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Range DescriptionSitta krueperi is endemic to Europe, where it is found in southernmost European Russia, Georgia, Turkey and the island of Lesbos, Greece. Its breeding population is estimated to be 80,000-170,000 pairs, with the majority - an estimated 60,000-120,000 breeding pairs - in Turkey (BirdLife International 2004). Although the small population in Greece is believed to have remained stable (at c.700-1000 individuals (HOS in litt. 2008)), the populations in Turkey and Russia - which together constitute over 95% of the known global population - both declined during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004). In Russia, significant declines have been observed in the Karachay-Cherkessia, whereas numbers in the Krasnodar region appear to be stable (A. Mischenko in litt. 2005).