The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), (2008). Sea Mammals: Seals Page., 2008-03-13 00:00:00 External link.
  • Bernhard Grzimek (1990) Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Corbet, G.B. & Southern, H.N., (1977). The handbook of British Mammals. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford & London. External link.
  • Evans, P.G.H. & Raga, J. A. (ed.), (2001). Marine mammals: biology and conservation New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers External link.
  • Frost, K.J. and L.F. Lowry. 1981. Ringed, Baikal and Caspian seals - Phoca hispida Schreber, 1775 Phoca Sibirica Gmelin, 1758 Phoca caspica Gmelin, 1788. Handbook of marine mammals. Academic Press, New York.
  • Hammill, M.O. and T.G. Smith. 1991. The role of predation in the ecology of the ringed seal in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories, Canada. Marine Mammal Science, 7(2): 123-135.
  • Harris, S.H. 1991. The handbook of British mammals. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford. p. 480.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hewer, H.R. (1974). British Seals. London : Collins External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Hyvarinen, H. 1989. Diving in darkness: whiskers as sense organs of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Journal of Zoology (London), 218(4): 663-678.
  • IUCN (2009). Species and Climate Change: More than just the Polar Bear.
  • Kingsley, M.C.S. 1990. Status of the ringed seal, Phoca hispida, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 104(1): 138-145.
  • Kinze, C. C., (2002). Photographic Guide to the Marine Mammals of the North Atlantic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Lowry, L.F., K.J. Frost, and J.J. Burns. 1980. Variability in the diet of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences, 37(12): 2254-2261.
  • Lyderson, C. and M.O. Hammill. 1993. Diving in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) pups during the nursing period. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71(5): 991-996.
  • M. J. Dunbar, Arctic and subarctic marine ecology: immediate problems, Arctic 7:213-228, from p. 223 (1954).
  • M. S. W. Bradstreet and W. E. Cross, Trophic relationships at High Arctic ice edges, Arctic 3(1)5:1-12, from p. 9 (1982).
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Nowak, R.M., (2003). Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. External link.
  • OBIS, (2008). Ocean Biogeographic Information System., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (2003) Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Shetland Sea Mammal Group (2008). Vagrant Seals in Shetland., 2008-03-13 00:00:00 External link.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smith, T.G. and I. Stirling. 1975. The breeding habitat of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida): The birth lair and associated structures. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53(9): 1297-1305.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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