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Overview

Brief Summary

Vermivora cyanoptera

A medium-sized (4 ½ -5 inches) wood warbler, the male Blue-winged Warbler is most easily identified by its olive-green back, yellow breast, yellow forehead, black eye-stripes, and gray-blue wings with white wing bars. Female Blue-winged Warblers are similar to males, but are somewhat duller overall with an olive-green cast on the head and back. This species occasionally hybridizes with the related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), producing a dominant hybrid form (“Brewster’s Warbler,” which is pale below and olive green above with the Blue-winged Warbler’s black eye-stripes) and, more rarely, a recessive hybrid form (“Lawrence’s Warbler,” which is yellow below and olive-green above with the Golden-winged Warbler’s black facial markings). The Blue-winged Warbler breeds in portions of the eastern United States and southern Canada from Minnesota east to Massachusetts and from Ontario south to northern Alabama. In winter, this species migrates south to southern Mexico and Central America. This species has recently expanded its range northward into areas inhabited by Golden-winged Warblers, perhaps being partially responsible for the latter species’ recent declines. Blue-winged Warblers primarily breed in semi-open woodland habitats, particularly around forest edges, clearings, and places where ecological disturbance (forest fires, for example) has recently occurred. In winter, this species utilizes similar types of habitat in humid tropical forests. Blue-winged Warblers eat a variety of small invertebrates, primarily moths. In appropriate habitat, Blue-winged Warblers may be seen foraging for food on leaves and branches at middle heights in the canopy. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a buzzing “beee-bzzz” dropping in pitch at the end. Blue-winged Warblers are primarily active during the day.

Threat Status: Least Concern

  • Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Gill, Frank B., Ronald A. Canterbury and John L. Confer. 2001. Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/584
  • Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
  • Vermivora pinus. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • eBird Range Map - Blue-winged Warbler. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: eastern Nebraska east across Great Lakes region to New England, south to Arkansas, northern Alabama, northern Georgia, Maryland, and Delaware (AOU 1998). NON-BREEDING: Puebla south through Veracruz, Oaxaca, Yucatan Peninsula, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras, to central Panama (Stiles and Skutch 1989, AOU 1998).

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Range

E US; winters se Mexico to Panama.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 12 cm

Weight: 8 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: BREEDING: Brushy hillsides, second growth, partly open situations with saplings, bogs, woodland edge and clearings, stream edges, overgrown pastures, swamps. Nests close to or on ground, in bushes, weeds, or grasses, or under bushes, or between exposed roots of stump (Terres 1980).

NON-BREEDING: In migration and winter, occurs in brushy areas, scrub, and open woodland (Terres 1980). In the Yucatan, Mexico is a tropical forest specialist (Lynch 1989).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Arrives (but uncommon to rare) in Costa Rica early to mid-September, departs by mid- to late April (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats insects and spiders (Terres 1980). NON-BREEDING: pries open rolled leaves and probes for insect larvae and spiders. Hovers or hangs under leaves to snatch prey (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 7.9 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size is four-seven (usually five-six). Incubation, by female, lasts about 10-12 days. Young leave nest at 8-11 days.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vermivora pinus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATACCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATCCGGGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCTCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTATACAACGTAGTTGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTCATACCAATTATAATCGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCTCCATCATTCCTCCTCCTCCTAGCATCCTCTACAGTTGAAGCAGGCGTAGGCACAGGCTGAACAGTATACCCCCCATTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTCGCAATTTTCTCCTTACACCTAGCGGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCTCCTGCCCTATCACAATATCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTCTGATCAGTATTAATCACTGCAGTCCTCCTGCTTCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTAGCCGCAGGAATCACAATACTCCTCACAGATCGCAACCTCAACACCACATTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGGGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATACCAACATCTCNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vermivora pinus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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