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Overview

Brief Summary

Taxonomy

There is clear distinction between wild rock pigeons, domestic pigeons and feral pigeons.Some people speak of ferals as “free-flying domestics”, but we have seen that feral pigeons have developed themselves as being independent of human interference. However, you will see feral pigeons often referred to as Columba livia domestica, though this is a combination that is, nomenclaturally, wholly unrecognised. This is because the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature pertains only to “natural” biological, and not to those created by human selection. For Feral pigeons it is not suitable anyway, because they are not created by human selection. Some authors employ the convention of the variety (C. livia var. domestica), which is not a formal category in zoological nomenclature either. And the same for form or forma; C. livia f. domestica is invalid according to the rules of the Code.Knowing all of this, how to refer to feral pigeons then? To begin with, since feral pigeons are not domestic pigeons, they should not be called domestic pigeons. Not vernacularly or otherwise. If someone will someday propose to call them “C. livia ferina” or “C. livia urbana”, that are names to avoided as well, because feral pigeons have multiple origins. The only valid scientific name for feral pigeons is Columba livia, after there original ancestor. And the preferred vernacular name is feral pigeon.

Other common names
  • Common pigeon
  • Town pigeon
  • City pigeon
  • Street pigeon
  • Park pigeon
  • Field pigeon
  • Urban pigeon


Some history
In the 10th edition of his Systema Naturea, Linnaeus described his ‘blue pigeon’ after Aldrovandi’s Oenas s. Vinago. According to Linnaeus the species was bluish-grey with a glossy green neck and a black bar on his tail and wings. (“caerulescens, collo supra viridi-nitente, fascia alarum apiceque caudae nigricante”). He named this pigeon Columba oenas, and that was quite a good description of the stock dove indeed.However, Linnaeus did not mean the stock dove specific. He meant all pigeons, wild and tame, what in his opinion meet this description. So both the stock dove and the rock pigeon and all tame pigeons with a comparable plumage colour. According to him it was all the same species. However, within the species oenas Linnaeus distinguished specifically the so called tame pigeons or dovecote pigeons. This variety he called Columba domestica. Besides their colour these pigeons didn’t differ at all from the ‘wild form’.Next Linnaeus described a few domesticated breeds as if they where original forms (species). Because he mentioned them apart from his oenas and domestica it is obvious that he didn’t know these pigeons actually were domesticated forms. Also in the 12th edition of his Systema Naturea he still didn’t know and among others he mentioned as being original species the following pigeons:
  • Columba hispanica (runt)
  • Columba cucullata (Jacobin)
  • Columba turbita (Turbit)
  • Columba laticauda (Fantail)
  • Columba gyratrix (Tumbler)
  • Columba turcica (Indian)
  • Columba tabellaria (Carrier)
  • Columba hispida (silky feathered pigeon)
  • Columba gutturosa (Pouter)
Between 1788 and 1793 Gmelin’s revision of Linnaeus’ 13th edition was published. In Tom I.2 (1789) Gmelin mentioned Columba oenas as well but he did mean the Stock dove only. And he also described Columba domestica, but now separated from oenas.According to Gmelin this ‘Common Pigeon’ is ash-grey with a white rump and a black bar on the tail and wings (“cinerea, uropygio albo, alurum fascia, caudaeque apice nigricante”). Just like Linnaeus Gmelin described next a few related, but distinguishable forms of which we know nowadays it are domesticated breeds. It’s remarkable that he discerned these forms (20 in total) as varieties of Columba domestica. This may indicate that Gmelin knew that all those pigeons derived from each other. But at least he knew they had nothing to do with the stock dove.The first variety within domestica he started with is Columba livia. Most important difference between domestica and livia, according to Gmelin, is the double bar on the wings (“alarum fascia duplici”). Who originated from who was still not yet completely clear. However, by this Gmelin was the first who had scientifically named the rock pigeon. If he really meant the wild rock pigeon, or tame pigeons with the same colour, is not clear but that does not matter. In those days tame pigeons were often kept in a semi wild state so that it was not easy to tell the difference and they are the same species anyway.
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Introduction

Columba livia is the pigeon. There are 3 types of pigeon:
  • rock pigeons (natural)
  • domestic pigeons (artificial)
  • feral pigeons (outlaws)
The feral pigeons, found in our towns and cities, stemmed almost entirely from the old-time dovecote pigeons. These dovecote pigeons were semi-domesticated birds that originally derived from wild rock pigeons (Columba livia).The feral pigeons are often ignored by ornithologists. Perhaps because:
  • they are not native wild birds
  • the result of man’s interference with nature
Feral pigeons live in an artificial environment, like the townspeople who feed them, but they are not pariahs.Feral pigeons have lived in our towns for so long now that it is hard to say they are not native. Their original ancestor, the rock pigeon, is a native wild bird - this makes the feral pigeon a fully-fledged species as well, which does not deserve to be ignored or hated.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Feral pigeons must be familiar to almost everyone. Typically they are similar to wild rock pigeons in general shape but often have proportionally narrower bodies, longer tails, broader bills and larger ceres. They differ in colour from the blue rock pigeons. Chequer is still the commonest colour in feral pigeons, though the original blue is probably second common.
  • Blue is the natural colour of the rock dove.
  • General plumage is blue-grey, usually pale blue-grey on wings.
  • Two conspicuous black bars across the wing, and a broad black bar at the end of the tail.
  • Rump usually white ore pale grey, but often same grey as rest of plumage.
  • Neck and upper breast iridescent green and purple.
  • Blue chequer is as in blue, but the wing bars are wider and the rest of the wing feathers with black markings, giving a spotted effect.
  • Much variation from lightly spotted birds to dark blue chequers in which the closed wing appears black and the rest of the plumage is also darker. But even in the darkest chequer the tail colour is always blue with the black bar visible at the end. This distinguishes dark chequers from real black (spread) pigeons in which the rump and tail is also solid black.
Other colours like red, black, grizzle, pied and white also often occur, but the ratio of colours differs in each population (town).
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Distribution

Wild Columba livia are native to Europe, North Africa, and southwestern Asia. Feral pigeons are found worldwide, including throughout all of North America. It should be noted that occurrence within this range is not evenly distributed (see habitat).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Introduced ); ethiopian (Introduced , Native ); neotropical (Introduced ); australian (Introduced ); oceanic islands (Introduced )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Native to Eurasia. Introduced and established throughout most of world.

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Geographic Range

Wild rock doves are native to Europe, North Africa, and southwestern Asia. Rock doves are found worldwide, including throughout all of North America. It should be noted that occurrence within this range is not evenly distributed (see habitat).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Introduced ); ethiopian (Introduced ); neotropical (Introduced ); australian (Introduced )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

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Physical Description

Morphology

The rock dove has a dark bluish-gray head, neck, and chest with glossy yellowish, greenish, and reddish-purple iridescence along its neck and wing feathers. Females tend to show less iridescence than the males. The bill is dark grayish-pink. Two dark bands across the wings are seen in most pigeons, and one bluish-gray band across the tail. Rock doves and feral pigeons can be divided into a large number of different phenotypes, or groups based on outward characteristics. Some of these classifications are the blue-bar, blue checker, dark checker, spread, and red phenotypes.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 358.7 g.

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Physical Description

Rock doves typically have a dark bluish-gray head, neck, and chest with glossy yellowish, greenish, and reddish-purple iridesence along their neck and wing feathers. Females tend to show less iridesence than the males and males tend to be slightly larger than females. The bill is dark grayish-pink. Two dark bands across the wings are seen in most pigeons, and one bluish-gray band across the tail. Feral rock doves are highly variable in color and pattern, though, ranging from white to black and mottled pattern to uniform patterns. Adult rock doves have reddish-orange eyes, juveniles less than 6-8 months old have medium brown or greyish eyes.

Average mass: 350.0 g.

Average length: 32.0 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; male more colorful

Average mass: 358.7 g.

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Size

Length: 32 cm

Weight: 542 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Depth range based on 94 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 19 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 9.557 - 12.471
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 12.829
  Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.245
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.137 - 6.590
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.306 - 0.734
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 8.436

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 9.557 - 12.471

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 12.829

Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.245

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.137 - 6.590

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.306 - 0.734

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 8.436
 
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Wild rock doves nest in crevices along rocky seaside cliffs, close to agriculture or open shrub vegetation. Feral pigeons live in old farm buildings in rural areas. In cities, the skyscrapers tend to take the place of their natural cliff surroundings.

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Comments: In wild state along rocky seacoasts or inland in gorges, river valleys, caves, and desert oases. Feral birds occasionally in natural habitats, more abundantly near human settlement, especially in cities and around farms. Nests in cliff ledges, caves, building ledges, bridge structures, monuments, abandoned houses and barns, and in palm trees (e.g., West Indies).

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Wild rock doves nest in crevices along rocky seaside cliffs, close to agriculture or open shrub vegetation. Feral pigeons live in old farm buildings in rural areas. In cities, the skyscrapers and other buildings tend to take the place of their natural cliff surroundings. They need high, inaccessible places like cliffs or tall buildings for their nests to protect their young from predators. Rock doves are not aggressive birds and cannot generally drive away predators from their nests.

Rock doves can survive in exposed areas quite well and seem to do well with extremes of heat and cold. They will huddle in groups during cold weather to stay warmer or seek refuge in covered or sheltered areas.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural

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Depth range based on 94 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 19 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 9.557 - 12.471
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 12.829
  Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.245
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.137 - 6.590
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.306 - 0.734
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 8.436

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 9.557 - 12.471

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 12.829

Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.245

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.137 - 6.590

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.306 - 0.734

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 8.436
 
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Rock doves feed in the early morning and in the mid-afternoon on the open ground. They eat mainly seeds. Studies of pigeons in a semi-rural part of Kansas found that their diet includes the following: 92% corn, 3.2% oats, 3.7% cherry, along with small amounts of knotweed, elm, poison ivy, and barley. In cities, feral pigeons also eat popcorn, cake, peanuts, bread, and currants. Female rock doves need to eat a diet somewhat higher in protein and calcium in order to have the nutritional resources to lay eggs.

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Comments: Eats mainly seeds; also bits of vegetation and refuse.

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Food Habits

Rock doves feed in the early morning and in the mid-afternoon on the open ground. They eat mainly seeds. Studies of pigeons in a semi-rural part of Kansas found that their diet includes the following: 92% corn, 3.2% oats, 3.7% cherry, along with small amounts of knotweed, elm, poison ivy, and barley. In cities, rock doves are often fed popcorn, cake, peanuts, bread, and currants, though they will eat almost anything that they can find. Rock doves, and all other members of their family, the Columbidae, suck water through their beaks like straws. This is unusual among birds that mostly have to take a sip of water and lift their beak to the sky to allow the water to fall into their throat. Female rock doves need to eat a diet somewhat higher in protein and calcium in order to have the nutritional resources to lay eggs.

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

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Behaviour feeding

Feral pigeons live independently of but usually close to humans, their buildings, and agriculture products. Their long history could well have produced birds that are more independent of humans than ferals seem to be. And it is worth noting that even wholly wild Rock pigeons today take advantage of humans as resources for food, as in agriculture fields.In some towns all or part of the pigeon population may fly out into the surrounding country to feed, returning to roost and nest on the buildings. The same individuals may feed both inside the town and in the surrounding fields. Feral pigeons living in large towns often feed inside the town itself. Some natural food is obtained from exposed earth or grass plots in parks and gardens but the greater part consist of bread or other artificial food which is found by them in the streets.Feral pigeons show a strong tendency to roost in company. In a town where pigeons are abundant any good roosting site, such as a high wind-sheltered and overhung ledge, which is large enough, is almost sure to be a communal roost. On the other hand pairs and individuals that have discovered a good roosting site where there is only room for one or two, often use it throughout the year.Much time is spent idling, preening or sun-bathing in company, especially in the early morning on sunny but cold days. The sites chosen for this are, if available, wind-sheltered edges which catch the morning sun and are backed by a wall or cliff-face which forms a ‘sun-trap’.
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Associations

Some common predators of feral pigeons in the North America are opossums (Didelphis virginiana), raccoons (Procyon lotor), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio). Other predators include the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

Known Predators:

  • Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana)
  • raccoons (Procyon lotor)
  • great horned owls (Bubo virginianus)
  • eastern screech-owls (Otus asio)
  • golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)
  • American kestrels (Falco sparverius)
  • peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)

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Predation

Rock doves form large groups, called flocks. By associating with other rock doves they decrease their likelihood of being taken by a predator, there are many more eyes watching for predatory animals and each individual rock dove is less likely to be targeted.

Known Predators:

  • Falconidae
  • Falco peregrinus
  • Falco sparverius
  • other Falconidae 
  • Accipitridae
  • Felis silvestris
  • humans
  • Didelphis virginiana
  • Procyon lotor
  • Bubo virginianus
  • Aquila chrysaetos

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / dung associate
Cryptococcus yeast anamorph of Filobasidiella neoformans inhabits dung of Columba livia

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General Ecology

Distribution ecology

Distribution and habitat
Feral pigeons are cosmopolitan and they own there presence mainly to introduction by man. They are found in the tropics and north of the Arctic Circle as well as in temperate regions.In some areas inhabits caves and cliffs and feeds in open country like the wild rock pigeon. Also breeds and roosts in old buildings, barns, on ledges under bridges and similar places in open agricultural country. Most abundant, however, in towns, especially in the central areas of large cities. Here the sites chosen for roosting and nesting are the nearest edificarian equivalents to the caves, holes and sheltered cliff edges used by wild Rock pigeons.

Nesting
As rock pigeon it prefers sheltered ledges or holes to nest, but the ledges and holes are more often in or on buildings than cliffs.In Europe may nest at all time of the year if food is available. Most pairs, however, stops breeding with the onset of the main stage of the moult in late August or September. Some start breeding again as soon as the moult is finished in October or November. Others do not lay again until late winter or early spring.A clutch contains two white eggs. Incubation period is 17 days. The youngsters fledge in about 4 weeks and will be fed for one or two more weeks by the male mainly.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Communication and Perception

Rock doves makes lots of soft coo-ing noises while in flocks, perhaps as a way of staying in contact with other pigeons. Males make a 'coo roo-c'too oo' sound to attract mates and defend their nesting territory. When startled they make an alarm call that sounds like 'oorhh!' Nestlings make sounds by snapping their bills and hissing. Pigeons have excellent vision, they can see in color and can also see ultraviolet light (humans can't). They are sometimes used in human search and rescue missions because of their excellent vision. Rock doves also have the ability to detect the earth's magnetic fields. This, along with their ability to tell direction by the sun's movements, allows them to find their homes. People have used this ability, homing pigeons were once very important ways for people to send messages and news to places far away.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: magnetic

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
35.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
6.0 years.

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Lifespan/Longevity

Rock doves can live up to 15 years in the wild, though many probably live for less than that.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
15 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
35.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
6.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 35 years (captivity) Observations: One captive specimen reportedly lived to the age of 35 (http://www.demogr.mpg.de/longevityrecords).
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Reproduction

Pairs may be formed at any point during the year. These pairs are formed for life. Each bird works cooperatively on most aspects of reproduction and young-rearing. The male builds the nest, and the eggs are laid shortly after the nest is finished. Both males and females incubate the eggs. Eggs hatch approximately 19 days after being laid.

Average time to hatching: 19 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 18 days.

Average eggs per season: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
140 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
140 days.

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Clutch size usually 2. Incubation 17-19 days, by both sexes. Young tended by both parents, first fly at about 5 weeks. Up to several broods per year. See Johnston and Johnson (1990).

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Male and female rock doves mate for life.

Mating System: monogamous

Rock doves breed throughout the warm season. They lay usually two eggs in a rough nest made of sticks and debris. The eggs are incubated for 16 to 19 days and the young are fully fledged (have their feathers) and learning to fly by 30 to 37 days after hatching.

Breeding interval: Rock doves can breed every few months.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs throughout the warm part of the year.

Average eggs per season: 2.0.

Average time to hatching: 19.0 days.

Range time to independence: 30 to 37 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization (Internal )

Average time to hatching: 18 days.

Average eggs per season: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
140 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
140 days.

Both males and females incubate the eggs, often females incubate during the day and males at night. Eggs hatch approximately 19 days after being laid. Males and females produce a substance from their crop called 'pigeon milk' or 'crop milk' which they feed to their hatchlings during the first week of life. After the first week the young are fed regurgitated seeds and other foods along with the pigeon milk.

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Keratin produces iridescence: rock pigeon
 

Feather barbules of the rock pigeon produce iridescence by light interference in the keratin layer.

   
  "We found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. The thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. Green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed from normal to oblique, while purple barbules from purple to green in an opposite way. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that structural colors in green and purple neck feathers should originate from the interference in the top keratin cortex layer, while the structure beyond acts as a poor mirror." (Yin et al. 2006:1)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Yin H; Shi L; Sha J; Li Y; Qin Y; Dong B; Meyer S; Liu X; Zhao L. 2006. Iridescence in the neck feathers of domestic pigeons. Physical Review E. 74(5): 1-6.
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Functional adaptation

Navigating without landmarks: rock pigeon
 

Homing pigeons navigate without the Sun or other landmarks as guides because they use magnetosensitivity to detect their location.

     
  "The most magnetosensitive creatures may be birds -- and none more so than homing pigeons. Even if deprived of familiar landmarks and sunlight, so that they cannot use the Sun to help them find their way, the pigeons can still return -- if their magnetic sense is not tampered withAs yet, no avian magnetoreceptor has been conclusively identified. However, a small but mysterious black-colored structure containing magnetite and nerve fibers is located between the brain's dura mater (outer membrane) and the skull of pigeons and various migratory passerines. Magnetite packets are also found in the necks of these birds." (Shuker 2001:45-46)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Wiltschko, W; Freire, R; Munro, U; Ritz, T; Rogers, L; Thalau, P; Wiltschko, R. 2007. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens, Gallus gallus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 2300-2310.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Columba livia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 14 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AATCGATGATTATTCTCTACTAACCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTATACCTAATCTTCGGCGCATGGGCCGGCATAGTTGGCACCGCACTT---AGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTGGGACAACCCGGTACCCTCCTAGGAGAT---GACCAGATCTATAATGTAATCGTCACAGCTCATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTTATACCAATCATAATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCCCTCATA---ATTGGTGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCCCGGATGAACAACATAAGCTTCTGGCTCCTACCCCCATCCTTCCTTCTACTTCTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTCGAAGCTGGTGCAGGAACAGGATGAACCGTCTACCCTCCCCTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCTCACGCCGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTT---GCCATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTTGCTGGTATCTCCTCTATTCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTCATCACAACTGCCATTAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCAGTCCTCATCACTGCCGTCCTCCTTTTACTATCCCTCCCAGTACTTGCCGCC---GGCATCACAATACTGCTCACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACTACCTTCTTTGATCCTGCTGGTGGAGGGGACCCAGTACTATACCAACATCTCTTCTGATTCTTTGGTCATCCTGAAGTCTATATCCTAATTTTACCAGGATTCGGGATTATCTCCCACGTAGTGGCCTACTACGCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTACATAGGCATAGTATGAGCCATGCTATCTATTGGCTTCCTAGGCTTTATCGTTTGAGCTCACCATATATTTACAGTAGGCATGGACGTAGACACCCGAGCATACTTCACATCAGCCACTATAATCATTGCCATCCCAACGGGCATTAAAGTCTTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACTCTCCATGGCG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Columba livia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 22
Specimens with Barcodes: 39
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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