kaufman, K. 1996. Lives of North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • McKechnie and Wolf (2004) The allometry of avian basal metabolic rate: good predictions need good data. Physiol Biochem Zool, 77:502-521.
  • Morton, M. 1997. Natal and breeding dispersal in the mount white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia Leucophrys oriantha. Ardea, 85(1): 145-154.
  • Norment, C. 1993. Nest-site characteristics and nest predation in Harris' sparrows and white-crowned sparrows in the northwest territories, Canada. Auk, 110(4): 769-777.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
  • Ramstack, J., M. Murphy, M. Palmer. 1998. Comparative reproductive biology of three species of swallows in a common environment. Wilson Bulletin, 110(2): 233-243.
  • Starck and Ricklefs (1998) Avian growth rate data set. In: Avian Growth and Development: Evolution Within the Altricial-Precocial Spectrum (J. M. Starck and R. E. Ricklefs (eds.)), pp. 381-423. Oxford University Press: New York.
  • The Birds of North America Online (Online source) External link.
  • Valone, T., A. Wheelbarger. 1998. The effect of heterospecifics on the group-size effect in white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys). Bird Behaviour, 12(3-4): 85-90.


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