Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDS: southern Baja California, northern Sonora, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and western and southern Texas south through most of Mexico to central Guatemala. WINTERS: southern Baja California, southern Sonora, southern Chihuahua, central Nuevo Leon, southern Texas south through rest of breeding range (AOU 1983).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 14 cm

Weight: 12 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Arid thorn brush and thickets, dry washes and arid scrub (Tropical and Subtropical zones) (AOU 1983). Often near water. Often stays close to ground cover (Oberholser 1974). Nests usually low in tree, bush or vine, 0.5-1.5 m above ground (Terres 1980).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migratory in most of southern U.S. and northern Mexico. Arrives in U.S. breeding areas April-May (Terres 1980).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds probably primarily on insects and seeds.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Clutch size is 3-4. Incubation probably lasts 12 days (Terres 1980).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Passerina versicolor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTGTACCTGATCTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGTACTGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAGCTGGGTCAACCTGGAGCTCTTCTAGGGGACGACCAAGTCTACAATGTAGTAGTCACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTGATAATTTTCTTCATAGTAATGCCAATCATAATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTGCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGATATGGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCATCTTTCCTACTCCTCCTGGCATCTTCCACAGTCGAAGCAGGGGTAGGCACAGGCTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCACTAGCAGGCAACCTGGCCCACGCTGGAGCTTCAGTTGACCTGGCAATCTTCTCCCTACACCTAGCCGGTATCTCCTCTATCCTGGGAGCTATCAACTTTATTACAACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCCCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCCTTATTCGTCTGATCAGTCCTAATTACCGCAGTTCTCCTACTCCTATCTCTCCCAGTGCTCGCCGCAGGCATCACAATACTCCTAACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCAGTCCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Passerina versicolor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4B - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Varied Bunting

The Varied Bunting (Passerina versicolor) is a species of songbird in the Cardinal family, Cardinalidae.

The range of the Varied Bunting stretches from the southern parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States south throughout Mexico as far as Oaxaca. Small disjunct populations occur in the state of Chiapas in Mexico and southeastern Guatemala.[2] This stocky bird has a short tail and rounded bill. It is 11–14 centimetres (4.3–5.5 in) long, has a wingspan of 21 centimetres (8.3 in), and weighs 11–13 grams (0.39–0.46 oz).[3] Breeding males are purple-red with a bright red patch on the nape, which becomes browner in the fall. Females are plain light brown, resembling the female Indigo Bunting but lacking streaking on the breast. Varied Buntings inhabit deserts and xeric shrublands, preferring thorny brush thickets, thorn forests, scrubby woodlands, and overgrown clearings. They forage on the ground for insects, fruit, and seeds. Varied Buntings weave open-cup nests of grass and spider webs in the outer branches of thorny shrubs,[3] usually near water.[2] Females lay 2-5 bluish-white to bluish-green eggs,[3] which they incubate for about fourteen days. The young are fully feathered after 10 days, and are ready to leave the nest several days later.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Passerina versicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Varied Bunting". 2007 Audubon WatchList. National Audubon Society. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  3. ^ a b c "Varied Bunting Life History". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 

Further reading[edit]

Book[edit]

  • Groschupf, K. D., and C. W. Thompson. 1998. Varied Bunting (Passerina versicolor). In The Birds of North America, No. 351 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Thesis[edit]

  • Klicka JT. Ph.D. (1999). A molecular perspective on the evolution of North American songbirds. University of Minnesota, United States—Minnesota.

Articles[edit]

  • Klicka J, Fry AJ, Zink RM & Thompson CW. (2001). A cytochrome-b perspective on Passerina bunting relationships. Auk. vol 118, no 3. p. 611-623.
  • Thompson WL. (1968). The Songs of 5 Species of Passerina Passerina-Leclancherii Passerina-Ciris Passerina-Versicolor Passerina-Cyanea Passerina-Amoena. Behaviour. vol 31, no 3/4. p. 261-287.
  • Woolfenden GE & Van Deventer M. (2006). First record of the varied bunting from Florida. Florida Field Naturalist. vol 34, no 1. p. 1-3.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: A mitochondrial cytochrome-b study confirms that P. VERSICOLOR and Ciris are sister species (Klicka et al. 2001); the two are known to have hybridized (Storer 1961). Linaria is an invalid generic name for North America buntings (Banks and Browning 1995).

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