occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: RESIDENT: southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, northwestern and central Arizona, central New Mexico and western Texas south to northeastern Baja California, central Sonora and central Chihuahua, south locally to central Mexico (AOU 1983).
Length: 29 cm
Weight: 63 grams
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: Desert scrub, mesquite, tall riparian brush and, locally, chaparral (AOU 1983). Usually beneath dense cover. BREEDING: Nests in low tree or shrub, usually in a fork, 0.8-2.5 m above ground (Terres 1980).
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Comments: Little information available. Known to eat insects, berries, and sometimes small lizards (Terres 1980).
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Clutch size 2-4 (usually 3). Incubation 14 days, by both sexes (Terres 1980). Nestlings altricial. Young tended by both adults, leave nest 11-12 days after hatching.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2008Least Concern
- 2004Least Concern
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
The Crissal Thrasher (Toxostoma crissale) is a large thrasher found in the Southwestern United States (western Texas, southern New Mexico, southern Arizona, southeastern California, extreme southern Nevada, and extreme southwestern Utah) to central Mexico.
The bird grows to 32 cm (12.5 inches), and has a deeply curved bill. The eyes are dull yellow. Bird expert Roger Tory Peterson described its singing as sweeter and less spasmodic than other thrashers. It can be found near desert streams in dense underbrush, mesquite thickets, willows, scrub oak, high elevations in manzanita, and in the low desert near canyon chaparral. The bird seldom flies in the open. The Crissal Thrasher rarely flies, preferring to walk or run around its territory and will mostly run for cover when disturbed by a potential predator.
In the early years of the study of the birds of western North America, this species was confused with the California Thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum), to which it is closely related. Descriptions of T. redivivum in John Cassin's 1856 book Illustrations of the Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British, and Russian America led later ornithologists to conclude that at least three of the birds described were actually the Crissal Thrasher. When an army surgeon working in New Mexico sent Cassin specimens of a bird that he believed to be the California Thrasher, Cassin sent the specimens to Spencer Baird at the Smithsonian Institution. Baird determined that it was not a California Thrasher and published his findings in 1858, identifying the Crissal Thrasher as a new species.
Printer's errors in Baird's 1858 publication led to longstanding confusion and contention over the naming of the Crissal Thrasher. As printed, Baird's publication identified the new species as Toxostoma dorsalis, because the printer had switched the species name of the new thrasher with the species name of a new junco species, Junco dorsalis. Baird arranged for the error to be corrected, recording the name as T. crissalis the following month. Thereafter, the T. crissalis name was accepted and used until 1920, when ornithologist Harry Oberholser published a note asserting that T. dorsalis must be used instead because it had publication priority over T. crissalis, even though the original publication had been a mistake and had been quickly corrected. As a result, the T. dorsalis epithet appeared in ornithological literature until 1983, when the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature formally restored Baird's intended name of T. crissale.
The Crissal Thrasher builds its nests in dense shrubs about 3 to 8 feet up, typically under a large branch for protection both from other birds and the sun. The male and female cooperate in building the cup-shaped nest, which is built from twigs and lined with finer vegetation. The eggs, which are blue in color and lack spots (this is the only species of thrasher to lay eggs without spots), are laid in clutches of 2 to 3 eggs and incubated for about 2 weeks, with both the male and female taking turns on the nest. The young are fledged 11 to 13 days after they hatch. The chick is paler and duller than the adult, with a browner undertail.
The species is an omnivore, eating both insects and spiders, and seeds and fruits. The Crissal Thrasher is mainly a ground feeder, using its long bill to probe for its prey amongst the leaf litter, particularly under shrubs.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Toxostoma crissale". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106006874/0. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Peterson's Field Guide to Birds of North America, page 322
- The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, Western Region, pg. 523
- "Crissal Thrasher Life History". The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://fody.ornith.cornell.edu/guide/Crissal_Thrasher/lifehistory. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- John Cassin (1856), Illustrations of the Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British, and Russian America. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. Pages 260-264.
- "Crissal Thrasher". The Birds of North America. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/419/articles/introduction. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- H. C. Oberholser (1920), "Toxostoma crissalis versus Toxostoma dorsalis," The Auk, Vol. 37, page 303. 
- "CRISSAL THRASHER". Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/Search/Display.asp?FlNm=toxocris. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Crissal Thrasher Identification". The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Crissal_Thrasher/id. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Formerly known as T. DORSALE (AOU 1998). Sibley and Monroe (1990) suggest that this species constitutes a superspecies with T. REDIVIVUM, but the phylogenetic analysis of Zink et al. (1999) indicates that the sister species of T. CRISSALE is T. LECONTEI. Placed in the family Sturnidae by Sibley and Ahlquist (1984).