Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (11) (learn more)

Overview

Distribution

Range

Iberian Pen. to Siberia and central Asia; > to s Africa.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lanius minor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTAATTCGAGCAGAACTGGGACAGCCCGGTGCCCTTTTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATGGTTATGCCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTTCCACTAATA---ATCGGCGCTCCGGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATGAATAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCATCATTCCTCCTCCTACTTGCCTCTTCAACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGTGGGAACAGGATGAACTGTGTACCCACCATTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCTCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTA---GCCATTTTCTCATTACACCTAGCAGGTATTTCATCAATTCTAGGAGCAATCAACTTTATCACGACAGCAATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCCCTGTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTTGTATGATCAGTCCTAATTACCGCAGTTCTACTTCTTCTATCCCTCCCAGTACTTGCTGCC---GGAATTACTATGCTCCTAACGGACCGTAACCTAAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCAGTACTATACCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTATACATCCTAATTCTACCAGGATTCGGAATTATCTCCCACGTTGTAGCATACTATGCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGTTATATAGGAATAGTATGAGCTATACTATCCATCGGATTCCTCGGCTTTATTGTCTGAGCCCACCACATATTCACAGTAGGAATGGACGTCGACACACGAGCCTACTTCACATCAGCTACTATAATTATTGCCATTCCAACTGGAATTAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCAACACTGCACGGAGGC---ACAATCAAATGAGATCCACCAATACTATGAGCTCTAGGGTTTATCTTCCTATTCACTATTGGAGGACTAACAGGAATTGTCCTAGCCAACTCCTCCCTAGATATTGCCCTACACGACACATACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTT---CTATCCATGGGTGCAGTCTTTGCAATCCTAGCAGGATTTACTCACTGATTCCCACTCTTCACTGGATACACTCTGCACTCTACATGAGCTAAAATTCACTTCGGAGTGATGTTTGTAGGAGTAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lanius minor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status in Egypt

Regular passage visitor.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 620,000-1,500,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,860,000-4,500,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,510,000-9,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Lesser grey shrike

The lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) is a member of the shrike family Laniidae. It breeds in South and Central Europe and western Asia in the summer and migrates to winter quarters in southern Africa in the early autumn, returning in spring. It is a scarce vagrant to western Europe, including Great Britain, usually as a spring or autumn erratic.

It is similar in appearance to the great grey shrike Lanius excubitor and the southern grey shrike Lanius meridionalis being predominantly black, white and grey, with the males having pink-flushed underparts. It is slightly smaller than the great grey shrike, and has a black forehead and relatively longer wings. This species prefers dry open lowlands, and is often seen on telephone wires.

This medium-sized passerine eats large insects, especially beetles, butterflies, moths and grasshoppers. Like other shrikes it hunts from prominent perches and sometimes impales corpses on thorns or barbed wire as a "larder".

Taxonomy[edit]

The lesser grey shrike was first described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788. There are two subspecies, Lanius minor minor and Lanius minor turanicus.[2]

Description[edit]

The adult male lesser grey shrike has its nape, cheeks, ear and eye coverts and front part of the crown black. The hind part of the crown and the back is a pale bluish-grey and the rump is a similar but rather paler colour. The underparts are white with the lower breast and belly suffused with pink. The axillaries are greyish-white and the underwing coverts are brownish-black. The two central tail feathers are black with a white tip and base. The other pairs have increasing areas of white and less black. The primaries are black with a buff tip and white base. The secondaries are black with broader, paler tips but no white bases. The wing coverts are black with the lesser coverts being fringed with grey. The female has similar plumage but the head is dark grey rather than black, the ear coverts brownish-black, the upperparts a brownish-grey and the underparts less pink than the male. The juvenile is similar to the adults but is altogether more brown. It lacks the grey back and rump which are instead pale brown and faintly barred, and the underparts are white and cream without any pink. All birds have a brownish-black beak with a paler base to the lower mandible, brown irises and black legs and feet.[3] Adult length is around 20 cm (7.9 in) with a wing length of 13 cm (5.1 in) and a tarsus length of 2.5 cm (1 in).[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The lesser grey shrike spends the summer in South and Central Europe and western Asia. It breeds in southern France, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Italy, the former Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and southern Russia. In Asia it breeds in the Middle East, its range extending as far as eastern Turkey and Iran. It is a vagrant to more northerly parts of Europe, usually in spring or autumn. Countries where it has been seen include Sweden, Finland, Denmark, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium and northern France. It is a migratory species and winters in a broad belt across tropical southern Africa.[4]

During the summer the lesser grey shrike inhabits open countryside, the edges of cultivated areas, heathland with scattered bushes and trees, gardens, coppices, woodland and roadside trees. In its winter quarters it is usually found in scrubland and among thorn trees.[3]

Behaviour[edit]

Riyadh, KSA, Sept 1992

The lesser grey shrike hunts from a strategic post, wire or branch and primarily feeds on insects which it catches in the air or on the ground. The diet includes beetles, moths and butterflies, large flies, grasshoppers, crickets and millipedes. Some fruits such as cherries and figs are eaten to a limited extent.[3] The bird occasionally impales freshly caught prey on thorns for use later, but this is done to a much lesser extent than by some other shrike species. It has been shown experimentally that this species only creates a larder when it is satiated and that prey items are seldom plentiful enough for this to be the case. The male has been observed to feed the female before starting to create a food store. Repeated experimental exposure of birds to a food surplus significantly increases the rate at which they impale freshly caught prey. Other causal factors in the failure of this species to hoard may be a shortage of suitable caching sites and the fact that the bird lacks practice in storing food and this constrains its learning ability.[5]

The flight of the lesser grey shrike is low and somewhat undulating and it occasionally glides with extended wings. At the end of the flight it swoops upward to land on a new hunting perch. It then turns its head from side to side searching for prey. When on the ground it hops, but it normally only stays there for long enough to pick up an item of food. Like other shrikes, when excited it fans its tail and moves it up and down or from sided to side. It is pugnacious and will defend its nest with vigour and drive away larger birds.[3]

Breeding[edit]

The nest is often built in a roadside tree with good all-round visibility some 4 to 10 metres (13 to 33 ft) off the ground. It is built by both birds out of the stems of various flowering plants such as cudweed (Gnaphalium) and (Filago), and thyme (Thymus), and lined with whisps of wool, hairs, roots and feathers. There are five to seven eggs in the clutch, usually bluish green blotched with greenish-brown. Sometimes the background colour is cream or buff with pinkish-brown blotches. Their average size is 26.1 by 18.2 millimetres (1.03 in × 0.72 in). Incubation lasts about fifteen days and is chiefly done by the female though both parents take part. They both feed the young which are ready to leave the nest after about fourteen days. There is usually a single brood.[3]

Status[edit]

The lesser grey shrike has a world population estimated as being between two and a half and nine million individuals. These are spread out over a wide range and the IUCN, in its Red List of Threatened Species, lists the bird as being of "Least Concern". Though the number of birds may be decreasing slightly, this is not thought to be sufficient to raise the species to the more threatened "Vulnerable" category.[1]

In Europe the numbers of lesser grey shrikes has been dwindling and there are now thought to be three to five thousand breeding pairs. The diminution in numbers may be due to a series of wet summers leading to a dearth of insects. Another factor may be changes in agricultural practices with small enclosures with varying crops and patches of woodland being replaced by large fields. As a result, this bird has been listed as a threatened species in Annex I of the European Commission Birds Directive.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Lanius minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) Gmelin, 1788". Avibase. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Witherby, H. F. (ed.) (1943). Handbook of British Birds, Volume 1: Crows to Firecrest. H. F. and G. Witherby Ltd. pp. 278–280. 
  4. ^ a b Coward, T. A. (1941). The Birds of the British Isles and their Eggs. Frederick Warne & Co. p. 150. 
  5. ^ Valera, Francisco; Krištín, Anton; Hoi, Herbert (2001). "Why Does the Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) Seldom Store Food? Determinants of Impaling in an Uncommon Storing Species". Behaviour 138 (11/12): 1421–1436. doi:10.1163/156853901317367672. JSTOR 4535901. 
  6. ^ "Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor)". Wild Birds: Threatened bird species in Annex I. European Commission: Environment. 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!