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Overview

Brief Summary

occurance

it is found in the indian subcontinent,parts of southeast asia is a member of the thrush family.and is nor a magpie or robin.it looks like.subspecies-ceylonnensis,andamensis,mindanensis,javensis and other.it is also found in eastern pakistan,china,thailand,malaysia.they are introduced in australia.iti s found closely to humans.

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Comprehensive Description

Summary

"A common black and white bird, mostly seen close to the ground, hopping along branches or foraging in leaf-litter on the ground with cocked tail."
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Native to southern Asia and the Malay Archipelago, to 2000 m (Sibley and Monroe 1990). Observed feeding young on Kauai, Hawaii, in 1989, the first reliable sighting on Kauai since 1967 (Eilerts and Duhon 1990).

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Physical Description

Morphology

A trim black-and-white bird with cocked tail as in the Robin. In the female the black portions are replaced by brown and slaty-grey.
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Size

About that of the Bulbul.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

Singly or pairs about human habitations.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

"The Magpie-Robin is also amongst the more familiar birds found about the haunts of Man. In the non-breeding season it is shy and quiet, skulking about in undergrowth and brushwood and only uttering a plaintive swee-ee and harsh chr-r, chr-r notes from time to time. But it is one of our finest songsters. With the approach of the hot weather the cock recovers his voice, and in his spruce pied livery he is a striking and happy figure as from the topmost twigs of a leafless tree, a gate-post or hedge he gladdens the short-lived cool of a May morning with his continuous torrent of far-reaching song. The melody is punctuated bv a constant spreading and upward jerks of his white-fringed tail. Singing continues intermittently throughout the clay. He is an accomplish mimic besides, and imitates the calls of many other birds to perfection. Although chiefly arboreal, the bird also feeds largely on the ground, hopping about and picking up crickets, grasshoppers, ants, caterpillars and a host of other insects. Occasionally one will make short sallies into the air after winged prey. Silk Cotton and Coral blossoms are visited regularly for the sake of the sugary nectar. During the breeding season the males love to show off before their mates and indulge in much spreading of tails and ludicrous pufling-out, strutting and nodding. They become very pugnacious and resent the intrusion of other cocks into their territory."
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Reproduction

"The season over most of its range is between April and July ; earlier in the south. The nest is a pad of grass, rootlets and hair. It is placed in a hole in a wall, tree-trunk or branch, between 5 and 20 feet from the ground. The eggs — three to five- are some shade of pale blue-green, blotched and mottled with reddish-brown."
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Copsychus saularis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 53 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTCTACCTGATCTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATGGTGGGTACTGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTGGGCCAACCAGGCGCCTTACTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAACGTAGTAGTCACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTGATAATCTTCTTCATAGTTATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTGGTCCCTCTAATA---ATCGGAGCACCGGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTCCTCCTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTCGAAGCCGGAGCAGGAACAGGTTGAACGGTCTACCCCCCTCTCGCTGGTAACCTAGCTCATGCTGGAGCTTCAGTAGATTTA---GCCATCTTCTCACTCCACCTGGCCGGTATCTCTTCAATTTTAGGCGCCATTAATTTCATCACAACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCACCTGCCCTTTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTTTGATCTGTACTAATCACTGCAGTCCTACTCCTCCTGTCTCTCCCTGTCCTCGCCGCT---GGCATCACCATACTTCTCACCGACCGTAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGGGGAGGAGACCCAGTACTTTACCAACACCTC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Copsychus saularis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 53
Specimens with Barcodes: 58
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common to abundant, although generally uncommon in the Philippines (del Hoyo et al. 2005), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs in China and < c.10,000 introduced breeding pairs in Taiwan (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Oriental magpie-robin

The oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but now considered an Old World flycatcher. They are distinctive black and white birds with a long tail that is held upright as they forage on the ground or perch conspicuously. Occurring across most of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia, they are common birds in urban gardens as well as forests. They are particularly well known for their songs and were once popular as cagebirds. The oriental magpie-robin is national bird for Bangladesh. People of Bangladesh recognize it as "Doyel".

Description[edit]

Female of the nominate race (India)

This species is 19 centimetres (7.5 in) long, including the long tail that is usually held cocked upright. It is similar in shape to the smaller European robin, but is longer-tailed. The male has black upperparts, head and throat apart from a white shoulder patch. The underparts and the sides of the long tail are white. Females are greyish black above and greyish white. Young birds have scaly brown upperparts and head. It is the national bird of Bangladesh.

The nominate race is found on the Indian subcontinent and the females of this race are the palest. The females of the Andamans race andamanensis are darker, heavier-billed and shorter-tailed. The Sri Lankan race ceylonensis (formerly included the Peninsular Indian populations south of the Kaveri River[2]) and southern nominate individuals have the females nearly identical to the males in shade. The eastern populations (Bhutan and Bangladesh) have more black on the tail and were formerly named erimelas.[3] The populations in Burma and further south are named as race musicus.[4] A number of other races have been named across the range including prosthopellus (Hong Kong), nesiotes, zacnecus, nesiarchus, masculus, pagiensis, javensis, problematicus, amoenus, adamsi, pluto, deuteronymus and mindanensis.[5] However many of these are not well marked and the status of some are disputed.[6] Some like mindanensis have been now been recognized usually as full species (Philippine magpie-robin).[7] There is more geographic variation in the plumage of females than in that of the males.[8]

It is mostly seen close to the ground, hopping along branches or foraging in leaf-litter on the ground with cocked tail. Males sing loudly from the top of trees or other high perches during the breeding season.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Illustration from John Ray's Synopsis methodicam avium & piscium (1713)

The Indian name of dhyal or dhayal has led to many confusions. It was first used by Eleazar Albin ("dialbird") in 1737 (Suppl. N. H. Birds, i. p. 17, pls. xvii. xviii.), and Levaillant (Ois. d'Afr. iii. p. 50) thought it referred to a sun dial and he called it Cadran. Thomas C. Jerdon wrote (B. India, ii. p. 1l6) that Linnaeus,[9] thinking it had some connection with a sun-dial, called it solaris, by lapsus pennae, saularis. This was however identified by Edward Blyth as an incorrect interpretation and that it was a Latinization of the Hindi word saulary. A male bird was sent with this Hindi name from Madras by surgeon Edward Buckley to James Petiver, who first described the species (Ray, Synops. Meth. Avium, p. 197).[10][11]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This magpie-robin is a resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from Bangladesh, interior India, Sri Lanka and eastern Pakistan east to Indonesia, Thailand, south China, Malaysia, and Singapore.[3] They have been introduced to Australia.[12]

The oriental magpie-robin is found in open woodland and cultivated areas often close to human habitations.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Juvenile in Sri Lanka
Magpie in Bangladesh

Magpie robins breed mainly from March to July in India and January to June in south-east Asia. Males sing from high perches during courtship. The display of the male involves puffing up the feathers, raising the bill, fanning the tail and strutting.[2] They nest in tree hollows or niches in walls or building, often adopting nest boxes. They line the cavity with grass. The female is involved in most of the nest building that happens about a week before the eggs are laid. Four or five eggs are laid in intervals of 24 hours and these are oval and usually pale blue green with brownish speckles which match the color of hay. The eggs are incubated by the female alone for 8 to 14 days.[13][14] The nests are said to have a characteristic odour.[15]

Females spend more effort on feeding the young than males. Males are quite aggressive in the breeding season and will defend their territory.[16] and respond to the singing of intruders and even their reflections.[17] Males spend more time on nest defense.[18] Studies of the bird song show dialects[19] with neighbours varying in their songs. The calls of many other species may be imitated as part of their song.[20] This may indicate that birds disperse and are not philopatric.[21] They appear to use elements of the calls of other birds in their own songs.[22] Females may sing briefly in the presence of male.[23] Apart from their song, they use a range of calls including territorial calls, emergence and roosting calls, threat calls, submissive calls, begging calls and distress calls.[24] The typical mobbing calls is a harsh hissing krshhh.[2][3][25]

The diet of magpie robins includes mainly insects and other invertebrates. Although mainly insectivorous, they are known to occasionally take flower nectar, geckos,[26][27] leeches,[28] centipedes[29] and even fish.[30]

They are often active late at dusk.[3] They sometimes bathe in rainwater collected on the leaves of a tree.[31]

Status[edit]

This species is considered as one of "little concern" globally but in some areas the species is on the decline.

In Singapore and Hong Kong (Malay names Murai Kampung/cacing) they were common in the 1920s, but declined in the 1970s, presumably due to competition from introduced common mynas,[32] Poaching for the pet bird trade and habitat changes have also affected them and they are locally protected by law.[33]

This species has few avian predators. Several pathogens and parasites have been reported. Avian malaria parasites have been isolated from the species[34] while H4N3[35] and H5N1 infection has been noted in a few cases.[36] Parasitic nematodes of the eye have been described[37]

In culture[edit]

Doyel Chatwar, Dhaka

Magpie robins were widely kept as cagebirds for their singing abilities and for fighting in India in the past.[38] They continue to be in the pet trade in parts of Southeast Asia.

The magpie robin is the National Bird of Bangladesh, where it is common and known as the Doyel or Doel (Bengali: দোয়েল). It is a widely used symbol in Bangladesh, appearing on currency notes, and a landmark in the city of Dhaka is named as the Doyel Chatwar (meaning: Doyel Square).

In Sri Lanka this bird is called Polkichcha.[39]


References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Copsychus saularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Ali, S & S D Ripley (1997). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan 8 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 243–247. ISBN 0-19-562063-1. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. p. 395. 
  4. ^ Baker, ECS (1921). "Handlist of the birds of the Indian empire". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 27 (4): 87–88. 
  5. ^ Ripley, S D (1952). "The thrushes". Postilla 13: 1–48. 
  6. ^ Hoogerwerf, A (1965). "Notes on the taxonomy of Copsychus saularis with special reference to the subspecies amoenus and javensis". Ardea 53: 32–37. 
  7. ^ Sheldon FH; Lohman DH; Lim HC; Zou F; Goodman SM; Prawiradilaga DM; Winker K; Braile TM; Moyle RG (2009). "Phylogeography of the magpie-robin species complex (Aves: Turdidae: Copsychus) reveals a Philippine species, an interesting isolating barrier and unusual dispersal patterns in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia". Journal of Biogeography 36 (6): 1070–1083. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02087.x. 
  8. ^ Baker, ECS (1924). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Birds 2 (2 ed.). Taylor and Francis, London. pp. 112–116. 
  9. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1760). Systema naturae. 
  10. ^ Blyth E. (1867). "The Ornithology of India. - A commentary on Dr. Jerdon's 'Birds of India'". Ibis 3 (9): 1–48. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1867.tb06417.x. 
  11. ^ Newton, Alfred (1893–1896). A Dictionary of Birds. Adam & Charles Black, London. p. 133. 
  12. ^ "Inventory of exotic (non-native) bird species known to be in Australia". 2007. 
  13. ^ Pillai,NG (1956). "Incubation period and 'mortality rate' in a brood of the Magpie-Robin [Copsychus saularis (Linn.)]". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 54 (1): 182–183. 
  14. ^ Hume, AO (1890). The nests and eggs of Indian birds 2 (2 ed.). R H Porter, London. pp. 80–85. 
  15. ^ Siddique, Yasir Hasan (2008). "Breeding Behavior of Copsychus saularis in Indian-Sub-Continent: A Personal Experience" (PDF). International Journal of Zoological Research 4 (2): 135–137. doi:10.3923/ijzr.2008.135.137. 
  16. ^ Narayanan E. (1984). "Behavioural response of a male Magpie-Robin (Copsychus saularis Sclater) to its own song". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (1): 199–200. 
  17. ^ Cholmondeley,EC (1906). "Note on the Magpie Robin (Copsychus saularis)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17 (1): 247. 
  18. ^ Sethi, Vinaya Kumar & Dinesh Bhatt (2007) Provisioning of young by the Oriental Magpie-robin. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(3):356–360
  19. ^ Aniroot Dunmak & Narit Sitasuwan (2007). "Song Dialect of Oriental Magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) in Northern Thailand" (PDF). The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 7 (2): 145–153. 
  20. ^ Neelakantan,KK (1954). "The secondary song of birds.". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52 (3): 615–620. 
  21. ^ Bhattacharya, H.; J. Cirillo, B.R. Subba and D. Todt (2007). "Song Performance Rules in the Oriental Magpie Robin (Copsychus salauris)" (PDF). Our Nature 5: 1–13. doi:10.3126/on.v5i1.791. 
  22. ^ Law,SC (1922). "Is the Dhayal Copsychus saularis a mimic?". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 28 (4): 1133. 
  23. ^ Kumar, Anil & Dinesh Bhatt () Characteristics and significance of song in female Oriental Magpie-Robin, Copysychus saularis. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 99(1):54-58
  24. ^ Kumar, A. and Bhatt, D. (2001). "Characteristics and significance of calls in Oriental magpie robin". Curr. Sci. 80: 77–82. 
  25. ^ Bonnell,B (1934). "Notes on the habits of the Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis saularis Linn.". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 37 (3): 729–730. 
  26. ^ Sumithran,Stephen (1982). "Magpie-Robin feeding on geckos". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79 (3): 671. 
  27. ^ Saxena, Rajiv (1998). "Geckos as food of Magpie Robin". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 95 (2): 347. 
  28. ^ Karthikeyan,S (1992). "Magpie Robin preying on a leech". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 32 (3&4): 10. 
  29. ^ Kalita,Simanta Kumar (2000). "Competition for food between a Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor (Daudin) and a Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis Linn." 97 (3). p. 431. 
  30. ^ Sharma, Satish Kumar (1996). "Attempts of female Magpie Robin to catch a fish". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 93 (3): 586. 
  31. ^ Donahue,Julian P (1962). "The unusual bath of a Lorikeet [Loriculus vernalis (Sparrman)] and a Magpie-Robin [Copsychus saularis (Linn.)]". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 59 (2): 654. 
  32. ^ Huong SL & Sodhi NS (1997). "Status of the Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis in Singapore". Malay Nat. J. 50: 347–354. 
  33. ^ Yap, Charlotte A. M. and Navjot S. Sodhi (2004). "Southeast Asian invasive birds: ecology, impact and management". Ornithological Science 3: 57–67. doi:10.2326/osj.3.57. 
  34. ^ Ogaki, M. (1949). "Bird Malaria Parasites Found in Malay Peninsula.". Am. J. Trop. Med. 29 (4): 459–462. 
  35. ^ Dennis J. Alexander (1992). Avian Influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere 1986-1992. Avian Diseases 47. Special Issue. Third International Symposium on Avian Influenza. 1992 Proceedings. pp. 7–19. 
  36. ^ Quarterly Epidemiology Report Jan-Mar 2006. Hong Kong Government. 2006. 
  37. ^ Sultana, Ameer (1961). "A Known and a New Filariid from Indian Birds.". The Journal of Parasitology (The American Society of Parasitologists) 47 (5): 713–714. doi:10.2307/3275453. JSTOR 3275453. PMID 13918345. 
  38. ^ Law, Satya Churn (1923). Pet birds of Bengal. Thacker, Spink & Co. 
  39. ^ Anonymous (1998). "Vernacular Names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent" (PDF). Buceros 3 (1): 53–109. 

Other sources[edit]

  • Mehrotra, P. N. 1982. Morphophysiology of the cloacal protuberance in the male Copsychus saularis (L.) (Aves, Passeriformes). Science and Culture 48:244–246.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Superspecifically related to C. sechellarum of the Seychelles Islands and C. albospecularis of Madagascar (Sibley and Monroe 1990). C. niger sometimes is regarded as closely related to and possibly conspecific with C. saularis (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990).

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