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Range DescriptionLuscinia ruficeps is known from four confirmed or probable breeding sites in north-central Sichuan and southern Shaanxi, south-western China, although there are recent records from only one of these. In Jiuzhaigou National Park, six singing males were heard along 3-4 km of the valley near Nuorilong in 1991, and four singing males and two females were seen along c.400 m of trail in the valley above "Pearl Shoal waterfall" in June 1995. It has been recorded once on passage in central Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Mahood et al. 2013, S. Mahood in litt. 2013) and in winter in Peninsular Malaysia. The paucity of records suggests that it probably has a localised distribution and a very small population. At the only breeding site with recent records, the species shows restricted habitat use in a narrow elevation range, which if assumed to be representative of the species's ecology suggests that across its entire potential range it may not exceed 2,500 mature individuals.