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Range DescriptionXenospingus concolor occurs in 15 scattered river valleys or habitat patches on the Pacific slope of Peru (Lima, Ica, Arequipa and Moquagua) and north Chile (Tarapac and Antofagasta) (Howell and Webb 1995b, O. Gonzlez in litt. 1999, Clements and Shany 2001). The range has contracted in Peru, and remaining populations are fragmented (O. Gonzalez in litt. 2004), with no recent records less than 70 km south of Lima city (Clements and Shany 2001). Key populations in Peru are at Ocucaje (Ica), the Yauca valley and near the Mejia lagoons in the Tambo valley (both Arequipa) (O. Gonzlez in litt. 1999). In Chile, it is common in the Lluta and Azapa valleys (S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1999), with several subpopulations exceeding 1,000 individuals, and it has colonised a new area in Antofagasta (Howell and Webb 1995b), having not been seen in the province since 1944. Recent information suggests that it is probably more common than previously estimated, in Chile at least (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), so it has recently been reclassified as Near Threatened. The range extension south to Antofagasta may have been related to the planting of ornamental shade trees (Howell and Webb 1995b).