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Range DescriptionPenelope pileata occurs exclusively in dense lowland humid forest south of the Amazon, from lower rio Madeira to the rio Xing (Gorotire and Altamira), as far as east Par (Ourm and Serra dos Carajas) and Maranho (rio Graja, and the Mearim-Pindare river system), in north-central Brazil (Sick 1993, Roth 1997, J. F. Pacheco in litt. 1999, F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Surveys in the late 1980s and early 1990s almost doubled the known range of this species, and it is relatively common in Amaznia (Tapajs) National Park, but scarce around Santarm, Par (Sick 1993, del Hoyo 1994, Strahl et al. 1994). However, the total population is not considered to be large, and forest destruction has been fairly widespread, especially in Maranho and Par (Cleary 1991, Strahl et al. 1994, F. Olmos in litt. 1999).