The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1984. Caspian Seal. Pp. 125 in D Macdonald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 2, 2 Edition. New York: Equinox.Ltd.
  • 1990. Phoca caspica. Pp. 220-238 in B Grimeks, ed. Grimeks Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 5, 2 Edition. New Jersey: McGraw-Hill.
  • 2001. "Seal Conservation Society" (On-line). Caspian Seal. Accessed March 10, 2006 at http://www.pinnipeds.org/species/caspian.htm.
  • 2002. "Science and Conservation of Ice loving Seals" (On-line). Caspian seal. Accessed March 10, 2006 at http://pagophilus.org/caspian.html.
  • 2004. "UNEP World Conservation" (On-line). Accessed March 10, 2006 at http://www.unep-wcmc.org/index.html?http://www.unep-wcmc.org/species/data/species_sheets/caspian.htm~main.
  • Anderson, H. 1969. The Biology of Marine Mammals. New York: Academic Press.
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2013). Pusa caspica Gmelin, 1788. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=255022
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • C. S. Davis and I. Delisle. 2004. A phylogeny of the extant Phocidae inferred from complete mitochondrial DNA coding regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33:363-377
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Cassini, M. 1999. The evolution of reproductive systems in pinnipeds. Behavioral Ecology, Volume 10/ number 5: 612-616.
  • David Macdonald (1985) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Facts on File: New York.
  • Freedman, B. 1999. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Harwood, J. 2001. MARINE MAMMALS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. Journal of Mammalogy, 82/3: 630–640..
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Khuraskin, L., N. Zakharova. 2002. "Phoca (Pusa) caspica" (On-line). Accessed March 10, 2006 at http://www.caspianenvironment.org/biodb/eng/mammals/Phoca%20(Pusa)%20Caspica/main.htm.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Maclaren, I. 1966. Taxonomy of Harbor Seals of the Western North Pacific. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol 47/ Nu 3: 466-473.
  • Nowak, R. 1964. Walkers Mammals of the World. London: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Reeves, R., B. Stewart, P. Clapham, J. Powell. 2002. Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: Chanticlear Press.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Ridgway, S., R. Harrison. 1981. Handbook of Marine Mammals. San Diego: Academic Press Limited.
  • Ronald Nowak (2003) Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wikipedia, T. 2006. "Wikipedia" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caspian_Seal&oldid=42880722.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142

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