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BiologyThe semi-collared flycatcher feeds mainly on flying insects, including mayflies, stoneflies, caddis flies, ants and beetles, and also takes caterpillars, spiders and snails. Most hunting takes place in the air, with the flycatcher frequently darting out from a perch in a tree or bush to catch passing insects. Prey may also be taken directly from leaves or branches. Less is known about the species' feeding habits in its winter quarters, where it is often seen in mixed-species foraging flocks (2). The semi-collared flycatcher breeds between April and September (2) (6). The nest is built in a tree hollow, often a woodpecker hole, and is cup-shaped, built from dry leaves, dead plant stems, moss and lichens, and lined with grass, fine roots, bark fibres, and sometimes hair or feathers (2) (5). Four to seven eggs are laid, which hatch after an incubation period of 13 to 14 days. Nest-building and incubation are performed by the female, but both the male and female may help feed the young, which fledge after 14 to 17 days. The semi-collared flycatcher is thought to be mainly monogamous, but, as in the pied and collared flycatchers, may also practice polygyny, with the male mating with two or three females. The females may occupy different territories, each of which the male defends against intruders (2) (4). The male may sometimes abandon a female and instead spend all his time helping another rear the chicks (4).