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Range DescriptionPenelope barbata has a relatively restricted range in south Ecuador (Azuay, El Oro, Loja) and northwest Peru in Piura (Huancabamba, Ayabaca, including Aypate, El Toldo, Bosque de Cuyas and Cerro Huamingas, Maray [Flanagan et al. 2000] and Cerro Chinguela [Begazo and Valqui 2000]), Lambayeque (Laquipampa Wildlife refuge [Angulo and Aleman 2006]) and Cajamarca (SaÃ±a valley, Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary [Amanzo et al. 2003]) departments. (Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ayabaca, Huancabamba and Ferrenafe). Suitable habitat within its range is estimated at 2,637 km2 in Ecuador (Krabbe et al. 1998), and probably a larger area in Peru. In 1989, the population in Ecuador was estimated at c.3,000 individuals (1,000-6,000) occurring at c.2-4 birds/km2, although surveys have produced much higher density estimates in the Cordillera de Chilla (Jacobs and Walker 1999), and recently at two sites in Loja province where 33 birds/km2 were recorded at Cajanuma (a relatively well-protected area) and 17 birds/km2 were estimated at Curishiro (a mining area) (Medina et al. 1994). Montane forest in Podocarpus National Park possibly holds up to 1,000 pairs (I. Franke per J. FjeldsÃ¥ in litt. 1999). Since 1989, other populations have been found in Ecuador, notably on Lomo Angashcola, Loma del Oro, Mamanunga and Santiago; Loja (Wege and Long 1995, Best et al. 1996, Flanagan et al. 2000). In Peru the species it is relatively common in the upper SaÃ±a valley, Cajamarca (I. Franke per J. FjeldsÃ¥ in litt. 1999), and has recently been discovered at several sites in Ayabaca and Cajamarca (J. P. O'Neill in litt. 1999). It has also been found in âLa Palizadaâ at 3100 m in upper Chancay Valley and in several localities along the east side of the western cordillera in Lambayeque and Cajamarca, between KaÃ±aris and Boque de Proteccion Pagaibamba (F. Angulo in litt. 2012).