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Range DescriptionThe species is endemic to the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia, also occurring on adjacent Madura and Nusa Penida, and (perhaps only as a vagrant or escapee) on Lombok. There are three subspecies, nominate melanopterus in most of Java, tricolor in south-east Java and tertius on Bali (Collar et al. 2012). Its range has changed little over recent decades (and may indeed have expanded owing to increased cultivation), but it has undergone a widespread rapid decline since at least the 1960s. It was formerly common in the plains of East Java, and locally common in central and west Java, but is now rare and very localised throughout. A similar decline has also occurred on Bali and Nusa Penida, and there are very few records from Madura or Lombok. A survey of 33 historical locations revealed just 32 individuals at only three locations (Muchtar and Nurwatha 2001). Despite regular checks of several bird markets in Java this species is rarely recorded, and according to sellers they are now very difficult to find (J. Eaton in litt. 2009), and only small numbers were sighted in 2009 at Pulau Dua, Baluran National Park, Alas Purwo National Park (all on Java), and at the Menjangan Jungle Beach Resort and Uluwatu on Bali (J. Eaton, M. Iqbal, S. Mahood and S. Winnasis in litt. 2009). In 2007 it was been reported as having declined to "a few hundred individuals" on Java (Braasch 2007), and the wild population of tertius on Bali is now thought to number a maximum of 100 birds, all in Bali Barat National Park (Collar et al. 2012). Regular sightings from Muara Angke in Central Jakarta (Java), probably relate to escaped individuals (N. Brickle in litt. 2007).