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Range DescriptionLoxia scotica occurs in Scotland, UK, where it is mainly restricted to the eastern Highlands within which core areas are Nairn, Moray and Banff, extending down into lower Deeside, and in Sutherland (Summers and Buckland in press). It is likely that there are shifts in the distribution of the population in response to regional fluctuations in the cone crops of conifers, particularly those of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (Tucker and Heath 1994, I. Bainbridge and R. Summers in litt. 1999). The population size was estimated at 1,500 adult birds in the early 1970s and at estimate of 300-1250 pairs in 1988. Surveys during 1995-2003 using an apparently diagnostic excitement call to locate the species found it in 94 woods during the breeding season (Summers et al. 2004), but as birds are likely to move seasonally and this study was carried out over several years it is hard to be sure how much duplication is involved. Using the same diagnostic excitement call, a recent study has estimated its population to number 13,600 post-juvenile individuals (Summers and Buckland in press).