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Overview

Brief Summary

Geothlypis philadelphia

A medium-sized (5-5 ¾ inches) wood warbler, the male Mourning Warbler is most easily identified by its olive-green back, yellow belly, gray head, and black upper breast patch. Female Mourning Warblers are similar to males, but are somewhat duller and lack the black on the breast. This species is most easily confused with the Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis), which may be distinguished by its white eye-ring and gray upper breast in both sexes. The Mourning Warbler breeds across a wide portion of southern Canada and the northeastern United States. Isolated breeding populations occur further south at higher elevations in the Appalachian Mountains. The Mourning Warbler is a long-distance migrant, wintering from Central America to northern South America. Mourning Warblers breed in open portions of mixed deciduous and evergreen northern forests, including clearings, forest edges, and portions of forest recently disturbed by logging or forest fires. In winter, this species inhabits wet thickets and undergrowth along the edges of open tropical forests. Mourning Warblers primarily eat insects in summer, but add fruits and berries to their diets during the winter. Due to this species’ preference for habitats with large amounts of undergrowth, Mourning Warblers are often more easily heard than seen. Birdwatchers may listen for this species’ “chirry, chirry, chorry, chorry” song, or may attempt to observe it foraging for insects deep in the undergrowth. Mourning Warblers are primarily active during the day.

Threat Status: Least concern

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: northeastern and central Alberta across southern Canada to Newfoundland, south to southern Manitoba, northeastern South Dakota, Great Lakes region, in higher Appalachians to West Virginia and Virginia and North Carolina, northeastern Pennsylvania, southeastern New York, central Massachusetts. NON-BREEDING: southern Nicaragua through Panama and Colombia into western Venezuela and eastern Ecuador. Transient through northern Central America and Atlantic lowlands of Mexico. Accidental in fall in the West Indies.

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Range

SE Canada and ne US; winters Nicaragua to nw South America.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 13 cm

Weight: 13 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Shrubbery and bushes of open deciduous woodland and second growth, and shrubby margins of bogs, swamps, and marshes. In migration and winter: thickets, weedy areas, scrub, and woodland undergrowth, mostly in humid regions (AOU 1983). BREEDING: Nests on or near ground in thickets, thorny briers, or similar growth, in fern or weed clumps, grass tussocks, sometimes up to 1 m above ground in thickets (Harrison 1978).

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates primarily through the Mississippi and Ohio valleys and regularly through eastern Mexico, and through Middle America. Fall migration in Costa Rica extends from mid-September through early November, with a few sometimes arriving in late August; departs late April to mid-May (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Present in South America mostly October-April (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Gleans small insects and spiders from low growth or ground litter; eats protein corpuscles of CECROPIA (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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General Ecology

Solitary and territorial in winter (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Ridgely and Tudor 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 7.9 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size 3-5 eggs. Incubation 12-13 days, by female (fed by male). Young tended by both parents, leave nest at 7-9 days, begin to fly in second week out of nest, remain with adults for about 3 weeks. (Terres 1980, Harrison 1978).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Oporornis philadelphia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCGATTATAATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATAATCGGTGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGAGTCGGTACAGGTTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCTGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTTGCAATCTTCTCCCTACACCTAGCCGGTATCTCCTCAATCCTTGGAGCGATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATCAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCCTTATTCGTTTGATCAGTACTAATCACTGCAGTCCTCCTACTCCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTGGCCGCAGGAATCACAATACTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACGTTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGATCCAGTCCTATATCAACATCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCCGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oporornis philadelphia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Comments: In some parts of the range, threats include habitat loss via natural succession or human activity (Byrd and Johnston 1991).

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Wikipedia

Mourning warbler

Mourning warbler - Summerhill - Filmore Rd Creek, Cayuga County, New York, USA

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The mourning warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family.

These 13 cm (5.1 in) long birds have yellow underparts, olive-green upperparts and pink legs. Adult males have a grey hood and a black patch on the throat and breast. Females and immatures are grey-brown on the head with an incomplete eye-ring.

Their breeding habitat is thickets and semi-open areas with dense shrubs across Canada east of the Rockies and the northeastern United States. The nest is an open cup placed on the ground in a well-concealed location under thick shrubs or other vegetation.

These birds migrate to Central America and northern South America.

They forage low in vegetation, sometimes catching insects in flight. These birds mainly eat insects, also some plant material in winter.

The song of this bird is a bright repetitive warble. The call is a sharp chip.

The "mourning" in this bird's name refers to the male's hood, thought to resemble a mourning veil.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Escalante et al. 2009, Lovette et al. 2010) indicate that several species often placed in Oporornis (tolmiei, philadelphia, and formosa) are more closely related to Geothlypis species than to Oporornis sensu stricto (cf. Lowery and Monroe 1968).

Constitutes a superspecies with and has been considered conspecific with O. tolmiei (AOU 1983, 1998). Study of plumage, skeletal, and vocal characteristics supported recognition of tolmiei and philadelphia as separate species (Pitocchelli 1990). Exhibits little geographic variation in plumage and size throughout breeding range (Pitocchelli 1992).

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