Overview

Brief Summary

The Rufous-bellied Kookaburra (Dacelo gaudichaud) is found in the New Guinea lowlands and nearby islands. This large kingfisher is found mainly in the lower canopy of monsoon and riverine forest, but also in primary rainforest, floodplain forest, parkland, secondary growth, thick coastal palm scrub, mangroves, and gardens. It may also use isolated patches of land in cleared areas, and Teak (Tectona grandis) or Rain Tree (Samanea saman) plantations. For breeding, Rufous-bellied Kookaburras require arboreal termitaria. Although these kingfishers are generally found below 500 m elevation, they have been recorded up to 1300 m. The diet consists of arthropods and small vertebrates, with most foraging in the lower canopy. The nest is excavated in an active termite nest, typically 2 to 40 m above the ground in a tree. Clutch size is 2 eggs and young are fed by both parents. Rufous-bellied Kookaburras are common and widely distributed in New Guinea.

(Woodall 2001 and references therein)

  • Woodall, P.F. 2001. Genus Dacelo. Pp. 200-203 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J., eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
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Comprehensive Description

Male has white stripe behind eye, glossy black cap and back, rump and UpT-C shiny azure-blue, tail dark blue, UnP below throat rich cinnamon-rufous, bill whitish or yellowish-horn, often with dark line on culmen, iris dark brown, legs and feet greyish. Female like male, but tail rich chestnut. Juvenile dusky edges to feather on hindneck and UnP, dusky bill.

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Source: Birds of Papua New Guinea

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Distribution

Range

Lowlands of New Guinea, Aru, Yapen and w Papuan islands.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Distribution:


    Lowlands of New Guinea, along with W Papuan Is (Gebe, Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Misool, Kolepom), all islands in Geelvink Bay, Aru Is, and Heath Is (Sariba) in Milne Bay.


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Physical Description

Size

28-31 cm, male 110-161 g, female 138-170 g

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Diagnostic Description

Male has white stripe behind eye, glossy black cap and back, rump and UpT-C shiny azure-blue, tail dark blue, UnP below throat rich cinnamon-rufous, bill whitish or yellowish-horn, often with dark line on culmen, iris dark brown, legs and feet greyish. Female like male, but tail rich chestnut. Juvenile dusky edges to feather on hindneck and UnP, dusky bill.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Mainly in lower canopy of monsoon and riverine forest, but also in primary rainforest, floodplaned-forest, parkland, secondary growth, thick coastal palm scrub, mangroves and gardens, also uses isolated patches of trees and cleared lands, and teak or rain tree plantations.

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Migration

Sedentary

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Trophic Strategy

Arthropods, including grasshoppers and locusts, stick-insect, beetles, larvae, earthworms and large spiders and crabs, also small vertebrates, such as frogs, lizards, birds and small mammals.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

VOICE: Common calls are loud, repeated “tok”, or “chock” a very rapid “tok-tok-tok” sounding like “trrrk” repeated every 2 seconds, a series of loud hoarse barks or laughts at one pitch and either slowor fast. Several birds calling together. Becoming laugh “kikikikiki-haw-haw-haw-haw-haw, other calls include 3-6 slow, high pitched shricks as”elew,elew,elew”.

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Reproduction

Most breeding activity in late dry and early wet-season, nest excavation reported in mid-Aug and Sept, but also in May-Jun. Eggs reported in early Oct, and nestling in Oct, Dec, Jan and early Feb. Clutch 2 eggs, No data on incubation period.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Not Threatened.

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be widespread and common (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Rufous-bellied kookaburra

The rufous-bellied kookaburra (Dacelo gaudichaud), originally known as Gaudichaud’s kookaburra after the French botanist Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré, is a species of kookaburra which is widely distributed through the forests of lowland New Guinea. It has also been recorded on Saibai Island, Queensland, Australia.

It has a black cap, blue-tinged wings, and a pale rufous belly and tail feathers, but its white bill distinguishes it very clearly from other kookaburras with their black bills. Juveniles, however, have a dark grey bill.[2] Like the blue-winged kookaburra, the sexes can be distinguished by the colour of the tail feathers: blue in males and rufous in females and immature birds. Rufous-bellied kookaburras are smaller than other kookaburra species[3] at around 143 grams (5.0 oz) as against the laughing kookaburra's 335 grams (11.8 oz) and about 28 centimetres (11.0 in)[4] as against the laughing kookaburra’s 46 centimetres (18.1 in). Despite this major size difference, the rufous-bellied kookaburra has been known to form (infertile) hybrids with all other kookaburra species,[5] though available genetic studies suggest it is clearly the most distant of the four.[5]

This kookaburra is unusual in that it occupies dense rainforests (as opposed to the open country preferred by other kookaburras) and does not live in cooperative breeding family groups but singly or when breeding in pairs. Rufous-bellied kookaburras can be found in the middle story of the tropical rainforest, where they fly out directly and swiftly from their perch to seize large insects from trees.[4] Despite their direct flight, rufous-bellied kookaburras are capable of very sharp twists and turns around the dense trees that form their habitat. Rufous-bellied kookaburras have been known also to hunt small vertebrates, but do so less frequently than the larger woodland kookaburras, and frequently are mobbed by smaller birds when it preys on their eggs or nestlings.[2] Males are very aggressive in defending their territory, which averages 2 to 2.5 hectares (4.9 to 6.2 acres) in size, and sometimes fight intruders violently.

Like their larger relatives, rufous-bellied kookaburras breed in termite mounds. Breeding usually takes place from May to October, though the young do not disperse fully until February and pairs have never been known to attempt a second brood in one year.[2] Two white eggs are laid, though the actual incubation period is not known.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Dacelo gaudichaud". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c C. Hilary Fry; Kathie Fry (2000-01-01). Kingfishers, Bee-Eaters, & Rollers: A Handbook. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0-691-04879-6. 
  3. ^ John B. Dunning, Jr. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, Second Edition. CRC PressI Llc. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5. 
  4. ^ a b Morten Strange (2001). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Indonesia. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-691-11495-8. 
  5. ^ a b Eugene M. McCarthy (2006-02-16). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8. 
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