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Range DescriptionOrtalis erythroptera is largely confined to the Tumbesian region of west Ecuador, in Esmeraldas, ManabÃ, Guayas, Los RÃos, Chimborazo, Azuay (P. Coopmans in litt. 1998), El Oro and Loja; extreme north-west Peru, in Tumbes and Piura (Barrio and Begazo 1998), and extreme south-west Colombia, in NariÃ±o (Strewe 2001). In the last decade, a new population was discovered in humid and wet areas of eastern Esmeraldas, mostly along the major river systems where forest cover is severely fragmented (O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007). At this moment, it is unclear whether this population was previously overlooked or if it represents a recent expansion of the species's range. Although it is possible that the chachalaca temporarily benefits from forest fragmentation in that area, deforestation rates in Esmeraldas are so high that almost total deforestation might occur within one or two decades (O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007).