The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • . 1876. Treasures of the Deep : a Descriptive Account of the Great Fisheries and Their Products. London, England : Nelson and Sons; Page 437
  • 2004. Harp Seals. Pp. 429-430 in D Kleiman, V Geist, M McDade, eds. Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. Volume 14: Mammals III, Second Edition. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, Inc.
  • 2008. "Pagophilus groenlandicus" (On-line). OBIS Seamap. Accessed April 09, 2009 at
  • BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), (2008). Sea Mammals: Seals Page., 2008-03-13 00:00:00 External link.
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2015). Pagophilus groenlandicus (Erxleben, 1777). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Corbet, G.B. & Southern, H.N., (1977). The handbook of British Mammals. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford & London. External link.
  • England, George Allan. 1924. Vikings of the Ice : Being the Log of a Tenderfoot on the Great Newfoundland Seal Hunt. Garden City, NY : Doubleday, Page & Company; Page 19
  • Erxleben, J.C. P. 1777. Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre and Systema regni animalis. Göttingen.
  • Evans, P.G.H. & Raga, J. A. (ed.), (2001). Marine mammals: biology and conservation New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers External link.
  • Goode, George Brown. 1884. Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States: Section I, Natural History of Useful Aquatic Animals, Plates. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office; Plate 16
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hewer, H.R. (1974). British Seals. London : Collins External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Jefferson, T., S. Leatherwood, M. Webber. 1994. Marine Mammals of the World. Rome: United Nations Environment Program and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Kinze, C. C., (2002). Photographic Guide to the Marine Mammals of the North Atlantic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Kovacs, K. 1995. Harp and hooded seals - a case study in the determinants of mating systems in pinnipeds. International Symposium on the Biology of Marine Mammals in the North East Atlantic, Developments in Marine Biology 4: 329-335.
  • Kovacs, K. 2008. "Pagophilus groenlandicus" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed April 05, 2009 at
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Lindsay, David Moore. 1911. Voyage to the Arctic in the Whaler Aurora. Boston, MA : Dana Estes and Company Publishers; Facing page 52
  • M. J. Dunbar, Arctic and subarctic marine ecology: immediate problems, Arctic 7:213-228, from p. 223 (1954).
  • 2009. "Pagophilus groenlandicus: Harp Seal" (On-line). MarineBio. Accessed April 05, 2009 at
  • Miller, E., L. Burton. 2000. "It's all relative: allometry and variation in the baculum (os penis) of the harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus (Carnivora: Phocidae)" (On-line pdf). Wiley Interscience. Accessed April 09, 2009 at
  • Moulton, V., E. Miller, H. Ochoa-Acuña. 1999. "Haulout behaviour of captive harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus): incidence, seasonality, and relationships to weather" (On-line pdf). Accessed April 09, 2009 at
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Novak, R. 1999. Pagophilus groenlandicus. Pp. 887-888 in Walker’s Mammals of the World, Vol. Volume II, Sixth Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Nowak, R.M., (2003). Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. External link.
  • Original description: Erxleben, J.C.P., 1777.  Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietas, cum synonymia et historia animalium Classis I. Mammalia, 1:588.  Weygandianis, Lipsiae, 636 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (2003) Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Schliemann, H. 1990. Pagophilus groenlandicus. Pp. 221-224 in S Parker, ed. Grzimek’s Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. Volume 4, First Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • Serrano, A., J. Terhune. 2002. "Antimasking aspects of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) underwater vocalizations" (On-line pdf). Accessed April 08, 2009 at
  • Shetland Sea Mammal Group (2008). Vagrant Seals in Shetland., 2008-03-13 00:00:00 External link.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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