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Range DescriptionPenelope barbata has a relatively restricted range in south Ecuador (Azuay, El Oro, Loja) and northwest Peru in Piura (Huancabamba, Ayabaca, including Aypate, El Toldo, Bosque de Cuyas and Cerro Huamingas, Maray [Flanagan et al. 2000] and Cerro Chinguela [Begazo and Valqui 2000]), Lambayeque (Laquipampa Wildlife refuge [Angulo and Aleman 2006]) and Cajamarca (Saña valley, Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary [Amanzo et al. 2003]) departments. (Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Ayabaca, Huancabamba and Ferrenafe). Suitable habitat within its range is estimated at 2,637 km2 in Ecuador (Krabbe et al. 1998), and probably a larger area in Peru. In 1989, the population in Ecuador was estimated at c.3,000 individuals (1,000-6,000) occurring at c.2-4 birds/km2, although surveys have produced much higher density estimates in the Cordillera de Chilla (Jacobs and Walker 1999), and recently at two sites in Loja province where 33 birds/km2 were recorded at Cajanuma (a relatively well-protected area) and 17 birds/km2 were estimated at Curishiro (a mining area) (Medina et al. 1994). Montane forest in Podocarpus National Park possibly holds up to 1,000 pairs (I. Franke per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999). Since 1989, other populations have been found in Ecuador, notably on Lomo Angashcola, Loma del Oro, Mamanunga and Santiago; Loja (Wege and Long 1995, Best et al. 1996, Flanagan et al. 2000). In Peru the species it is relatively common in the upper Saña valley, Cajamarca (I. Franke per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999), and has recently been discovered at several sites in Ayabaca and Cajamarca (J. P. O'Neill in litt. 1999). It has also been found in “La Palizada” at 3100 m in upper Chancay Valley and in several localities along the east side of the western cordillera in Lambayeque and Cajamarca, between Kañaris and Boque de Proteccion Pagaibamba (F. Angulo in litt. 2012).